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1. Barbara Sofer, “A Movement Sweeps Israel,”Hadassah Magazine, May 1991, pp. 18–20; see also Micha Odenheimer, “Retrieving the Garden of Eden,”The Melton Journal, no. 24 (Spring 1991): 1–6. [BACK]

2. David Suzuki, “A New Millennium,” in The Sacred Balance (London: Allen and Unwin, 1997), pp. 207–240; see also Robert Gottlieb,Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993). [BACK]

3. Stuart Schoenfeld, “Negotiating the Environmental Social Dilemma: The Case of Greenpeace Canada,” paper presented at the Jerusalem Conference on Canadian Studies, Hebrew University, July 1998. [BACK]

4. Alon Tal and Eilon Schwartz, “The Environmental Crises as a Function of Relationships within Human Society,”Skira Chodshit (June 1993): 38–39. [BACK]

5. Eric Silver, “The New Pioneers,”Jerusalem Report, April 21, 1994, pp. 12–15. [BACK]

6. Shirli Bar-David and Alon Tal,Harnessing Activism to Protect Israel's Environment: A Survey of Public Interest Activity and Potential (Tel Aviv: Adam Teva V'din, 1996). [BACK]

7. Gila Silverman, “Environmental Groups in Israel,” internal memo pre-pared for the New Israel Fund, March 1994. [BACK]

8. Orr Karassin, “Organizations Working for Quality of Life and the Environment in Israel,”National Priorities for the Environment in Israel, Second Policy Paper (Haifa: Neeman Institute, 2001), p. 127. [BACK]

9. Bar-David and Tal,op. cit. [BACK]

10. Anat Tal-Shir and Zadok Yehezkeli, “The Greenpeace Commandos Conquered the Kishon,”Yediot Ahronot, June 15, 2000. [BACK]

11. Bar-David and Tal,op. cit., pp. 14–15. [BACK]

12. Karassin,op. cit. [BACK]

13. Tal-Shir and Yehezkeli,op. cit., p. 15. [BACK]

14. Richard Laster, “Reading D: Planning and Building or Building and Then Planning,”Israel Law Review 8 (1973): 492. [BACK]

15. Yosef Charish, personal communication, July 1986. [BACK]

16. Israel Electric Company v. Avisar and Others, Civil Appeal, 190/69, Piskei Din 23, II, 1969, pp. 318–321. [BACK]

17. For a full description of the court battle see Earnest Katin and Mordechai Virshubski, “Environmental Law and Administration in Israel,”Tel Aviv University Studies in Law 1 (1975): 213–215. [BACK]

18. Interview with Yedidyah Be'eri, Tel Aviv, September 4, 1997. [BACK]

19. Israel Electric Company v. Fersht et al., Criminal Appeal, 151/84,Piskei Din 39, III, 1984, pp. 1–12. [BACK]

20. D. Sivan, “Malraz—the Public Council for Prevention of Noise and Air Pollution,”Biosphera 70, no. 3 (December 1970): 4. [BACK]


21. To emphasize the nonpartisan nature of the organization, Malraz also recruited politicians from the left to its board, such as Knesset member and bi-ology professor Boaz Moav. [BACK]

22. Malraz,Milestones in the Struggle against Nuisances (Tel Aviv: Malraz, 1979). [BACK]

23. “Malraz in the Year 1973,”Biosphera 9 (1974): 3. [BACK]

24. Malraz,op. cit. [BACK]

25. Interview with Yedidyah Be'eri, Tel Aviv, September 4, 1997. [BACK]

26. Josef Tamir, “Why I Established the Council for a Beautiful Israel and Life and Environment,” in Haver Knesset (Jerusalem: Ahiabar, 1985), pp. 395–400. [BACK]

27. Council for a Beautiful Israel,See under Cleanliness (Tel Aviv: Council for a Beautiful Israel, 1988). [BACK]

28. Interview with Aura Herzog, Tel Aviv, March 25, 1996; see also The Council for a Beautiful Israel News, twenty-fifth anniversary edition, 1995. [BACK]

29. Shirley Benyamin, personal communication, Karkur, September 3, 1997. [BACK]

30. See debate over atomic work at the Dimona Reactor in Divrei ha-Knesset, December 7, 1965. [BACK]

31. Herschell Benyamin, personal communication, Karkur, September 3, 1997. [BACK]

32. Abraham Fund, “EcoNet Israel: The Ecological Network,”The Abraham Fund Directory (New York: Abraham Fund, 1992), p. 240. [BACK]

