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1. Shoshana Gabbay, “The Environment in the Jordanian Peace Talks,” Israel Environment Bulletin 18, no. 1,Special Peace Issue (1995): 3. [BACK]

2. Interview with Yisrael Peleg, Tel Aviv, September 30, 1997. [BACK]

3. Three events during the summer of 1992 are indicative of the fre-quency of oil spills. See Jackie Post and Adi Katz, “For the Second Time in a Month, an Oil Tanker Pollutes the Gulf of Aqaba,”Hadashot, August 5, 1992;

Liat Collins, “Eilat Oil Spill Damage Assessed,”Jerusalem Post, September 2, 1992. [BACK]

4. Interview with Elli Varberg, Eilat, November 10, 1998. [BACK]

5. Ibid. [BACK]

6. Gabbay,op. cit., in particular the description of the October 1994 Bahrain Environmental Code of Conduct, p. 12; see also The Gaza Strip and Jericho Agreement, May 4, 1994 (article 31 of Annex II); Moshe Hirsch, “Environmental Aspects of the Cairo Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area,”Israel Law Review 28, no. 2–3 (1994): 374–401. [BACK]

7. Gabbay,op. cit., p. 10. [BACK]

8. Alon Tal, “Preventing Pollution from Ports and Maritime Activity in the Gulf of Aqaba: Current Practices in Israel,”Protecting the Gulf of Aqaba: A Regional Environmental Challenge, ed. Philip Warburg (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Law Institute, 1993), p. 265. [BACK]

9. EcoPeace,Symposium on the Environmental Heritage of the Gulf of Aqaba and Its Sustainable Development, Summary Report, 1995, p. 6. [BACK]

10. Alon Tal, Shoshana Lopatin, and Gidon Bromberg,Sustainability of Energy-related Development Projects in the Middle East Peace Region (Washington, D.C.: US AID's Energy Project Development Fund, March 1995). [BACK]

11. Marlin Atkinson, Yehudith Birk, and Harold Rosenthal,Evaluation of Pollution in the Gulf of Eilat: Report for the Ministries of Infrastructure, Environment, and Agriculture, December 10, 2001.

12. EcoPeace,An Updated Inventory of New Development Projects, Compiled from the Reports Presented by the Palestinian National Authority, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the State of Israel, and the Republic of Egypt to the Casablanca, Amman, and Cairo Middle East–North Africa Economic Summits (Jerusalem: EcoPeace, March 1997), pp. 14–18. [BACK]

13. Nanette Furman, “Changes in the Coral Reproductive Rate and Sea Anemone Survival at Eilat,”Ecology and Environment, 2, no. 6 (1990): 87–92. [BACK]

14. Nanette Chadwick-Furman, personal communication, December 1998. [BACK]

15. Municipality of Eilat, promotional information, 1997. [BACK]

16. Revital Levy-Stein, “Sewage Swamps Eilat,”Ha-Aretz, August 17, 1998; or Revital Levy-Stein, “The Big Stink: Sewage Spill Closes More Eilat Beaches,”Ha-Aretz, August 18, 1998. [BACK]

17. Prime Minister Netanyahu's 1998 pledge to build thousands of new hotel rooms around the Dead Sea, despite Israeli and Jordanian environmen-talists' calls for modest development, reflects the same dynamic. Irit Rosenblum, “Prime Minister Promises New Hotel Rooms at the Dead Sea,” Ha-Aretz, August 26, 1998; see also EcoPeace,Dead Sea Challenges, Final Report (Jerusalem: EcoPeace, 1996). [BACK]

