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1. For a popular example of this approach, see Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (New York: Vintage, 1997). A similar approach to the Serbian case is adopted by Michael Sells, The Bridge Betrayed (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). For a critical discussion, see Christopher R. Browning, The Path to Genocide: Essays on Launching the Final Solution (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 86–124. [BACK]

2. John W. Meyer, John Boli, George M. Thomas, and Francisco O. Ramirez, "World Society"; Martha Finnemore, National Interests; and Connie McNeely, "Constructing the Nation State." [BACK]

3. World polity theorists differ from scholars of cultural globalization in that they view worldwide processes of institutionalization in "harder" organizational terms. The world polity is not just a system of eurocentric ideas, but a more durable structure of both material and ideational elements. [BACK]

4. Michael Burawoy et al., Global Ethnography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 3. [BACK]

5. For South African violence in Mozambique and Angola, see Victoria Brittain, The Death of Dignity: Angola's Civil War (London: Africa World Press, 1998); William Minter, Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique (London: Zed Books, 1994); and Alex Vines, Renamo: Terrorism in Mozambique (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991). [BACK]

6. Author observations, Ingushetia, November 1999. I was in the region as research consultant to Human Rights Watch. [BACK]

7. Human Rights Watch, Iraq's Crime of Genocide: The Anfal Campaign against the Kurds (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994). [BACK]

8. For civil war as a result of collapsed states, see Steven R. David, "Internal War: Causes and Cures," World Politics, 49: 3 (1997): 552–576; William Reno, Warlord Politics and African States (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 1999); and Yahya Sadowski, The Myth of Global Chaos (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1998). For an important case study, see Barnett R. Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995). [BACK]

9. I thank Susan Stokes for this argument. [BACK]

10. I thank Gay Seidman for this observation. [BACK]


11. See, for example, Daniel Ben Simon, "Road to Hell," Ha'aretz (English edition), 17 November 2000; Amos Harel, "IDF's Intifada Tactics Amount to Separation—Green Line Fortifications Start to Look Like Lebanon Border," Ha'aretz (English edition), 8 January 2001; Israel Harel, "Lebanon Comes to Gilo," Ha'aretz (English edition), 16 November 2000; and Arieh O'sullivan, "Israel, PA, Now in ‘Armed Conflict, '" Jerusalem Post, 11 January 2001. See also James Ron, "The Second Palestinian Uprising: Cause for Optimism?" Middle East Policy, 8: 1 (2001): 73–80. [BACK]

12. Hala Jaber and Mounzer Jaber, "Fin d'occupation au Liban Sud," Le Monde Diplomatique, July 2000. [BACK]

13. Amnon Barzilai, "More Israeli Jews Favor Transfer of Palestinians, Israeli Arabs—Poll Finds," Ha'aretz English edition, 12 March 2002. The poll was based on a sample of 1,264 Jewish-Israeli adults surveyed in April 2002 through personal interviews. [BACK]

14. Tom Segev, "A Black Flag Hangs over the Idea of Transfer," Ha'aretz English edition, 10 April 2002. See also Ben Lynfield, "Israeli Expulsion Idea Gains Steam," Christian Science Monitor, 6 February 2002; Yossi Klein, "Displaced People," Ha'aretz English edition, 24 April 2002; Meron Benvinisti, "The Homeland Purified of Arabs," Ha'aretz, 26 Sept. 2002; and a range of other recent sources cited in Elia Zurek, "Demography and Transfer: Israel's Road to Nowhere," unpublished manuscript, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, 2002. [BACK]

15. According to one set of mainstream Israeli polls, for example, 70 percent of Jewish Israelis in spring 2002 supported political negotiations (of a sort) with Palestinians, while over 60 percent supported the creation of a Palestinian state. See Ephraim Yuchtman-Yaar, "From Barak to Sharon: The Demise of ‘Oslo' in the Israeli Public," paper presented to the Association for Israel Studies annual meeting, Vail, Colorado, 26–28 May 2002. Smooha's most recent polling data are also relatively optimistic, showing that the number of Jewish Israelis committed to expelling Palestinians with Israeli citizenship dropped from 22.2 percent in 1980 to 13.7 percent in 2001. Sammy Smooha, "Long-Term Trends of Change in the Mutual Attitudes of Arabs and Jews in Israel," paper presented to the Association for Israel Studies annual meeting, Vail, Colorado, 26–28 May 2002. [BACK]

16. Aryeh Naor, a cabinet secretary for right-wing Israeli governments in the 1980s, now teaches at Ben Gurion University. He is considered a pragmatist on the right-of-center political spectrum, and is an advocate of unilateral Israeli-Palestinian separation on the West Bank in order to preserve Israel's Jewish majority. As such, he differs from Zionism's more radical wing, which proposes the notion of transfer. Naor made these comments in a plenary session of the Association for Israel Studies annual meeting, Vail, Colorado, 26–28 May 2002. [BACK]

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