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1. Barry R. Posen, "The War for Kosovo: Serbia's Political-Military Strategy," International Security, 24: 4 (2000): 63. [BACK]

2. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen, as Told: The Human Rights Findings of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission (OSCE: Vienna, 2000), available online at, 98; and Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly: NATO's War to Save Kosovo (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2000), 108–111. [BACK]

3. Two major studies argue that Serbian forces killed 10,000 ethnic Albanians (civilians and fighters) during spring 1999. The first, authored by the American Bar Association's Central and East European Law Initiative and the American

Association for the Advancement of Science, is entitled Political Killings in Kosovo/Kosova (Washington, DC: American Bar Association and American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2000) and is available online at The second, Paul B. Spiegel and Peter Salama, "War and Mortality in Kosovo, 1998–1999: An Epidemiological Testimony," Lancet, 355: 9222 (24 June 2000): 2204–2209, says 12,000 ethnic Albanians died from February 1998 to June 1999. Since most observers agree that 2,000 died between January 1998 and March 1999, this would again suggest a figure of 10,000 for spring 1999. For a discussion of the Kosovo casualty debate, see Julian Borger, "The Last Indignity for These Sufferers Is to Be Disbelieved," Guardian, 25 August 2000; and Serge Halimi and Dominique Vedal, "Media and Disinformation," Le Monde Diplomatique (English edition), March 2000. In 2001, hundreds of bodies of ethnic Albanians were discovered in Serbia. See "Serbian ex-Minister Denies Role in Hiding War Crimes Evidence," Agence France Presse, 9 July 2001. [BACK]

4. For an estimate of 500 civilian deaths by NATO bombing, see Human Rights Watch, Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2000). That report also quotes Yugoslav government officials as estimating between 1,200 and 5,000 civilian deaths, but a U.S. newspaper cites a Yugoslav official estimating 2,000 civilian deaths in Serbia as well as 600 Serbian soldiers. See Richard Boudreaux, "The Path to Peace: For Many Serbs, No Sense of Guilt over Atrocities," Los Angeles Times, 2 July 1999. Serbs from Kosovo say that as many as 1,300 ethnic Serbs were abducted and probably killed by ethnic Albanians after the war. For details, see Rory Carroll, "Missing Serbs Sharpen Kosovo's Pain," Guardian Weekly, 30 August-5 September 2001. [BACK]

5. For Kosovo's 1981 protests, see Mark Baskin, "Crisis in Kosovo," Problems of Communism, 32: 2 (1982): 61–74; and Michele Lee, "Kosovo between Yugoslavia and Albania," New Left Review, 140 (July–August 1983): 62–91. [BACK]

6. During June and July 1998, some 20,000 ethnic Albanians were expelled or fled into Albania and Macedonia (personal communication with former Human Rights Watch researcher Fred Abrahams, February 2001). According to p. 98 of the OSCE's Kosovo/Kosova, 350,000 persons were cumulatively displaced by Serbian forces within Kosovo by the end of 1998. [BACK]

7. John Kifner, "U.N. Survey Finds Wide Destruction in Kosovo Villages," New York Times, 10 July 1999. The survey noted that in contrast to spring 1999, Serbian forces in 1998 did not destroy Kosovo's urban areas. [BACK]

8. Amnesty International, Kosovo: The Evidence (London: Amnesty International, 1998), 30. See also International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, From Autonomy to Colonization: Human Rights in Kosovo 1989–1993 (Vienna: International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 1993), 7–8. [BACK]

9. Howard Clark, Civil Resistance in Kosovo (London: Pluto Press, 2000); International Helsinki Federation, From Autonomy; Denisa Kostovicova, Parallel Worlds: Response of Kosovo Albanians to Loss of Autonomy in Serbia, 1986–1996 (Keele, U.K.: Keele University Institute for European Studies, 1997); and Michael Salla, "Kosovo, Non-violence, and the Break-up of Yugoslavia," Security Dialogue, 26: 4 (1995), 427–438. [BACK]