18. Batiah Kurus, Spokesperson, Israel Employment Service, personal com-munication, January 28, 2002. [BACK]

19. Ari Shavit, “Three Sins and a Miracle,”Ha-Aretz, August 29, 1997, p. 1. [BACK]


20. Gregg Easterbrook,A Moment on the Earth: The Coming Age of Environmental Optimism (New York: Viking, 1995). [BACK]

21. Ministry of the Environment,Environmental Quality in Israel, no. 21 (1997):p. 96. [BACK]

22. Highest estimates reach into the thousands (Gabi Zohar, “A Researcher in the Technion Estimates: About 1,000 Deaths per Year in Israel Resulting from Air Pollution,”Ha-Aretz, January 20, 1995). One recent study projects 293 deaths each year in Tel Aviv alone as a result of tailpipe emissions (Gary Ginsberg, Aharon Serri, Elaine Fletcher, Joshua Shemer, Dani Koutik, and Eric Karsenty, “Mortality from Vehicular Particulate Emissions in Tel Aviv-Jafo,” World Transport and Policy and Practice 4, no. 2 (1998): 27–31). Other re-searchers believe there may be only hundreds of fatalities (Lisa Pearlman, “Threat from the Air,”Jerusalem Post, February 24, 1989, p. 4). [BACK]

23. A. I. Goren and S. Helman, “Changing Prevalence of Asthma among Schoolchildren in Israel,”European Respiratory Journal 10 (1997): 2279–2284. [BACK]

24. Alon Tal, “The Air Is Free,”Eretz v'Teva (September-October 1999). [BACK]

25. Arie Laor, Leon Cohen, and Yehuda L. Danon, “Effects of Time, Sex, Ethnic Origin and Area of Residence on Prevalence of Asthma in Israeli Adolescents,”British Medical Journal 307 (October 2, 1993): 841. [BACK]

26. Netty C. Gross, “Malignant Neglect,”Jerusalem Report, April 12, 1999, pp. 24–25. [BACK]

27. Asaf Haim, “The Breast Cancer Rate in the Haifa Region Is Tens of Percent Higher Than the National Average,”Maariv, October 17, 2001, p. 19. [BACK]

28. Shoshana Gabbay,The Environment in Israel (Jerusalem: Ministry of the Environment, 1998), pp. 24–28. [BACK]

29. Ministry of the Environment,The Jordan River: Restoration, Conservation and Development (November, 1995). [BACK]

30. Shmuel Chen, “Ramat Hovav: You Could Explode from It,”Green, Blue and White (August-September 1998): 4–5. [BACK]

31. Yoram Yom-Tov and Heinrich Mendelssohn, “Altered Landscapes,” Eretz, December 1995, pp. 51–54. [BACK]

32. R. Nathan, U. Safriel, and H. Shirihai, “Extinction and Vulnerability to Extinction at Distribution Peripheries: An Analysis of the Israeli Breeding Fauna,”Israel Journal of Zoology 42 (1996): 361–383. [BACK]

33. Iris Millner, “The Rabbit's Foot,”Ha-Aretz, August, 1998. [BACK]

34. Arieh Neiger, lecture at Conference on Utilization of the Courts by Green Organizations, Netanya College, May 29, 2000. [BACK]

35. Yehudah Gat, “Activities of the Electric Company for Environmental Protection at the Haifa Power Station: Present and Future Plans,”Eichut ha-Sviva, July 1994, pp. 6–12. [BACK]

36. Yossi Beier, “A System for Treatment and Reuse of Wastes in the Haifa Oil Refineries,”Eichut ha-Sviva, July 1994, pp. 14–17. [BACK]

37. Alon Tal, “The Economic Benefits of Noncompliance with Environmental Laws: The Role of Economic Analysis in Assessing Penalties for Polluters in Israel,”Ecology and Environment, 6, no. 1 (March 2000): 3. [BACK]


38. Alon Tal and Dorit Talitman,The Enforcement System of the Ministry of the Environment, internal report, Jerusalem, December 2000, pp. 10–15. [BACK]

39. Amory Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, “Reinventing the Wheels,” Atlantic Monthly, April 1996. [BACK]

40. Ginsberg et al.,op. cit. [BACK]

41. U.S. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1997, EPA 454/R-97–013. The decrease in ambient concentrations probably reflects the fact that most ambient moni-tors are in urban areas, so the 10 percent drop reflects a decrease in mobile source NOx emissions by about 6 percent from 1987 to 1996. Further de-creases in mobile source NOx emissions are scheduled within the next several years. Joe Kruger, U.S. EPA, personal communication, September 1, 1998. [BACK]