33. Israel Nuclear News 2, no. 1 (1987): 3. [BACK]

34. EcoNet News 5, no. 4 (1990). Around the same time, unbeknownst to the group and to most Israelis, one of the first and largest Green Internet servers in San Francisco selected the same name. [BACK]

35. Shirley Benyamin, personal communication, Karkur, September 3, 1997. [BACK]

36. Shirley Benyamin, open letter to EcoNet Friends, May 1994. [BACK]

37. John Goldsmith, “Counseling, Evaluation, and Research at Beer Sheva University to Immigrants Exposed to the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor,”EcoNet News 8, no. 2 (September 1993): 1–3. [BACK]

38. “Health Risks from Low Level Radiation,”Israel Nuclear News 4, no. 1 (1989): 1. [BACK]

39. EcoNet News 8, no. 3 (December 1993): 1; Benyamin, open letter to EcoNet Friends, May 1994. [BACK]

40. “Does Israel Really Need or Even Want a Nuclear Power Station?” EcoNet News 7, no. 3 (1992): 3. [BACK]

41. Steve Rodan, “Clear and Present Option,”Jerusalem Post Magazine, June 7, 1996, pp. 18–20. [BACK]

42. Liat Collins, “Sarid: Country's Nuclear Reactors Pose No Threat,” Jerusalem Post, March 31, 1993; Elli Elad, “Water, Air, Soil and Flora Samples from the Dimona Reactor to Be Passed Regularly to Minister Sarid,”Ha-Aretz, March 31, 1993. [BACK]

43. Benyamin, open letter to EcoNet Friends, May 1994. [BACK]

44. Silver,op. cit., pp. 14–16. [BACK]


45. Yossi Moskowitz as quoted in “Storm at the Carmel Coast,”Maariv, Esekim (Business), March 30, 1997, p. 4. [BACK]

46. Interview with Lynn Golumbic, Haifa, November 24, 1997. [BACK]

47. Penina Migdal Glazer and Myron Peretz Glazer,The Environmental Crusaders: Confronting Disaster and Mobilizing Community (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998), pp. 78–85. [BACK]

48. “Treatment of Air Quality in the Haifa Union of Cities,” in Environmental Quality in Israel, no. 16 (Jerusalem: Ministry of the Environment, 1990), pp. 123–125. [BACK]

49. Interview with Lynn Golumbic, Haifa, November 24, 1997. [BACK]

50. Glazer and Glazer,op. cit. [BACK]

51. Interview with Lynn Golumbic, Haifa, November 24, 1997. [BACK]

52. Ayana Goren, Shmuel Brenner, and Sara Helman,Health Survey among School Children in Haifa Bay,1989 (Tel Aviv: Ministry of the Environment, 1989). [BACK]

53. Moshe Shachal, “The Ministry of Energy and Air Quality in the Haifa Region,” speech by the Minister of Energy in Biosphera (October 1987). [BACK]

54. Michael Eilan, “Fighting for Breath,”Jerusalem Post International Edition, July 29, 1989, p. 9. [BACK]

55. Ibid. p. 10. [BACK]

56. Golumbic recalls: “I spoke at the National Planning Council meeting before they voted on the power plant. I had come with SPNI's local Director, Shoshi Perry (and she went crazy when the SPNI chairman, Yoav Sagi, who sat on the Council, abstained). But it didn't really matter because there was a strong majority to site the station in Hadera.” Interview with Lynn Golumbic, Haifa, November 24, 1997. [BACK]

57. Eilan,op. cit., p. 10. [BACK]

58. Efraim Orni and Elisha Efrat,The Geography of Israel (Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1973), p. 65. [BACK]

59. Ayana Goren, Shmuel Brenner, Sara Helman,Health Survey among School Children in Beit Shemesh,1994 (Tel Aviv: Ministry of the Environment, 1995), pp. 12–13. [BACK]

60. Interview with Elli Vanunu, Beit Shemesh, February 22, 1999. [BACK]

61. “Personal Decree for the Nesher Har-Tuv Cement Factory, Beit Shemesh,” summary in Environmental Quality in Israel nos. 17–18 (Jerusalem: Ministry of the Environment, 1992), p. 64. [BACK]

