Preferred Citation: . The Oceans, Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology. New York:  Prentice-Hall,  c1942 1942.

Interrelations of Marine Organisms


Allee, W. C.1934. “Concerning the organization of marine coastal communities” . Ecological Monographs, v. 4, p. 541–554, 1934.

Allen, E. J.1909. “Mackerel and sunshine” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 8, p. 394–406, 1909.

Allen, W. E.1934. “The primary food supply of the sea” . Quart. Rev. Biol., v. 9, p. 161–180, 1934.

Bauer, E.1902. “Ueber zweid enitrificirende Bakterien aus der Ostsee” . Komm. z. Wissensch. Untersuch. der Deutschen Meere in Kiel und d. Biologischen Anstalt auf Helgoland. Wissensch. Meeresuntersuch., N. F., Abt. Kiel, Bd. VI. p. 11–21, 1902.


Bavendamm, W.1932. “Die microbiologische Kalkfällung in der tropischen See” . Archiv. f. Mikrobiol., v. 3, p. 205–276, 1932.

Benecke, W.1933. “Bacteriologie des Meeres” . In Abderhalden's Handbuch d. Biol. Arbeitsmethoden, v. 9, p. 717–854, 1933.

Bigelow, H. B.1925. “Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine” . U. S. Bur. Fisheries, Bull., v. 40 (for 1924), pt. 2, 509 pp., 1925.

Blegvad, H.1914. “Food and conditions of nourishment among the communities of invertebrate animals found on or in the sea bottom of Danish waters” . Danish Biol. Sta., Repts., v. 22, p. 41–78, 1914.

Blegvad, H.1930. “Quantitative investigation of bottom invertebrates in the Kattegat with special reference to the plaice food” . Danish Biol. Sta., Repts., v. 36, p. 3–55, 1930.

Bond, R. M.1933. “A contribution to the study of the natural food-cycle in aquatic environment” . Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., Bull., v. 4, art. 4, 89 pp., 1933.

Boynton, L. C., and R. C. Miller. 1927. “The occurrence of a cellulase in the shipworm” . Jour. Biol. Chem., v. 75, p. 613–618, 1927.

Braarud, T., and A. Klem. 1931. “Hydrographical and chemical investigations in the coastal waters off Möre and in the Romsdalsfjord” . Hvalrådets Skrifter, no. 1, 88 pp., 1931.

Bullen, G. E.1909. “Plankton studies in relation to western mackerel fishery” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 8, p. 269–302, 1909.

California, Div. Fish and Game. 1937. “California's sardine catch” . Fish Bull. no. 49, p. 11–15, 1937.

Cannon, H. G.1928. “On the feeding mechanism of the copepods, Calanus finmarchicus, and Diaptomus gracilis.” British Jour. Exper. Biol., v. 6, p. 131–144, 1928.

Carey, C. L.1938. “The occurrence and distribution of nitrifying bacteria in the sea” . Jour. Marine Research, v. 1, p. 291–304, 1938.

Carey, C. L., and S. A. Waksman. 1934. “The presence of nitrifying bacteria in deep seas” . Science, v. 79, p. 349–350, 1934.

Cooper, L. H. N.1935. “The rate of liberation of phosphate in sea water by the breakdown of plankton organisms” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 20, p. 197–200, 1935.

Cooper, L. H. N.1937. “The nitrogen cycle in the sea” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 22, p. 183–204, 1937.

Crozier, W. J.1918. “The amount of bottom material ingested by holothurians (Stichopus)” . Jour. Exper. Zool., v. 26, p. 379–389, 1918.

Drew, G. H.1914. “On the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the sea by marine bacteia and on the action of denitrifying bacteria in tropical and temperate seas” . Carnegie Inst. Washington, Pub. no. 182, p. 7–45, 1914.

Fisher, W. K., and G. E. MacGinitie. 1928. “Natural history of an echiuroid worm” . Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10, p. 204–213, 1928.

Fleming, Richard H.1939. “The control of diatom populations by grazing. Conseil Perm” . Internat. p. l'Explor. de la Mer, Jour. du Conseil, v. 14, no. 2, p. 210–227, 1939.

Fox, D. L., (ed.). 1936. “The habitat and food of the California sea mussel” . Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Bull., v. 4, p. 1–64, 1936.

