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1. Kalevi Holsti, The State, War, and the State of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). [BACK]

2. Robert White, "From Peaceful Protest to Guerrilla War: Micromobilization of the Provisional Irish Republican Army," American Journal of Sociology, 94: 6 (1989): 1277–1302. [BACK]

3. Ethnocracies are marked by the capture of the government apparatus by one ethnic group and the systematic exclusion of others, while semi-democracies have a limited number of democratic characteristics. [BACK]

4. For historical Serbian nationalism, see Ivo Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984); Barbara Jelavich, History of the Balkans, Vols. I and II (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1983); Tim Judah, The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000); David MacKenzie, "Serbia as Piedmont and the Yugoslav Idea, 1804–1914," East European Quarterly, 28: 2 (1994): 153–82; and Michael Petrovich, A History of Modern Serbia, 1804–1918, Vols. I and II (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976).

For mainstream work on the Jewish national movement, see Walter Zeev Laqueur, A History of Zionism (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972); Arthur Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1997); and Howard Sachar, A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time (New York: Knopf, 1996). For more critical research on Zionism by Israeli scholars, see Gershon Shafir, Land, Labor, and the Origins of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 1882–1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996); and Zeev Sternhell, The Founding Myths of Israel (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999).

For nationalism more broadly, see Rogers Brubaker, Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Craig J. Calhoun, Nationalism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998); and Anthony D. Smith, Nationalism and

Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism (London: Routledge, 1998). [BACK]

5. For the Serbian World War II experience, see Matteo Milazzo, The Chetnik Movement and the Yugoslav Resistance (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975); Jozo Tomasevich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia: The Chetniks (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1975); and Veljko Vujačić, Communism and Nationalism in Russia and Serbia (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1995). The literature on the Jewish Holocaust is vast, but good starting points include Helen Fein, Accounting for Genocide (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1979); Raul Hilberg, Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe 1933–1945 (New York: Harper Perennial, 1993); and The Destruction of the European Jews (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985). [BACK]

6. Selected works on contemporary Serbian nationalism include Audrey Helfant Budding, Serb Intellectuals and the National Question, 1961–1991 (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1998); Eric D. Gordy, The Culture of Power in Serbia: Nationalism and the Destruction of Alternatives (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 1999); Tim Judah, The Serbs; Robert Thomas, The Politics of Serbia in the 1990s (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999); and Veljko Vujačić, Communism and Nationalism. [BACK]

7. Nationalist mobilization by Croats, Bosnian Muslims, Slovenes, and others was only partially triggered by Serbian mobilization, as they have their own independent dynamics. For the origins of war in the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s, see Christopher Bennett, Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse: Causes, Course and Consequences (New York: New York University Press, 1995); Stephen L. Burg and Paul S. Shoup, The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2000); Lenard J. Cohen, Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia's Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993); Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia (London: Penguin, 1992); Tim Judah, The Serbs; Laura Silber and Allan Little, Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation (New York: TV Books, 1995); and Susan Woodward, Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution after the Cold War (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1995). [BACK]

8. For the first Palestinian uprising, see Ian S. Lustick, "Writing the Intifada: Collective Action in the Occupied Territories," World Politics, 45 (July 1993): 560–594; Ruth B. Margolies, "The Intifada: Palestinian Adaptation to Israeli Counterinsurgency Tactics," Terrorism and Political Violence, 7: 2 (1995): 49–73; David McDowal, Palestine and Israel: The Uprising and Beyond (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989); Jamal R. Nasser and Roger Heacock, eds., Intifada: Palestine at the Crossroads (New York: Praeger, 1990); Don Peretz, Intifada (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991); Ze'ev Schiff and Ehud Ya'ari, Intifada (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989); and Aryeh Shalev, Intifada: Causes and Effects (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991). [BACK]

9. For state capacity, see Pierre Engelbert, State Legitimacy and Development (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2000); Robert Jackson and Carl Rosberg, "Why Africa's Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in State-hood," World Politics, 35:1 (1980): 1–24; and Joel Migdal, Strong Societies and

Weak States: State Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988). [BACK]

10. Neil Fligstein, The Transformation of Corporate Control (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990); John W. Meyer and Richard W. Scott, Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1992); Walter W. Powell and Paul J. DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1991); and Richard W. Scott, Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1997). [BACK]

