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1. The two main Jewish ethnic groups are Ashkenazis, who hail from Europe and North America, and Sepheradis, who originate in the Middle East and North Africa. [BACK]

2. Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 355. [BACK]

3. Rehava'am Ze'evi, "The Lost Zionism," Svivot (December 1993): 54, 57, in Hebrew. For a critique of Ze'evi's argument, see Anita Shapira, "Katznelson Taken Out of Context," Israeli Democracy (winter 1987): 39–40.

The mass, and in many cases forced, exodus of Palestinians during the 1947–1949 war is by now recognized in specialist academic circles. Debates still rage, however, over the extent of Israeli responsibility and premeditation. For details, see Simha Flapan, "The Palestinian Exodus of 1948," Journal of Palestine Studies, 16: 4 (1987): 3–26; Walid Khalidi, "Plan Dalet: Master Plan for the Conquest of Palestine," Journal of Palestine Studies, 18: 1 (1988): 3–70; Baruch Kimmerling and Joel Migdal, Palestinians: The Making of a People (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 27–158; Benny Morris, "The Causes and Character of the Arab Exodus from Palestine: The Israel Defense Intelligence Branch Analysis of June 1948," Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 22 (January 1986): 5–19; "Yosef Weitz and the Transfer Committees, 1948–49," Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 22 (October 1986): 522–561; "Operation Dani and the Palestinian Exodus from Lydda and Ramle in 1948," The Middle East Journal, 40 (winter 1986): 82–109; and Benny Morris, The Birth; Nafez Nazzal, The Palestinian Exodus from the Galilee, 1948 (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1978); Ilan Pappe, The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947–1951 (London: I. B. Tauris, 1994), 47–134; and Tom Segev, 1949: The First Israelis (New York: Free Press, 1986). The extent to which the Palestinian exodus resulted from a pre-war Zionist expulsion plan is still debated. See Benny Morris, "Revising the Palestinian Exodus of 1948," and Laila Parsons, "The Druze and the Birth of Israel," in Eugene L. Rogan and Avi Shlaim, eds., The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001). For earlier iterations of this discussion, see articles by Norman Finkelstein, Nur Masalha, and Benny Morris in the Journal of Palestine Studies 21:1 (1991). [BACK]

4. Nur Masalha, Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought 1882–1948 (Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992), 2. Following Masalha's book, historian Benny Morris investigated more closely Zionist thinking in the 1920s and 1930s, and concluded that "thinking about the transfer of all or part of Palestine's Arabs out of the prospective Jewish state was pervasive among Zionist leadership circles long before 1937," when a British colonial commission recommended partition and population transfer to settle Jewish-Arab tensions. Pro-transfer sentiment among Zionist leaders continued throughout the 1940s, but Morris is uncertain how firmly

these attitudes governed Jewish military behavior during the 1947–49 war. (Benny Morris, "Revisiting the Palestinian Exodus of 1948," 41.) [BACK]

5. Joseph Massad, "Zionism's Internal Others: Israel and the Oriental Jews," Journal of Palestine Studies, 25: 4 (1996): 53–68; Uri Ram, The Changing Agenda of Israeli Sociology: Theory, Ideology and Identity (Albany: SUNY Press, 1995), 97–148; and Shlomo Swirski, Israel: The Oriental Majority (London: Zed Books, 1989). Israeli scholars increasingly use the term "Mizrachi" or Easterner to denote Jewish immigrants from the Middle East and North Africa. For the construction of Mizrachi identity, see Aziza Khazoom, The Origins of Ethnic Inequality among Jews in Israel (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1998). [BACK]

6. Dvora Bernstein, "The Black Panthers: Conflict and Protest in Israeli Society," Megamot, 25 (1979): 64–80. In Hebrew. [BACK]

7. Asher Arian, ed., The Elections in Israel 1977 (Jerusalem: Academic Press, 1980). [BACK]

8. Gershon Shafir, "Changing Nationalism and Israel's ‘Open Frontier’ on the West Bank," Theory and Society 13:6 (1984): 803–827. See also Eliezer Don-Yehiya, "Stability and Change: The National Religious Party and the Young Guard's Revolution," Medina, Mimshal Ve-Yachasim Beinleumiim, 14 (1979): 25–52, in Hebrew; and Menachem Friedman, "The National Religious Party in Change—Background to Its Electoral Losses," Medina, Mimshal Ve-Yachasim Beinleumiim, 20 (1982): 104–122, in Hebrew. [BACK]

9. Ian S. Lustick, For the Land and for the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1988); Amnon Rubenstein, From Herzl to Gush Emunim and Back (Tel Aviv: Shoken, 1980), in Hebrew; Danny Rubenstein, On the Lord's Side: Gush Emunim (Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1982), in Hebrew; and Ehud Sprinzak, Gush Emunim: The Politics of Zionist Fundamentalism in Israel (New York: The American Jewish Committee, 1986). [BACK]

10. Zeev Sternhell, The Founding Myths; and Yonathan Shapiro, The Road to Power: Herut Party in Israel (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991). [BACK]

11. With the exception of a national unity government immediately before and after the 1967 war. [BACK]

12. In appealing to Sephardic voters on ethnic grounds, Likud successfully skirted the fact that it was just as Ashkenazi as its arch-rival, Labor. [BACK]

