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1. “Two Dead and Sixty-five Injured in Maccabiah Opening Ceremonies,” Yediot Ahronot, July 15, 1997, pp. 1–9. [BACK]

2. Yehudit Yehezkel, Moshe Sheinman, and Hilah Elroy, “The Bridge Is Falling, the Bridge Is Falling, Help! Help!” Yediot Ahronot, July 15, 1997, p. 2. [BACK]

3. Yigael Sarena and Guy Leshem, “Something in the Water Is Killing People,” Yediot Ahronot, August 22, 1997, p. 17. [BACK]

4. Dafna Linzer, “Two Die in Bridge Collapse: 64 People Injured When Temporary Structure Falls During Opening Ceremonies at Maccabiah Games in Israel,” Associated Press Report, July 15, 1997. [BACK]

5. Sarena and Leshem, op. cit., p. 18. [BACK]

6. Tova Tzimuki and Yoram Yarkoni,“Five Indictments Will Be Filed against Suspects in the Bridge Collapse,” Yediot Ahronot, January 12, 1998, p. 5. [BACK]

7. “A Sense of Shame,” Jerusalem Post editorial, at, July 16, 1997. [BACK]

8. Brian Schiff, “Tragedy and Triumph,” Jewish News of Greater Phoenix, August 8, 1997, [BACK]

9. Tzimuki and Yarkoni, op. cit., p. 5. [BACK]

10. Anat Midan, “This Isn't How I Imagined It,” Yediot Ahronot— 7 Yamim, January 16, 1998, p. 18. [BACK]

11. Noami Segal, “Fourth Australian Dies Due to Bridge Collapse; Polluted Water Cited,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, August 1997. [BACK]

12. Lina Deodhar, Priya Miskeen, Al Kirpalani, Jinni Jagose, and Shubhu Sarkar, “Pseudallescheria boydii Brain Abscess in an Immunocompromised Host,” Bombay Hospital Journal 42, no. 1 (January 2000), [BACK]

13. Infections in the Lung Transplant Recipient,, University of Pittsburgh, 1997 at f. [BACK]

14. Midan,op. cit. [BACK]


15. Sasha Elterman's medical condition can be monitored on a special website dedicated to the Maccabiah victims: maccabi_bridge_victims. She is available to receive email messages through the site. [BACK]

16. Midan,op. cit., p. 8. [BACK]

17. Sarena and Leshem,op. cit, p. 18. [BACK]

18. Interview with Nehama Ronen, Director General, Israel Ministry of the Environment, Tel Aviv, December 18, 1997. [BACK]

19. David Pargament, Director, Yarkon Streams Authority, oral presenta-tion, Kibbutz Ketura, October 26, 1997. [BACK]

20. Yeshayahu Bar Or, Director of the Water and Streams Division, Summary of the Laboratory Findings of Water and Sludge Samples Taken from the Yarkon River, Following the Maccabiah Bridge Collapse Accident, (Jerusalem: Ministry of the Environment, August 18, 1997), copy on file with author. [BACK]

21. Haim Watzman, “Rivers of Death,”New Scientist, August 16, 1997. [BACK]

22. Interview with Dror Avisar, hydrologist, Adam Teva V'din (Israel Union for Environmental Defense), Tel Aviv, January 10, 1998. [BACK]

23. Daliah Mazori,“It's Final: Industrial Pollution and Machine Oils Caused the Death of the Athletes at the Maccabia,”Maariv, August 27, 1997, p. 2. [BACK]

24. Interview with Sol Benheim, Kibbutz Ketura, October 26, 1997. [BACK]

25. Abraham Moshe Lunts,A Guide to the Land of Israel (1891), as quoted in Ofer Regev,Forty Years of Blossoming (Tel Aviv: Society for Protection of Nature, 1993), p. 96. [BACK]

26. Arie Rahamimoff and Amos Brandeiss, “The Yarkon as a National and Regional Resource,”Preservation of Our World in the Wake of Change (Jerusalem: Israel Society for Ecology and Environmental Quality Services, 1996), pp. 240–244. [BACK]

27. Shoshana Gabbay,The Environment in Israel (Jerusalem: State of Israel, Ministry of the Environment, 1994), p. 29. [BACK]

28. Rahamimoff and Brandeiss, “The Yarkon as a National and Regional Resource,” pp. 240–244. [BACK]

29. Hashachar Shiron (New York: Young Judaea, 1985). [BACK]

30. The Public Health Regulations, Determination of Standards for Effluent Waters, 1992. K.T. 9440. [BACK]

31. The Yarkon River Authority,The Yarkon River Master Plan, 1996, p. 13. [BACK]

32. David Pargament, oral presentation, Kibbutz Ketura, October 26, 1997. [BACK]

33. Tsvi Sonovsky, “The Survival Limitations in Difficult Conditions for Fish Used in Mosquito Extermination,”Biosphera, May/June 1994, pp. 25–31. Also, Gila Shneider and Adam Kanark, Transplanted Fish in the Sands, Mosquito Extermination with the Help of Gambusia Fish,”Teva V'Aretz, 263 (1994): 20. [BACK]