42. Yom-Tov and Mendelssohn,op. cit., p. 51. [BACK]

43. Jonathan Katz, personal communication, August 9, 1998. These are measured at purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars, not straight dollars, which would amount to $18,500. [BACK]

44. Ibid. [BACK]

45. Alon Tal, “The Role of the Environmental Movement in Promoting ISO 14000—Changing the Payoff Scheme,” in Proceedings of the Workshop held by the Israel Engineers and Architects Association, 1997. [BACK]

46. Dorit Talitman, personal communication, November 14, 2001. [BACK]

47. Nadav Aaronson, personal communication, April 14, 1999. [BACK]

48. Alon Tal, “Of Protected Values and Environmental Violations,”Ha-Praklit 40, no. 3 (1992): 413–421. [BACK]

49. Marcia Gelpe, “The Goals of Enforcement and the Range of Enforcement Methods in Israel and the United States,”Tel Aviv University Studies in Law 14 (1998): 135–177; see also Orit Marom-Albeck and Alon Tal, “Upgrading Citizen Suits as a Tool for Environmental Enforcement in Israel: A Comparative Evaluation.”Israel Law Review, 2002, in press. [BACK]

50. Environmental Quality Law (Methods of Punishment) (Amendments), 1997,Sefer Ha-Hokim, no. 1622, p. 132. [BACK]

51. Zohar Shkalim, Director of Enforcement Coordination, Ministry of the Environment, personal communication, January 27, 2002. [BACK]

52. Janine Zacharia, “The Wasteland,” J erusalem Report, August 21, 1997, pp. 16–18. [BACK]

53. In 1764 he wrote, “The certainty of a punishment, even if it be moder-ate, will always make a stronger impression than the fear of another which is more terrible but combined with the hope of impunity.” Cesare Beccaria,On Crimes and Punishment (London: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 58. This theme was taken up by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham in his treatise The Principles of Morals and Legislation (London: Oxford, 1996) (see footnote in chapter 14, rule 1), p. 143. [BACK]

54. Dr. Gilad Gilov, Chief Chemist, Ramat Hovav, oral presentation, November 11, 2001. [BACK]


55. Mining Regulations (The Fund for Restoring Quarries), 1978,Kovetz Takanot, no. 3865, p. 1626. [BACK]

56. Yair Shoshani, “Mining Mark or Question Mark?”Green, Blue and White (August-September 1998): 20–21. [BACK]

57. Oded Shlomot, “Quarries That Fell between the Chairs,”Green, Blue and White (August-September 1998): 16–17. [BACK]

58. Aviva Lori, “The Whole Country Is Wounds,”Ha-Aretz, Musaf, March 17, 1995, p. 86. [BACK]

59. Efraim Orni and Elisha Efrat,Geography of Israel (Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1973), p. 269. [BACK]

60. Ephraim Shlain and Eran Feitelson,The Formation, Institutionalization and Decline of Farmland Protection Policies in Israel (Jerusalem: Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies, 1996), pp. 10–11. [BACK]

61. Remote Sensing Support for Analysis of Coasts, RESSAC Consortium, Palermo, Italy—April 1999; available at [BACK]

62. Michal Korakh, Asaf-Shapira, “Open Spaces in Israel” in Israel: Vital Signs 2001 (Tel Aviv: Heschel Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership: 2001), pp. 184–186. [BACK]

63. Eran Feitelson, “Protection of Open Spaces in Israel at a Turning Point,” Horizons in Geography 42–43 (1995), p. 20. [BACK]

64. Lori,op. cit. [BACK]

65. Pliah Albeck, in Land Management Policy Alternatives in Israel (Jerusalem: Land Policy Discussions Group, May 1996). [BACK]

66. Tara Wolfson, “Former Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres Talks Peace and the Environment with AIES Students and Alumni,”Desert Dreams (Kibbutz Ketura: Arava Institute for Environmental Studies, Spring 1998), p. 1. [BACK]

67. “Shochet: The Management of Israel Chemicals Needs to Sit in the Negev, But It Can't Be Done by Force,”Telegraph, September 23, 1994. [BACK]