11. James G. March and Johan P. Olsen, Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics (New York: Free Press, 1989). [BACK]

12. Frederick Jackson Turner, "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," in George R. Taylor, ed., The Turner Thesis (Boston: D. C. Heath, 1956). [BACK]

13. Jack D. Forbes, "Frontiers in American History," Journal of the West, 1:1 (1962–63): 63–73; Howard Lamar and Leonard Thompson, The Frontier in History: North America and Southern Africa Compared (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981); Richard W. Slatta, "Historical Frontier Imagery in the Americas," in Lawrence Herzog, ed., Changing Boundaries in the Americas (San Diego: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, 1992). [BACK]

14. Howard Lamar and Leonard Thompson, The Frontier in History, 25. [BACK]

15. Richard Hogan, "The Frontier as Social Control," Theory and Society, 14: 1 (1985): 35–51. [BACK]

16. William G. Cronon, George Miles, and Jay Gitlin, Under an Open Sky: Rethinking America's Western Past (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992), 16. [BACK]

17. Richard M. Brown, "The American Vigilante Tradition," in Hugh D. Graham and Ted R. Gurr, eds., Violence in America (New York: Bantam, 1969). [BACK]

18. Joe R. Feagin and Harlan Hahn, Ghetto Revolts: The Politics of Violence in American Cities (New York: Macmillan, 1973), 66. [BACK]

19. Robert F. Berkhoffer Jr., "The North American Frontier as Process and Context," in Howard Lamar and Leonard Thompson, The Frontier in History. [BACK]

20. See Erik Olin Wright, Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 11–12, 29. [BACK]

21. Gertrude Neuwirth, "A Weberian Outline of a Theory of Community: Its Application to the ‘Dark Ghetto, ’" British Journal of Sociology, 20:2 (1969), 153. For more on the American ghetto, see Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993); and Louis Wirth, The Ghetto (Reprint) (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1998). [BACK]

22. Joe R. Feagin and Harlan Hahn, Ghetto Revolts, 186, 192; and Richard E. Rubenstein, Rebels in Eden: Mass Political Violence in the United States (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970). [BACK]

23. Isaac D. Balbus, The Dialectics of Legal Repression, 234; Joe R. Feagin and Harlan Hahn, Ghetto Revolts, 195; and Fred R. Harris and Roger W. Wilkins, eds., Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States (New York: Pantheon, 1988), 9–10. [BACK]

24. Youssef Cohen, Brian R. Brown, and A. F. K. Organski, "The Paradoxical

Nature of State Making: The Violent Creation of Order," American Political Science Review, 75:4 (1981): 901–910; Anthony Giddens, The Nation State and Violence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987); Michael Mann, "The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms, and Results," Archives Européennes de Sociologie, 25:2 (1984): 185–213, and his Sources of Social Power, Vol. 2: The Rise of Classes and Nation-States, 1760–1914 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993); Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Random House, 1979); and Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital, and European States (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992). [BACK]

25. See John Torpey, "Coming and Going: On the State Monopolization of the Legitimate ‘Means of Movement, ’" Sociological Theory, 16: 3 (1998): 239–259, for a historical discussion of state efforts to "penetrate" or "embrace" society. [BACK]

26. "Once you were out of sight of the [despotic] Red Queen," Michael Mann observes, "she had difficulty in getting at you." Michael Mann, "The Autonomous Power of the State," 89. [BACK]

27. Michael Mann, "The Autonomous Power of the State," 90. [BACK]

28. Anthony Giddens, The Nation State and Violence; and Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish. [BACK]

29. For Nazi Germany, see Zygmunt Bauman, Modernity and the Holocaust (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989); for Rwanda, see Gerard Prunier, The Rwandan Crisis: History of a Genocide (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997). [BACK]

30. Anatol Lieven, Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999), 164. For similar arguments, see Donna Bahry and Brian D. Silver, "Intimidation and the Symbolic Uses of Terror in the USSR," American Political Science Review, 81: 4 (1987): 1065–1098; Valerie Bunce, Subversive Institutions: The Design and the Destruction of Socialism and the State (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997); and Moshe Lewin, The Gorbachev Phenomenon (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). [BACK]

31. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish. [BACK]