10. The Democratic League of Kosova (LDK) was founded in December

1989. It claimed 600,000 sympathizers during the early 1990s and won more than 76 percent of the vote in its unofficial May 1992 elections to the parallel Kosovo parliament. Rugova was elected head of the LDK in 1989. For details, see International Crisis Group, Kosovo Spring, available online at wysiwyg:// report.332/http://www.cri … ects/sbalkans/reports/kos02repa.htm, 28. [BACK]

11. Cited in Gazmend Pula, "Modalities of Self-Determination: The Case of Kosova as a Structural Issue for Lasting Stability in the Balkans," Sudosteuropa, 45: 4–5 (1996): 40. [BACK]

12. For a sympathetic but critical review of ethnic Albanian positions on Serbian domestic politics, see Howard Clark, Civil Resistance. [BACK]

13. Howard Clark, Civil Resistance, 75. [BACK]

14. Eric D. Gordy, Culture of Power, 57. [BACK]

15. The Yugoslav federal army only gained partial control over Slovenia and Bosnia's territorial defense stores before the conflicts began in those areas. Although it confiscated most of Croatia's stockpiles, Croat representatives managed to purchase arms abroad, boosting their ability to fight local ethnic Serb militias and Yugoslav federal forces. For more on access to weapons and the Yugoslav wars of secession, see Peter Andreas, "The Clandestine Political Economy of War: Lessons from the Balkans," paper presented to the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, September 2001. [BACK]

16. International Crisis Group, Kosovo Spring, 23. [BACK]

17. As we saw in earlier chapters, the ban on recognizing regions as sovereign states also affected ethnic Serbs in Bosnia and Croatia, ethnic Croats in Bosnia and Serbia, and Muslim Slavs in Serbia. [BACK]

18. "U.S. ‘Deeply Concerned’ over Situation in Kosovo," Agence France Presse, 13 April 1992. (Emphasis added.) [BACK]

19. Tim Judah, Kosovo, 73. See also Michael Evans, "West Issues ‘Hands Off’ Ultimatum on Kosovo," Times (London), 17 December 1992. [BACK]

20. Although Albania did have diplomatic relations of a sort with the LDK-led parallel government for Kosovo, it claimed not to have recognized Kosovo's declaration of independence. See Ismije Beshiri, "Kosovar Independence Lacks International Backing," Transition, 22 (March 1996): 52–54. [BACK]

21. "Ex-Yugoslavia: U.N. Security Council Upholds Monitors in Kosovo," Inter Press Service, 9 August 1993. [BACK]

22. International Crisis Group, Kosova Spring, 17. [BACK]

23. Tim Judah, Kosovo, 92. [BACK]

24. Robert Marquand, "Kosovo Province: Balkans' Next Flash Point?" Christian Science Monitor, 28 December 1992; and Robert Kaplan, "The Next Balkan War," Guardian, 22 December 1992. [BACK]

25. "Ibrahim Rugova Says Serbs' Goal in Kosovo Is an Ethnically-Cleansed Territory," Deutschlandfunk, 13 May 1993, available through BBC Summary of World Broadcasts [cited 17 May 1993], EE/1690/C1. See also "Albanians in Kosovo Suffer Persecution, UN Human Rights Group Told," Albanian Telegraph Agency, 20 October 1993, available through BBC Summary of World Broadcasts [cited 22 October, 1993], EE/1826/C1. Visiting representatives of the UN Center for Human Rights were told that "the Serbian regime in Kosovo is silently carrying out ethnic cleansing." For similar views by Albanian officials, see Henry

Kamm, "Albania Fears ‘Ethnic Cleansing’ May Spread to Kosovo Next," New York Times, 13 June 1992. [BACK]