62. Ibid. [BACK]

63. “Ecological Disaster and Health Risk,” promotional material, Beit Shemesh Action Committee, October 31, 1991. [BACK]

64. Zvi Greenberg, personal communication, January 3, 1999. Environ-mentalists were dumbfounded when Environmental Minister Yossi Sarid granted the factory a prize in 1994, citing its capital investment in pollution control technology. [BACK]

65. Interview with Elli Vanunu, Beit Shemesh, February 22, 1999. [BACK]

66. Ibid. [BACK]


67. Chico Mendes,Fight for the Forest: Chico Mendes in His Own Words (New York: Inland Books, 1990). [BACK]

68. Interview with Benny Shalmon, Kibbutz Ketura, January 14, 1998. [BACK]

69. Sue Fishkoff, “For the Birds,”Jerusalem Post International Edition, July 6, 1996, p. 16. [BACK]

70. Reuven Yosef, “Is the Salt Marsh of Eilat (a Critically Important Habitat for Palearctic Migrants) Dead or Alive?”Living Bird (Winter 1998): 22–28. [BACK]

71. Ibid., pp. 22–28. [BACK]

72. H. Shirihai and D. Christie,The Birds of Israel (London:Academic Press, 1996). [BACK]

73. Y. Waisal, “Vegetation of Israel,” in Encyclopedia of Plants and Animals of the Land of Israel, vol. 8 (Tel Aviv: Ministry of Defense Press, 1984). [BACK]

74. Yosef,op. cit. [BACK]

75. Fishkoff,op. cit. [BACK]

76. Interview with Reuven Yosef, Eilat, January 9, 1998. [BACK]

77. Ibid.; see also Daniel Hillel,Negev: Land, Water and Life in a Desert Environment (New York: Praeger, 1982), pp. 45–46. [BACK]

78. Reuven Yosef, “Physical Distances among Individuals in Flocks of Greater Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) Are Affected by Human Disturbance,”Israel Journal of Zoology 43 (1997): 79–85. [BACK]

79. Reuven Yosef, “Reactions of Gray Herons (Ardea cinerea) to Seismic Tremors,”Journal für Ornithologie 138 (1997): 543–546. [BACK]

80. Reuven Yosef, “On Habitat-specific Nutritional Condition in Graceful Warblers (Prinia gracilis); Evidence from Ptilochronology,”Journal für Ornithologie 138 (1997): 309–313. [BACK]

81. Reuven Yosef, “Clues to Migratory Routes of the Eastern Flyway of the Western Palearctics: Ringing Recoveries at Eilat, Israel,”Die Vogelwarte 39 (1998): 203–208. [BACK]

82. Fishkoff,op. cit. [BACK]

83. Reuven Yosef, personal communication, August 29, 1998. [BACK]

84. Interview with Reuven Yosef, Eilat, January 9, 1998. [BACK]

85. Ibid. [BACK]

86. Literally translated, Adam Teva V'din means “Man, Nature, and Law.” This somewhat awkward name came about when the Ministry of the Interior discouraged use of the more conventional “Israel Union for Environmental Defense” on the grounds that it was too bombastic for a new organization. The latter name has begun to appear on the organization's English-language documents. [BACK]

87. Responding to the public-interest action, the Ministry of the Environment eventually filed suit itself, and after a long legal struggle, the city capitulated and submitted a sewage plan. Adam Teva V'din,Annual Report (Tel Aviv: Adam Teva V'din, 1991). [BACK]

88. Interview with Ruth Yaffe, Tel Aviv, January 12, 1998. [BACK]

89. Prevention of Environmental Nuisances Law (Citizens' Suits), 1992, Sefer ha-Hokim, no. 1394, p. 184. [BACK]


90. Water Law (Amendment No. 10) 1995,Sefer ha-Hokim, no. 1533, p. 362. [BACK]

91. Prevention of Environmental Nuisances Law (Citizens’ Suits), 1992, Sefer ha-Hokim, no. 1394, p. 55. [BACK]

92. Environmental Law (Methods of Punishment) 1997,Sefer ha-Hokim, no. 1622, April 10, 1997 p. 132. [BACK]

93. Adam Teva V'din,Annual Report (Tel Aviv: Adam Teva V'din, 1992). [BACK]

94. Interview with Ruth Yaffe, Tel Aviv, January 12, 1998. [BACK]

95. Ibid. [BACK]

96. Adam Teva V'din, “UED Introduces a Comprehensive Sewage Strategy,” in Annual Report (Tel Aviv: Adam Teva V'din, 1992), p. 9. [BACK]