13. Ehud Sprinzak, The Ascendance of Israel's Radical Right (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 13. [BACK]

14. Ofira Seliktar, New Zionism and the Foreign Policy System of Israel (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986), 144. [BACK]

15. Ehud Sprinzak, The Ascendance, 167, 169. [BACK]

16. For details, see Gershon Shafir and Yoav Peled, "Thorns in Your Eyes: The Socio-Economic Basis of Rabbi Kahane's Electoral Support," Medina, Mimshal Ve-Yachasim Beinleumiim, 25 (1986): 127, in Hebrew; and Ehud Sprinzak, The Ascendance, 246. [BACK]

17. Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 551; and Sammy Smooha, Arabs and Jews in Israel: Change and Continuity in Mutual Intolerance (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1992), 71. [BACK]


18. Ehud Sprinzak, The Ascendance, 124–136. [BACK]

19. Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 356. [BACK]

20. Ehud Sprinzak, The Ascendance, 16. [BACK]

21. Ehud Sprinzak, The Ascendance, 14. [BACK]

22. Ofira Seliktar, New Zionism. [BACK]

23. Sammy Smooha, Arabs and Jews, 70. [BACK]

24. Charles S. Liebman, "Jewish Ultra-Nationalism in Israel: Converging Strands," in William Frankel, ed., Survey of Jewish Affairs 1985 (London: Associated University Press, 1986), 31. [BACK]

25. Charles S. Liebman, "Jewish Ultra-Nationalism," 41. [BACK]

26. Charles S. Liebman, "Jewish Ultra-Nationalism," 41; and Sammy Smooha, Arabs and Jews, 85, 148. [BACK]

27. Sammy Smooha, Arabs and Jews, 142, 154. [BACK]

28. For general discussions of Palestinians holding Israeli citizenship, see Ian S. Lustick, Arabs in the Jewish State (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980); and Elia Zureik, The Palestinians in Israel: A Study in Internal Colonialism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979). [BACK]

29. Charles S. Liebman, "Jewish Ultra-Nationalism," 42. [BACK]

30. Sammy Smooha, Arabs and Jews, 58, 149, 52. [BACK]

31. Sammy Smooha, Arabs and Jews, 67. [BACK]

32. Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 403. See also Avishai Ehrlich, "Is Transfer an Option?" Israeli Democracy (winter 1987): 36–38. [BACK]

33. Charles S. Liebman, "Jewish Ultra-Nationalism," 42; and Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 540, note 50, citing surveys by Israeli pollster Hanoch Smith, as reported in Ha'aretz on November 10, 1989. [BACK]

34. Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 403. [BACK]

35. Sammy Smooha, Arabs and Jews, 111, 152. [BACK]

36. Gad Barzilai and Efraim Inbar, "The Use of Force: Israeli Public Opinion on Military Options," Armed Forces and Society, 23 (fall 1996): 56. For another low-end estimate, see Giora Goldberg, Gad Barzilai, and Efraim Inbar, The Impact of Intercommunal Conflict: The Intifada and Israeli Public Opinion (Jerusalem: Leonard Davis Institute, 1991). [BACK]

37. Yuval Ne'eman, "Not Kach," Yediot Aharonot, 13 August 1985. In Hebrew. [BACK]

38. Sh. Z. Avramov, "Stubborness That Will Provoke Disaster," Ha'aretz, 22 July 1988. In Hebrew. [BACK]

39. Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 404; and Gad Barzilai and Efraim Inbar, "The Use of Force," 62. [BACK]

40. Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 551. [BACK]

41. Avishai Ehrlich, "Is Transfer an Option?" 37. The first was Likud member of parliament Meir Cohen Avidov, while the second was Likud legislator Benny Shalita. [BACK]

42. Menachem Shalev, "Netanyahu Recommends Large-Scale Expulsions," Jerusalem Post, 19 November 1989. The wording of Netanyahu's quote is ambiguous, making it unclear whether he was speaking of expelling masses of Palestinian civilians, or only political and military activists. Netanyahu's spokesman said he meant the latter. [BACK]


43. No Author, "Jordan Should Be Included in Discussions of Self-Determination," Ha'aretz, 23 May 1980. In Hebrew. [BACK]

44. Dekel, quoted in Sh. Z. Avramov, "Stubborness That Will Provoke Disaster." [BACK]

45. Menachem Rahat, "A Storm in the National Religious Party: ‘By Proposing to Pay Arabs to Emigrate, Yoska Shapira Has Transformed Himself into a Kahane with a Knitted Skullcap, ’" Ma'ariv, 30 October 1987. In Hebrew. Shapira was then a minister without portfolio, and was competing for leadership of the National Religious Party. His remarks reportedly drew criticism from colleagues. [BACK]

46. Ariel Ben Ami, "Arabs Should Be Encouraged to Emigrate, Say 62 percent of Rabbis in Judea and Samaria," Davar, November 1, 1987. In Hebrew. [BACK]

47. For example, the mayor of Ariel, a large West Bank settlement, said Palestinians could be expelled during an Arab-Israeli war. Cited in Ian S. Lustick, Unsettled States, 144. [BACK]

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