26. Bujar Bukoshi, "Kosovo's Plea for Help," Christian Science Monitor, 30 June 1993. [BACK]

27. "Albanian Agency Chronicles ‘Open Terror’ by Serbia in Kosovo," Albanian Telegraph Agency, 15 June 1993, available through BBC Summary of World Broadcasts [cited 19 June 1993], EE/1719/C1; and "Carnegie Endowment Breakfast Briefing with Ibrahim Rugova," Federal News Service, 16 February 1993. [BACK]

28. Serbian authorities dismissed many ethnic Albanians in Kosovo's public sector, creating economic hardship and unemployment. [BACK]

29. Fabian Schmidt, "Kosovo: The Time Bomb That Has Not Gone Off," RFE/RL Research Report, 2: 39 (1993). [BACK]

30. International Committee of the Red Cross official, interview by author, Pristina, March 1997. [BACK]

31. For details of Serbian human rights violations during this period, see Amnesty International's reports, Ethnic Albanians—Victims of Torture and Ill-Treatment by Police in Kosovo Province (London: Amnesty International 1992); Ethnic AlbaniansTrial by Truncheon (London: Amnesty International, 1994); and Police Violence in KosovoThe Victims (London: Amnesty International, 1994). See also Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Abuses in Kosovo 1990–1992 (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1992), and Open Wounds: Human Rights Abuses in Kosovo (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1993); and International Helsinki Federation, From Autonomy to Colonization. [BACK]

32. "Kosovo: Cleansing Up," Economist, 6 November 1993, 68. [BACK]

33. "Branch of Serbian četnik Movement Set Up," Tanjug, 30 June 1990, available through BBC Summary of World Broadcasts [cited 7 July 1990], EE/0810/B/1; and Liam McDowall, "Serbs Accused of Pushing Albanians Out of Kosovo," The Associated Press, 15 February 1993. Another article in the Albanian press argued that Šešelj planned to deport 670,000 Albanians. See "Serbs Attack Milošević's Policy over Kosovo," Rilindja, 23 May 1995, available through BBC Summary of World Broadcasts [cited 25 May 1995], EE/2312/C1. For more on Šešelj's views, see his 1995 essay, translated by the Kosova Crisis Center and available online at [BACK]

34. For Šešelj's comments, see "Šešelj in Kosovo Warns Ethnic Albanians," Belgrade TV, 18 November 1991, available through BBC Summary of World Broadcasts [cited 21 November 1991], EE/1235/C1/1. For estimates of weapons distributed, see Zoran Kusovac, "The KLA: Braced to Defend and Control," Janeapos;s Intelligence Review, 11: 4 (1999); and Miranda Vickers, Between Serb and Albanian: A History of Kosovo (London: Hurst, 1998), 259. [BACK]

35. For the White Eagle parade, see Maggie O'Kane, "Kosovo Majority Walks Softly on a Battlefield-in-Waiting," Guardian, 26 August 1992. For the recruitment office, see Miranda Vickers, Between Serb and Albanian, 259. [BACK]

36. "Šešelj's četniks Demonstrate in Village Near Gjilan in Kosovo," Albanian Telegraph Agency, 22 August 1993, available through BBC Summary of World Broadcasts [cited 27 August 1993], EE/1778/C. [BACK]

37. "Arkan Bares His Teeth," Transition, 6 September 1996, 2. [BACK]


38. "Citizen Arkan," Economist, 6 February 1993. [BACK]

39. Miranda Vickers, Between Serb and Albanian, 267. [BACK]

40. Yigal Chazan, "Arkan's Assault on the Political Front," Guardian, 17 December 1992. [BACK]

41. Anthony Robinson, "Kosovo PM Seeks Help for Serbia's ‘Next Target’: A Warning of War Spreading," Financial Times, 6 January 1993. [BACK]

42. Details available in Elaine Sciolino and Ethan Bronner, "How a President, Distracted by Scandal, Entered Balkan War," New York Times, 18 April 1999. [BACK]