68. “Contract Signed for Leasing Land to Joint Israeli-Jordanian Industrial Park at the Sheich Hussein Bridge,”Globes, June 2, 1998, p. 8. [BACK]

69. Michael McCloskey, “The Emporer Has No Clothes: The Conundrum of Sustainable Development,”Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum 9, no. 2 (1999): 153. [BACK]

70. Presumably the type of “sustainable” growth called for by the Director General of the Ministry of Finance, Ben Zion Zelberfarb, departs from even the excessively flexible traditional definitions of sustainability. See “New Budget Shifts Priority to Growth,”Ha-Aretz, August 1998. [BACK]

71. Adam Mazor,Israel in the Year 2020 (Haifa: Technion Press, 1994). [BACK]

72. Zafrir Rinat, “Go Forth, but Do Not Multiply,”Ha-Aretz, November 8, 1998, p. B-4. [BACK]

73. Yoav Sagi, “Escape from Megalopolis,”Eretz, November 1996, p. 57. [BACK]

74. Eran Feitelson,The Pattern of Environmental Conflicts in the Metropolitan Development Process and Its Planning Implications (Jerusalem: Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, 1996). [BACK]


75. Uzi Paz, the first Director of Israel's Nature Reserves Authority, and a leading nature historian, was representative of the environmental community in 1981 when he wrote, “One outstanding change in the landscape of the land—and entirely for the good—is the tremendous growth in the population. Since the foundation of the State, the number of residents has grown fivefold and roughly six hundred new settlements arose, from the heights of the Galilee to the southern Arava. The number of motorcars has also increased on high-ways and on the dirt roads, taking hitchhikers who are thirsty for the landscape with them.” Uzi Paz,Eretz ha-Tsvi v'ha-Yael (Land of the Gazelle and the Ibex),I (Givataim: Masada, 1981), p. 25. [BACK]

76. Rinat,op. cit. [BACK]

77. Philip Warburg, “Taboo That Needs Breaking,”Jerusalem Post, January 1, 1997. Dan Perry also broke the silence: “It is incumbent on plan-ners to propose a lowering of the natural rate of growth in Israel from the level of a developing country to the accepted level in developed countries. … In these days when the entire world recognizes the fact that population growth is the central problem of the human species, Israel cannot act as if it is not part of it.” Dan Perry, “Rejecting the Essential,”Teva v'Aretz, January 1995. [BACK]

78. Netty C. Gross, “IVF Fever,”Jerusalem Report, July 3, 2000, pp. 13–14. [BACK]

79. Yehuda Golan, “A Rise in the Number of Calories Consumed Is Recorded,”Maariv, Ha-Yom Supplement, September 30, 1997, p. 2. [BACK]

80. Netty C. Gross, “Mum's the Word,”Jerusalem Report,August 21, 1997, pp. 14–15. [BACK]

81. “And so it is, that a Zionist family, whose two children will in the future be serving in the army and contributing to the economy of the state and its human capital, receives 338 shekels per month. An ultra-Orthodox family, whose ten children will evade military service and who will be a burden on the economy of the state will receive from the State of Israel 4,930 shekels for their children each month.” Avraham Poraz, “Report to the Voter,” February 1999. [BACK]

82. Efraim Ya'ar, “More Children, Less Blessing,”Ha-Aretz, February 24, 1999, p. B-2; see also “Research: Intelligence Quotients among Children from Large Families in Israel Are Below Average,”Ha-Aretz, February 24, 1999, p. 1. [BACK]

83. Mishnah,Yevamot 6:6. [BACK]

84. Philip Warburg, letter to the Editor,Jerusalem Post, March 23, 1998. [BACK]

85. “There will be a tendency for such people to have rather more children than the rest, and these children will inherit the wish to an enhanced extent and these will contribute a still greater proportion of the population.” Charles Galton Darwin, “Can Man Control His Numbers?” in Evolution after Darwin 2, ed. Sol Tax (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), p. 464. [BACK]

86. Dan Perry, personal communication, Tel Aviv, November 8, 1998. [BACK]

87. Rabbi Yerachmyel Barkia,The People of Israel's Links with the Negev (Jerusalem: Jewish National Fund, 1999): 33–34. [BACK]

