previous chapter
next chapter


1. See Gail Levin, Edward Hopper: An Intimate Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995). For clarity in this essay, I have chosen to distinguish the work of Jo Nivison Hopper from that of her husband by referring to her by her maiden name. [BACK]

2. John I.H. Baur, Revolution and Tradition in American Art (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1951). [BACK]

3. Nivison left extensive diaries, which are in a private collection. See Levin, Edward Hopper, xi-xiv. [BACK]

4. See, for example, Judith Hole and Ellen Levine, Rebirth of Feminism (New York: Quadrangle Books, 1971), 366–67. [BACK]


5. See Levin, Edward Hopper, 148–50. Nivison attended the Normal College of the City of New York, now Hunter College of the City University of New York. [BACK]

6. See Whitney Chadwick and Isabelle de Courtivron, eds., Significant Others: Creativity and Intimate Partnership (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1993). [BACK]

7. Jo Nivison Hopper diary entry for January 13, 1941. [BACK]

8. Jo Nivison Hopper diary entry for June 30, 1961. [BACK]

9. Ibid. [BACK]

10. The Provincetown Advocate (March 21, 1940, 1) described the building as “a landmark famous throughout the Cape, known throughout the country, pictured by painters on hundreds of canvases” when reporting the church's destruction by fire after being hit by lightning. [BACK]

11. Jo Nivison Hopper diary entry for May 4, 1959. [BACK]

12. Jo Nivison Hopper diary entry for March 15, 1956. [BACK]

13. Hilton Kramer, “Mr. and Mrs. Hopper: The Closet Drama of a Miserable Misalliance,” Boston Globe, October 8, 1995. See my letter responding, November 12, 1995, B37. [BACK]

14. Abraham Davidson, “Behind Every Great Man…,” Wall Street Journal, October 4, 1995, A12. See my letter responding, captioned “Persistent Devotion to Ungrateful Husband,” November 8, 1995, A21. [BACK]

15. Although it has been cited in feminist circles, the first article that I wrote on Nivison, before I discovered her diaries, elicited no such antifeminist response. See Gail Levin, “Josephine Verstille Nivison Hopper,” Woman's Art Journal 1 (Spring/Summer 1980): 28–32. See also comments on this article by Carrie Rickey, “Writing (and Righting) Wrongs: Feminist Art Publications,” in Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard, The Power of Feminist Art: The American Movement of the 1970s, History and Impact (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994). [BACK]

16. Brian O'Doherty, “The Hopper Bequest at the Whitney,” Art in America 59 (Summer 1971): 69. [BACK]

17. Barbara Novak, “Ten Ways to Look at a Flower,” Heresies: A Feminist Publication on Art and Politics, Winter 1978, 47. [BACK]

18. Barbara Novak and Brian O'Doherty, letter to the editor, New York Times Book Review, October 29, 1995, 4, 48; see my letter responding on December 10, 1995, 4. [BACK]

19. Susan Faludi, Backlash: The Undeclared War against American Women (New York: Crown, 1991). [BACK]

20. Phyllis Chesler, Women and Madness (New York: Doubleday, 1972), 16. [BACK]

21. Ibid., 31. [BACK]

22. Quoted in Peter D. Kramer, “How Crazy Was Zelda?” New York Times Magazine, December 1, 1996, 108. [BACK]

previous chapter
next chapter