32. For the spread of international norms, see Martha Finnemore, National Interests in International Society (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996); Audie Jeanne Klotz, Norms in International Relations: The Struggle against Apartheid (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996); John W. Meyer, John Boli, George M. Thomas, and Francisco O. Ramirez, "World Society and the Nation State," American Journal of Sociology, 103:1 (1997): 144–181; and Connie McNeely, Constructing the Nation-State: International Organization and Prescriptive Action, 1945–1985 (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995). [BACK]

33. For a discussion of transnational activism, see Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998). [BACK]

34. For women's rights, see Nitza Berkovitch, From Motherhood to Citizenship: The Constitution of Women by International Organizations (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999); for immigration, see Yasemin Soysal, Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe (Chicago:

Chicago University Press, 1994); for human rights, see James Ron, "Varying Methods of State Violence," International Organization, 51:2 (1997): 275–300. [BACK]

35. See Paul Kevin Wapner, Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics (Albany: SUNY Press, 1996), for global normative environments. [BACK]

36. For the rationalist-constructivist debate in international relations, see Martha Finnemore, National Interests; Robert O. Keohane, "International Institutions: Two Approaches," International Studies Quarterly, 32 (December 1988): 379–396; Robert O. Keohane and Lisa L. Martin, "The Promise of Institutionalist Theory," International Security, 20: 1 (1995): 39–51; and Friedrich Kratochwill and John Gerard Ruggie, "International Organizations: A State of the Art on the Art of the State," International Organization, 40: 4 (1986): 753–775. [BACK]

37. For a regime-based analysis of international human rights, see Rhoda E. Howard and Jack Donnelly, "Human Dignity, Human Rights, and Political Regimes," American Political Science Review, 80: 3 (1986): 801–817; for a transnational network analysis, Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders; for human rights as a global social movement, see Jackie Smith, "Transnational Political Processes and the Human Rights Movement," Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change, 18 (1995): 185–219; and for an organizational sociology perspective, see James Ron, "Varying Methods." [BACK]

38. For details, see James Ron, "Varying Methods," 280. [BACK]

39. Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders, 11. [BACK]

40. See Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders, 117–119, for a discussion of the conditions under which states become vulnerable to international human rights pressures. For specific case studies, see Thomas Risse et al., The Power of Human Rights. [BACK]

41. Noam Chomsky, The New Military Humanism: Lessons from Kosovo (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1999), aptly notes that human rights rhetoric is often wielded as a tool of Western domination. But as William I. Robinson, Promoting Polyarchy: Globalization, US Intervention, and Hegemony (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), argues, human rights discourse can also hinder Western alliances with authoritarian client regimes. [BACK]

42. The relationship between local and international human rights workers can also be quite exploitative. These inequalities should not obscure the effects of their collective efforts, however. For a brief foray into this sensitive topic, see Lisa Hajjar, "Problems of Dependency: Human Rights Organizations in the Arab World—An Interview with Abdullahi An-Naim," Critiquing NGOs: Assessing the Last Decade: Middle East Report #214 (spring 2000). [BACK]

43. For sovereignty, see Stephen D. Krasner, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999); Hendrik Spruyt, The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994); and Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital. [BACK]

44. David Strang, "Anomaly and Commonplace." [BACK]

45. Robert Jackson and Carl Rosberg, "Why Africa's Weak States Persist." [BACK]

46. Youssef Cohen et al., "The Paradoxical Nature of State Making." [BACK]

47. Lawrence S. Eastwood Jr., "Secession: State Practice and International

Law after the Dissolution of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia," Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 3: 2 (1993): 299–349; and David Strang, "Anomaly and Commonplace." [BACK]

48. For sovereignty and human rights conditionality, see Christopher Clapham, Africa and the International System: The Politics of State Survival (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996). [BACK]

49. In Colombia, for example, government officials argue that illegal violence is often done by independent paramilitaries, rather than state security forces. See Human Rights Watch, The Ties That Bind: Colombia and Military-Paramilitary Links (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2000). [BACK]

50. See Iaac Balbus, The Dialectics of Legal Repression: Black Rebels before the American Criminal Courts (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1973). [BACK]

51. For a theoretically sophisticated application of this insight, see Michael N. Barnett, Dialogues in Arab Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998). [BACK]

52. Pierre Bourdieu, Practical Reason (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998). [BACK]

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