43. Howard Clark, Civil Resistance; and Miranda Vickers, Between Serb and Albanian, 281–284. [BACK]

44. Gazmend Pula, "Modalities." [BACK]

45. Janusz Bugajski, "The Kosovar Volcano," Transitions (October 1997), 67–68. [BACK]

46. Both Demaçi and Qosja would later draw close to the KLA. [BACK]

47. International Crisis Group, Kosovo Spring, 30. [BACK]

48. Howard Clark, Civil Resistance. [BACK]

49. Yigal Chazan, "Kosovo's Albanians on Trial in Serb-Dominated Courts," Inter Press Service, 21 December 1993. [BACK]

50. Fabian Schmidt, "Show Trials in Pristina," Transition (November 1995). [BACK]

51. Tim Judah, Kosovo, 90. [BACK]

52. For the origins of the LPK and the KLA see Christophe Chiclet, "Aux origines de l'armée de libération du Kosovo," Le Monde Diplomatique, 6 May 1999; Chris Hedges, "Kosovo's Next Masters?" Foreign Affairs, 78: 3 (1999): 24–43; International Crisis Group, Kosovo Spring, 48–52, and their Kosovo's Long, Hot Summer, available online at wysiwyg://report.346/http://www.cri … jects/sbalkans/reports/kos05rep.htm, 1998, 10–16; Tim Judah, "War by Mobile Phone, Donkey and Kalashnikov," Guardian, 29 August 1998, "Inside the KLA," New York Review of Books, 6 June 1999, and Kosovo; and Zoran Kusovac, "KLA Power Rising," Jane's Defence Weekly, 30: 1 (1998), and "Different Realities Wrestle for Kosovo," Jane's Intelligence Review, 10: 9 (1998). [BACK]

53. Gazmend Pula, "Modalities," 401. For a different view, see Christophe Chiclet, "Aux origines." [BACK]

54. According to the Federation of American Scientists, some 6,000 political activists from twenty different organizations fled Kosovo after the 1981 demonstrations, including the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Kosova, the New Movement for the Liberation of Kosova, the Federation of Trade Unions of Kosova, the World Union of Kosova, the Bali Kombatare, and the New Communist Party of Kosova. See kosovo_back.htm. [BACK]

55. Tim Judah, Kosovo, 111. [BACK]

56. The KLA is known in Kosovo as the UÇK, short for Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. [BACK]

57. Miranda Vickers and James Pettifer, Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan Identity (New York: New York University Press, 1997), 142–165. [BACK]

58. Miranda Vickers and James Pettifer, Albania, 163–164. [BACK]


59. Guz Xhuda, "What Brought Anarchy to Albania," Jane's Intelligence Review, 1 June 1997. [BACK]

60. Zoran Kusovac, "KLA: Braced to Defend." [BACK]

61. Tim Judah, "War by Mobile Phone." [BACK]

62. Chris Hedges, "Kosovo Rebels and Their New Friend," New York Times, 9 June 1998. [BACK]

63. Some argue the KLA purchased the support of Berisha's successor, Fatosh Nanos, while others suggest that Berisha was the KLA's main backer. With roots in Albania's mountainous north, Berisha allegedly helped the KLA bolster his tarnished credentials and solicit financial backing. Even if that was true, Berisha later reversed course. See Tom Walker, "Berisha Scorns ‘Incompetent’ KLA," Times (London), 18 May 1999. [BACK]

64. Milan Milošević, Ljubomir Stajić, and Milan V. Petković, "Some Aspects of Contemporary Terrorism" (Belgrade: Serbian Police Academy and Yugoslav Army, 1998). English version available online at serbia/docs/aspekti_e.html. [BACK]

65. Gregory Mayer, "Shadowy ‘Liberation Army’ in Kosovo," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 7 March 1998. [BACK]

66. Carsten Hoffman, "Albanian Liberation Army Takes on Serbs in Kosovo," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 13 December 1997; and International Crisis Group, Kosovo Spring, 48. [BACK]

67. "Kosovo Ethnic Albanian Leader Denies Knowledge of Terror Group," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 5 December 1997. [BACK]

68. Human Rights Watch, Humanitarian Law Violations in Kosovo (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999), 28. [BACK]

