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Acknowledgments

I interviewed hundreds of people for this project, many of whom were courageous individuals living through difficult times. I deeply appreciate their willingness to share their views. This book would never have been written, however, without the guidance of Michael Burawoy, the most supportive and wise mentor a student could hope for. My subject demanded a focus on states rather than social class, but my work is deeply influenced by Michael's normative commitments and extended case method. I am similarly indebted to academic advisors Peter Evans and Ken Jowitt of the University of California at Berkeley. Two other mentors, John Meyer and Susan Woodward, went far beyond the call of duty, spending many hours discussing my findings and reviewing my text. Two close personal friends, Peter Andreas and Chuck Call, were supportive and challenging colleagues, and my debt to them is great. Human Rights Watch and the International Committee of the Red Cross hired me as a research consultant at various points over the last decade, and then generously allowed me to draw on those experiences for this book. I am particularly indebted to Carroll Bogert, Eric Goldstein, Ken Roth, Aziz Abu Hamad, Fred Abrahams, Rachel Denber, Jacques Stroun, and Hernan Reyes.

Research for this book was funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Social Science Research Council's Program in International Peace and Security. Writing was supported by fellowships from the Brookings Institution and Brown University's Watson


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Institute of International Studies. Columbia University's Middle East Institute provided a welcoming environment for months at a time, and Johns Hopkins and McGill universities were my home base during the final stretch.

Many organizations and individuals have helped in the field. In Palestine, I worked extensively with the human rights group al-Haq during 1992–93, as well as with journalist Walid Battrawi, a superb guide and translator. In Israel, the human rights group B'Tselem provided office space and archival access. In Serbia, the Forum for Ethnic Relations, led by Dušan Janjić and his capable assistant, Vesna Vidujević, was my generous host. Journalist Dejan Pavlović was both excellent translator and cheerful traveling companion, while Dejan Anastasijević, Filip Švarm, Nataša Kandić and Sonja Biserko were important sources of wisdom and information. Political scientists Dijana Vukamanović and Zoran Slavujević were tremendous guides to Serbian domestic politics.

Many friends and colleagues have been generous with their time, comments, and support along the way. Jelena Pejić and her family were of special help in Belgrade, while Nitza Berkovitch and Meir Shabat were of great assistance in Israel and abroad. I am similarly indebted to Craig Calhoun, Pierre Englebert, Martha Finnemore, Doug Guthrie, Lisa Hajjar, Robert Hayden, Aliza Marcus, Meghan O'sullivan, Nina Tannenwald, Kellee Tsai, Mona Younis, and Richard Wood. Comments by Roger Haydon were extremely useful during revisions, as was detailed feedback from Michael Barnett, Gay Seidman, Elisabeth Wood, and Erik Olin Wright. An intense session with Chicago University's Comparative Politics workshop was particularly useful in fall 2001, and I am grateful to workshop participants Stathis Kalyvas, Susan Stokes, Mathew Kocher, and others. Dana Bell and Jasmina Burdžović Andreas were superb editors and commentators, while Alma Vardari-Kesler and Howard Ramos helped verify some of my sources. All errors, of course, are entirely my own responsibility. I am also grateful to Naomi Schneider, Executive Editor of University of California Press, for her early and enthusiastic support for this project, as well as to production team members Sue Carter, Annie Decker, Marilyn Schwartz, Mary Severance, and Victoria Kuskowski.

My parents, Dr. Martha and Newton Frohlich, have been true pillars of support throughout the research and writing process. Most importantly, however, this book would never have been written without the love and inspiration of Emma Naughton, to whom I dedicate this book.


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