88. Interview with Nehama Ronen, Tel Aviv, November 10, 1998. [BACK]


89. Yaakov Garb and Meira Hanson, “Consumption and Population: Trends and What Lies between Them,” in Israel Vital Signs 2001 (Tel Aviv: Heschel Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership, 2001). [BACK]

90. Erik Schechter, “Scientist Offers Clean Power… for Just 1.3 Billion,” Jerusalem Report, April 12, 1999, p. 12. See also [BACK]

91. Dan Zaslavsky,Sustainable Energy in Israel: Assessment and Program, report to Israel Ministry of the Environment, December 1997, pp. 22–24. [BACK]

92. Other problems that appear readily given to technical solutions are dis-posal of the saline brine, the effect of the tower on migrating birds, and elevated humidity in the vicinity of the tower. Michael Zwirn, “Questions in Planning, Environmental Impacts and Social Need in a Major Alternative Energy Proposal: The Israeli Energy Towers,” paper presented to Arava Institute for Environmental Studies, May 20, 1996. [BACK]

93. Uri Shitrit Architects, et al., “Development Plan for Eilat-Eilot,” Israel Lands Authority, June 1998. [BACK]

94. Saul Arlozorov, “Water in Israel: Present Problems and Future Goals,” Towards Sustainable Development (Jerusalem: Ministry of the Environment, April 1999), pp. 54–55. [BACK]

95. Meir Ben-Meir, personal interview, Tel Aviv, November 19, 1998. [BACK]

96. “A Sea Water Desalinization Device Fueled by Solar Energy,” [BACK]

97. Ministry of Energy,Energy 95 (Jerusalem: Ministry of Energy, 1995). [BACK]

98. Curtis Moore and Alan Miller,Green Gold: Japan, Germany, the United States, and the Race for Environmental Technology (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994). [BACK]

99. Tal, Lopatin, and Bromberg,op. cit. [BACK]

100. Mazor,op. cit. [BACK]

101. Indeed, this subject, which has been so central to many environmental agendas, has only recently begun to attract attention in Israel, with a confer-ence on brownfields held at the Technion on the subject in the winter of 2000. [BACK]

102. “Your Guidebook to Nagasaki,” [BACK]

103. Ze'ev Goldberg, “A Green Island in the Sea,”Blue, Green and White 20 (July 1998), pp. 6–7. [BACK]

104. “No Fishing Zone Reduced around Artificial Reef,”Fisheries Western Australia (July 1988). [BACK]

105. Ze'ev Goldberg, “Driving Tel Aviv into Hong Kong Harbor: Traffic Congestion Is Forcing Tel Aviv to Consider a Seaward Migration,”Ha-Aretz, August 21, 1998. [BACK]

106. David Harris, “Israeli Holiday Islands Move a Step Closer,”Jerusalem Post, Internet edition, January 9, 1997. [BACK]

107. David Harris, “Report Recommends Coastal Islands,”Jerusalem Post Internet edition, October 7, 1998. [BACK]

108. Interview with Nehama Ronen, Tel Aviv, November 10, 1998. [BACK]


109. Philip Warburg, “Sink the Artificial Islands,”Jerusalem Report, April 12, 1999, p. 54. [BACK]

110. Stuart Schoffman, “The Best Country on Earth,”Jerusalem Report, June 26, 1997. [BACK]

111. The Climate Convention: A Workshop about Israel Greenhouse Gas Policy (Jerusalem: Ministry of the Environment, April 2000). [BACK]

112. Interview with Yossi Sarid, Jerusalem, December 30, 1997. [BACK]

113. Ibid. [BACK]

114. Law Limiting Smoking in Public Places, 1983,Sefer ha-Hokim, no. 148, p. 658. [BACK]

115. Noga Morag-Levine, “The Politics of Imported Rights, Transplantation and Transformation in an Israeli Environmental Cause Lawyering Organization,” in Cause Lawyering and the State in a Global Era, ed. Austin Sarat and Stuart Scheingold (London: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 334. [BACK]

116. Deuteronomy 11:10–14. [BACK]

117. Deuteronomy 29:22–23. [BACK]

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