97. Ruth Yaffe, “The Public's Right to Participate in Environmental Decision-Making in Israel: A Progress Report on Issues of Law and Policy,”Tel Aviv University Studies in Law 14 (1998): 13–15. [BACK]

98. Daniel Fisch, “Israel's Environmental Problems,”Palestine-Israel Journal 5, no. 1 (1998): 24. [BACK]

99. Yaakov Garb, “The Road to Peace? The Trans-Israel Highway and the Fight for Sustainable Alternatives,”Sustainable Transport (1996). [BACK]

100. Adam Teva V'din and Others v. The National Planning Council and Others, Bagatz, 2924/94,Piskei Din 50 (III), 446 (1996). [BACK]

101. Valerie Brachya and Uri Marinov, “Coastal Zone Management in Israel and Prospects for Regional Cooperation,” in Protecting the Gulf of Aqaba: A Regional Environmental Challenge, ed. Philip Warburg et al. (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Law Institute, 1993), p. 198. [BACK]

102. National Master Plan No. 13 (Jerusalem: Israel Ministry of the Interior), 1981. [BACK]

103. Valerie Brachya, “Protecting Coastal Resources,”Environmental Science and Technology 27, no. 7 (1993): 1269. [BACK]

104. Robert Abel, “Cooperative Marine Technology for the Middle East,” Environmental Science and Technology 27, no. 7 (1993): 1273. [BACK]

105. Alon Tal, “Whose Coast Is It Anyway?”Jerusalem Report, June 1996. [BACK]

106. Gil Doron, “The Marina of the Rich,”Ha-Ir, July 29, 1995. [BACK]

107. Daniel Aviv, “The Marina in Ashdod: The Municipality Will Discuss the Implications,”Kahn ha-Darom, October 13, 1995. [BACK]

108. Adam Teva V'din,Annual Report (Tel Aviv: Adam Teva V'din, 1995), p. 7. [BACK]

109. Alan Roberts, “Tel Aviv Seeking Approval for Yarkon Project,”City Lights 5, no. 181 (August 1, 1997): 1; see also Yizhak Bar-Yosef, “There Is a Need to Leave Something to the Children,”Yediot Ahronot. [BACK]

110. “Victory of the ‘Greens’ over the Developers,”Maariv, Esekim, March 30, 1997, p. 4. [BACK]

111. “Marina Plan Not to Be Submitted before Court Hearing,”City Lights, February 14, 1997. [BACK]

112. Lior El-Hai and Yizhak Bar-Yosef, “The Battle for the Coast,”Yediot Ahronot—24 Hour Supplement, June 1, 1998, p. 8. [BACK]

113. “Storm on Haifa Coast,”Maariv, Esekim, March 30, 1997, p. 4. [BACK]


114. Sagit Lampret, “There Is Law and There Is a Tower,”Kol Bo Haifa, January 23, 1998, p. 62. [BACK]

115. “Storm on Haifa Coast,” p. 4. [BACK]

116. Ibid., p. 4. [BACK]

117. Janine Zacharia, “Haifa Builders Hit Back at Green Group Blocking Their Beachfront Project,”Jerusalem Report, July 10, 1997. [BACK]

118. “Storm on Haifa Coast,” p. 4. [BACK]

119. Lampret,op. cit., p. 64. [BACK]

120. Avner De-Shalit, “Where Do Environmentalists Hide?” in Our Shared Environment—The Conference 1994, ed. Robin Twite and Robin Menczel (Jerusalem: Israel-Palestine Center for Research and Information, 1995), pp. 274–276. [BACK]

121. Interview with Azariah Alon, Beit ha-Shita, September 15, 1997. [BACK]

122. Shmuel Gilbert, personal communication, March 17, 1999. [BACK]

123. Shmuel Chen, “Green Ballots at the Ballot Box,”Green, Blue and White (December 1998): 4–5, 12–13. [BACK]

124. Menahem Rahat, “1,500 Die Each Year from Environmental Pollution, Does Anyone Care? Nehama Ronen, Leader of ‘Kol ha-Sviva’ in the Inaugural Ceremony,”Maariv, January 18, 1998, p. 12. [BACK]