34. The oil increases the water's surface tension, causing a mosquito larva to slip underwater, extend its breathing “pipe,” and ingest the oil. This physi-cally clogs its air supply, and the mosquito suffocates. [BACK]


35. Revital Bracha, “Thousands of Fish Discovered Dead Again in the Yarkon: Fear of Additional Kills,”Ha-Aretz, July 28, 1993. Also, Liat Collins, “Probe into Death of Yarkon Fish,”Jerusalem Post, July 29, 1993. [BACK]

36. Nir Kipnis, “The Yarkon Isn't Restored At All,”Zman Tel Aviv, August 6, 1993. [BACK]

37. The Yarkon River Authority,The Yarkon River Master Plan, 1996, pp. 6–9. [BACK]

38. Gabbay,op. cit., p. 29. [BACK]

39. Ford Pearce, “Back to the Days of the Deadly Smogs,”New Scientist, December 5, 1992, pp. 25–28. [BACK]

40. Andrew Hoffman, “An Uneasy Rebirth at Love Canal,”Environment, 1995, pp. 5–31. [BACK]

41. Rachel Adam, personal communication, May 23, 1998. [BACK]

42. Lisa Beyer, “The Filthy Holy Land,”Time, September 1, 1997, p. 27. Also, Lisa Beyer, “Trashing the Holy Land,”Time, September 7, 1998, p. 54. [BACK]

43. Mazori,op. cit., p. 2. [BACK]

44. Rachel Adam, personal communication, May 23, 1998. [BACK]

45. Ruth Rotenberg, personal communication, May 1, 2000. [BACK]

46. Interview with Nehama Ronen, Director General, Israel Ministry of the Environment, Tel Aviv, December 18, 1997. [BACK]

47. David Pargament, personal communication, October 17, 2001. [BACK]

48. Andra Jackson, “Thirteen Million Dollars for Maccabiah Games Victims,” The Age News, May 10, 2001. [BACK]

49. Israel requires that sewage effluent meet a “20–30 standard” (20 mg/L BOD, 30 mg/L suspended solids). Public Health Regulations (Establishing Standards for Effluent Waters), 1992. [BACK]

50. Baruch Weber, Deputy Director of Water and Streams Division, Ministry of the Environment, personal communication, Tel Aviv, December 18, 1997. [BACK]

51. Rachel Adam, personal communication, May 23, 1998. [BACK]

52. Interview with Dror Avisar, Tel Aviv, January 10, 1998. [BACK]

53. Rachel Adam, personal communication, May 23, 1998. [BACK]

54. Interview with Menahem Kantor, Kibbutz Ma'agan Michael, November 20, 1997. [BACK]

55. Letter from Shalom Goldberger to Noah Rabinovich, Ministry of Education, September 22, 1997. Copy on file with author. [BACK]

56. Sarena and Leshem,op. cit., p. 18. [BACK]

57. David Pargament, personal communication, December 24, 1998. [BACK]

58. Iris Cohen and Dror Avisar, “One Year After the Maccabiah Disaster—and the Yarkon Is Still Polluted,” pamphlet published by Adam Teva V'din and the Council for a Beautiful Israel, Summer 1998, p. 1, and “The Yarkon Is Again a Disappointing River,”Green, Blue and White (August-September 1998): 8–9. [BACK]

59. Noam Gavrielli, “New Findings on Additional Mortality as a Result of Particulate Air Pollutants,”Particulate Air Pollution (Proceedings) (Haifa: Technion, 1995). [BACK]


60. “Report of the Committee to Assess the Water Pollution in the Krayot,”Biosphera (July 1985): 5–16. [BACK]

61. Michael Graber, “Emissions and Concentrations of Air Pollutants in Israel,”Biosphera (January 1995): 13–14. [BACK]

62. Joyce Whitman,The Environment in Israel (Jerusalem: Ministry of the Interior, 1988), p. 162. [BACK]

63. Yossi Sarid, personal interview, December 30, 1997. [BACK]

64. Al Gore,Earth in the Balance, Ecology and the Human Spirit (New York: Plume, 1992). [BACK]

65. “Musaf L'Chag,”Yediot Ahronot, October 1, 1997, p. 1. [BACK]

66. “Public Opinion Survey on the Subject of Environmental Quality,” Biosphera (October-November 1994):p. 2. [BACK]

67. Interview with Yizhar Smilansky, January 13, 1998. [BACK]

68. Eran Hadas, “Listening Survey, An Impressive Increase to ‘Reshet Gimmel’—The Move to Broadcasting Israeli Music Took a Bite in Listeners from the Military and Regional Stations,”Yediot Ahronot—24 Hours, November 11, 1997. [BACK]

69. Michael Cohen, personal communication, March 10, 1998. [BACK]

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