69. Human Rights Watch, Humanitarian Law Violations, 18–26. [BACK]

70. Guy Dinmore, "Serbian Forces Accused of Slaughter," Financial Times, 3 March 1998. [BACK]

71. Zoran Kusovac, "KLA: Braced to Defend." [BACK]

72. Estimates put the number of KLA fighters in early 1998 at 500, mounting to several thousand, or even as high as 12,000–20,000 after the Drenica killings. See FAS Intelligence Resource Program, "Kosovo Liberation Army," available online at, updated on 24 May 1999. [BACK]

73. International Crisis Group, Kosovo's Long, Hot Summer. [BACK]

74. Chris Hedges, "Kosovo's Next Masters?" 29, 40. [BACK]

75. Tammy Arbuckle, "Unhealthy Climate in Kosovo as Guerrillas Gear Up for a Summer Confrontation," Jane's International Defense Review, 32 (February 1999): 59–61. [BACK]

76. Zoran Kusovac, "Different Realities." [BACK]

77. For allegations of KLA links to drug money, see Mark Almond, "Dealing with the Devils: Who Runs the KLA?" The Vancouver Sun, 6 April 1999; Roger Boyes and Eske Wright, "Drugs Money Linked to the Kosovo Rebels," Times (London), 24 March 1999; Frank Viviano, "Separatists Supporting Themselves with Traffic in Narcotics," San Francisco Chronicle, 10 June 1994; and "Speculation Plentiful, Facts Few about Kosovo Separatist Group," Baltimore Sun, 6 March 1998. [BACK]


78. Roger Boys and Eske Wright, "Drugs Money." [BACK]

79. Roger Boys and Eske Wright, "Drugs Money." [BACK]

80. Tim Judah, Kosovo, 70. Albania's opening to international commerce in 1992 transformed it into a key route for drugs heading from Turkey to Europe. Albania's importance was bolstered by the war in Bosnia and sanctions on Serbia, which disrupted established courier routes. [BACK]

81. "Albanian-Americans Help Fund the KLA," Agence France-Presse, 20 February 1999. [BACK]

82. There were an estimated 600,000 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo in Europe, and 200,000–400,000 in the United States. For details, see Elizabeth Neuffer, "From Abroad, Kosovo Albanians Put Money on War," Boston Globe, 2 July 1998; Andrew Higgins and A. Craig Copetas, "KLA Seeks Cash—and a Role," Gazette, 22 May 1999; and Ron Scherer, "Pulling Political and Purse Strings," Christian Science Monitor, 31 March 1999. [BACK]

83. The LDK's Fund for the Republic of Kosova was controlled by Kosovo's prime minister-in-exile, Bujar Bukoshi, and totaled some $250– $300 million in 1998. [BACK]

84. Zoran Kusovac, "KLA: Braced to Defend." [BACK]

85. Tammy Arbuckle, "Unhealthy Climate." [BACK]

86. By mid-1998 Serbia had regained control over the border, but the KLA had built up stockpiles in Kosovo and was opening up roads through Macedonia and Montenegro. For an apparently informed but rather sensationalist source, see Mark H. Milstein, "Bad News Balkans: KLA's Windfall Victory," Soldier of Fortune, 24 (1999): 40–44. [BACK]

87. Mark Brennock, "In the Hills, Where Serb Law Ends and the Men of the Kosovo Liberation Army Set the Rules," Irish Times, 16 June 1998. [BACK]

88. International Crisis Group, Kosovo's Long, Hot Summer, 15. [BACK]

89. Merita Dhimgjoka, "Refugee Exodus as Serbs Shell and Burn," Irish Times, 4 June 1998; and Human Rights Watch, Violations of Humanitarian Law, 38. [BACK]

90. "Yugoslav Forces Attack Kosovo Rebels; Offensive Recaptures Many Towns," Facts on File World News Digest, 6 August 1998. [BACK]