125. Zafrir Rinat, “Dedi and Greens Vow Quality of Life,”Ha-Aretz, March 29, 1999. [BACK]

126. Veronique Boquelle,Transportation in Israel (Tel Aviv: Adam Teva V'din, 1997). [BACK]

127. Ibid. [BACK]

128. Alon Tal, “A Reform in Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Towards the Era of the Catalytic Converter,”Biosphera 22 (1993): 4. [BACK]

129. Zafrir Rinat, “A Third of the Cars in Israel Pollute the Air above What Is Allowed by Law,”Ha-Aretz, January 30, 1998. [BACK]

130. Improving Enforcement for Air Pollution by Transportation—A Position Paper, ed. Alon Tal (Jerusalem: Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, 2002). [BACK]

131. Yizhak Bar-Yosef, “Increase in the Tel Aviv Air Pollution—A City Out of Breath,”Yediot Ahronot, December 1, 1997, p. 6. [BACK]

132. M. Luria, G. Sharf, and M. Peleg, “Forecast of Photochemical Pollution for the Year 2010,”Proceedings of the 24th Conference of the Israel Society for Ecology and Environmental Quality Sciences (Jerusalem: Israel Society for Ecology and Environmental Quality Sciences: 1993). [BACK]

133. Boquelle,op. cit. [BACK]

134. Ibid. [BACK]

135. Ibid. [BACK]

136. Peter Hirschberg, “Road Rage,”Jerusalem Report,May 8, 2000, p. 24. [BACK]

137. Dalia Tal, “An Association against the Trans-Israel Highway,”Al ha-Sharon, October 9, 1992. [BACK]

138. Irit Sappir-Gildor, “Environmental Attitudes among Visitors to JNF Forests,” master's thesis, Tel Aviv University, Department of Geography, 2001. [BACK]


139. Palestine Israel Environmental Secretariat, “Nature Knows No Boundaries,” promotional material, 1998. [BACK]

140. Zafrir Rinat, “The Dining Room as an Ecological System,”Ha-Aretz, February 20, 1997; see also [BACK]

141. Desert Dreams 7 (Kibbutz Ketura: The Arava Institute for Environmental Studies, Spring 2001). [BACK]

142. International Center for the Study of Bird Migration at Latrun, “Migrating Birds Know No Boundaries,” promotional material, 1997; [BACK]

143. “We have to discuss the environmental crisis from the perspective of culture; and part of culture, part of the way I look at things, for me as a Jew, is through Jewish tradition.” Eilon Schwartz, “Are We as Trees of the Field? Jewish Perspectives on Environmental Ethics,” in Our Shared Environment—The Conference 1994, ed. Robin Twite and Robin Menczel (Jerusalem: Israel-Palestine Center for Research and Information, 1995), pp. 4–5. [BACK]

144. Lisa Beyer, “Trashing the Holy Land,”Time, September 7, 1998, p. 54. [BACK]

145. Asaf Levitan, personal communication, November 3, 1998. [BACK]

146. Larry Derfner, “Clearing the Air,”Jerusalem Post Magazine, October 30, 1998, p. 17. [BACK]

147. Limiting of Smoking in Public Areas Law, 1983,Sefer ha-Hokim, 148 p. 658. All the same, passive smoking in Israel is thought to cause eight hun-dred deaths per year. This is in addition to the five thousand Israelis who die every year of smoking-related cancer and heart disease. [BACK]

148. The Greening of Urban Transport: Planning for Walking and Cycling in Western Cities, ed. R. S. Tolley (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997). [BACK]

149. Eilon Schwartz, Jeremy Benstein, and Nili Peri,From Nature Protection to Environmental Practices (Jerusalem: Melitz, August 1997), pp. 12, 16. [BACK]

150. Yehuda Golan, “A Rise in the Number of Calories Consumed Is Recorded,”Maariv, Ha-Yom Supplement, September 30, 1997, pp. 2–3. [BACK]

151. Numbers 35:2–5; Leviticus 25:34. [BACK]

152. Esther Zanberg, “2020 Vision,”Ha-Aretz Magazine, January 1, 1998, pp. 14–16. [BACK]

153. Naomi Tsur, “Are Developers Killing the Green Belt around Jerusalem?”Jerusalem Report, October 23, 2000, p. 96. [BACK]

154. Tal and Schwartz, op. cit., pp. 34–39. [BACK]

155. Ibid., p. 39. [BACK]

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