91. The other town was Orahovac, held by the KLA for a few days only. For details of the Mališevo events, see R. Jeffrey Smith, "A Massive—and Uncertain—Exodus; In Hordes of Kosovo Refugees, Aid Workers See a New Crisis Just Beginning to Unfold," Washington Post, 2 August 1998. [BACK]

92. Tom Walker, "Serbs Hail Victory over Kosovo Rebels," Times (London), 4 August 1998. [BACK]

93. Human Rights Watch, A Week of Terror in Drenica (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999). [BACK]

94. See Human Rights Watch, A Week of Terror in Drenica, 62; and "Most Kosovo Villages Destroyed—NATO Approves Operation Plan," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 13 November 1998. [BACK]

95. Amnesty International, Kosovo: The Evidence, 43; Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly: NATO's War to Save Kosovo (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2000), 112; and OSCE, Kosovo/Kosova, 38. [BACK]

96. An overview of the U.S. perspective is available in Elaine Sciolino and Ray Bonner, "How a President, Distracted by Scandal, Entered Balkan War." [BACK]


97. Noam Chomsky, The New Military Humanism: Lessons from Kosovo (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1999), 134–137. [BACK]

98. UN Security Council resolution 1160, 31 March 1998. [BACK]

99. Jonathan Steele and Richard Norton-Taylor, "Amnesty for Albanian ‘Terror’ Suspects in Kosovo Agreement," Guardian, 15 October 1998. [BACK]

100. Barry R. Posen, "The War for Kosovo." [BACK]

101. Noam Chomsky, The New Military Humanism. [BACK]

102. OSCE, Kosovo/Kosova, 98–99. [BACK]

103. John Kifner, "Horror by Design—the Ravaging of Kosovo," New York Times, 29 May 1999. [BACK]

104. See Human Rights Watch's "Kosovo Human Rights Flash #9," 30 March 1999, available online at [BACK]

105. Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly, 112. [BACK]

106. For Clinton's statement, see Noam Chomsky, The New Military Humanism, 82. For NATO officials, see Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly, 112. [BACK]

107. For reports of Serbian troop buildups in Kosovo after January 1999, see Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly, 88–89, 94. [BACK]

108. See Tony Paterson, "Germany Gives Details of Covert Plan," Times (London), 9 April 1999. [BACK]

109. See the transcript of the BBC Panorama program "War Room," 19 April 1999, available online at [BACK]

110. R. Jeffrey Smith and William Drozdiak, "Serbs' Offensive Was Meticulously Planned," argues that Operation Horseshoe aimed from the outset to alter Kosovo's ethnic balance, and that it was put in motion as early as December 1998. Barry Posen, "The War for Kosovo," however, notes that the reporters offer scant evidence. [BACK]

111. "New Documents Point to Kosovo Crimes," United Press International, 28 June 1999. [BACK]

112. Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly, 107; and BBC Panoroma, "War Room." [BACK]

113. Cited in Noam Chomsky, The New Military Humanitarianism, 82. [BACK]

114. U.S. National Security Advisor Samuel Berger supplied this estimate during a February 2000 interview, as cited in Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly, 302, note 25. [BACK]

115. Quoted in Tim Judah, Kosovo, 240. [BACK]

116. The author was at Albania's border with Kosovo from 29 March to 6 April 1999 on a research effort for Human Rights Watch. [BACK]

117. Cited in Tim Judah, Kosovo, 241–242. [BACK]

118. John Goetz, "Serbian Ethnic Cleansing Scare Was a Fake, Says General," Sunday Times (London), 2 April 2000. [BACK]

119. Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly, 107. [BACK]

120. "War with Milošević: A Week Is a Long Time in a War," Economist, 3 April 1999, 17–18. [BACK]

121. Barry R. Posen, "The War for Kosovo," 54–55. [BACK]


122. American Bar Association, Political Killings. [BACK]

123. Richard Boudreaux, "Europeans Hardened by Reports of Serb Atrocities," Los Angeles Times, 1 April 1999. [BACK]

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