Fuller, J. L.1937. “Feeding rate of Calanus finmarchicus in relation to environmental conditons” . Biol. Bull., v. 72, p. 233–246, 1937.

Fuller, J. L., and G. L. Clarke. 1936. “Further experiments on the feeding of Calanus finmarchicus” . Biol. Bull., v. 70, p. 308–320, 1936.


Galtsoff, P. S., and V. L. Loosanoff. 1939. “Natural history and method of controlling the starfish (Asterias forbesi Desor)” . U. S. Bur. Fisheries, Bull., v. 49, p. 75–132, 1939.

Gran, H. H.1901. “Studien über Meeresebakterien” . Bergens Mus. Aarbog, no. 10, p. 1–23, 1901.

Hamm, Randall E., and T. G. Thompson. 1941. “Dissolved nitrogen in the sea water of the Northeast Pacific with notes on the total carbon dioxide and the dissolved oxygen” . Jour. Marine Research, v. 4, p. 11–27, 1941.

Harder, E. C.1919. “Iron–depositing bacteria and their geologic relations” . U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper, no. 113, 89 pp., 1919.

Hardy, A. C.1936. “Plankton ecology and the hypothesis of animal exclusion” . Linn. Soc. London, Proc., 148th Session, p. 64–70, 1936.

Hardy, A. C., and E. R. Gunther. 1935. “The plankton of the South Georgia whaling grounds and adjacent waters, 1926–1927” . Discovery Repts., v. 11, p. 1–456, 1935.

Hardy, A. C., C. E. Lucas, G. T. D. Henderson, and J. H. Fraser. 1936. “The ecological relations between the herring and the plankton investigated with the plankton indicator” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 21, p. 147–291, 1936.

Hart, T. J.1935. “On the diatoms of the skin film of whales, and their possible bearing on problems of whale movements” . Discovery Repts., v. 10, p. 249–282, 1935.

Harvey, H. W.1934. “Annual variation of planktonic vegetation, 1933” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 19, p. 775–792, 1934.

Harvey, H. W., L. H. N. Cooper, M. V. Lebour, and F. S. Russell. 1935. “Plankton production and its control” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 20, p. 407–442, 1935.

Hentschel, E.1936. “Allgemeine Biologie des Südatlantischen Ozeans” . Deutsche Atlantische Exped. Meteor, 1925–1927, Wiss. Erg., Bd. 11, 343 pp., 1936.

Hesse, R., W. C. Allee, and K. P. Schmidt. 1937. Ecological animal geography. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 597 pp., 1937.

Hewatt, Willis G.1937. “Ecological studies on selected marine intertidal communities of Monterey Bay, California” . Amer. Midland Naturalist, v. 18, p. 161–206, 1937.

Hjort, Johan, and Johan T. Ruud. 1929. “Whaling and fishing in the North Atlantic” . Conseil Perm. Internat. p. l'Explor. de la Mer, Rapp. et Proc.-Verb., v. 56, no. 1, 123 pp., 1929.

Jensen, P. B.1914. “Studies concerning the organic matter of the sea bottom” . Danish Biol. Sta., Repts., v. 22, p. 1–39, 1914.

Jordan, E. O.1931. Textbook of general bacteriology. Philadelphia and London, W. B. Saunders, 819 pp., 1931.

Krogh, August. 1934a. “Physiology of the blue whale” . Nature, v. 133, p. 635–637, 1934.

Krogh, August. 1934b. “Conditions of life at great depths in the ocean” . Ecological Monographs, v. 4, p. 430–439, 1934.

Lebour, Marie V.1924a. “The food of young herring” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 13, p. 325–330, 1924.

Lebour, Marie V.1924b. “The Euphausiidae in the neighborhood of Plymouth” . II. Nyctiphanes couchii and Meganyctiphanes norvegica. Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 13, p. 810–847, 1924.

Lipman, Charles B.1929. “Further study on marine bacteria with reference to the Drew hypothesis on CaCO3 precipitation in the sea” . Carnegie Inst.

Washington Pub. 391, Papers from Tortugas Laboratory, v. 26, p. 231–248, 1929.

Lloyd, Blodwen. 1930. “Bacteria of the Clyde Sea area: a quantitative investigation” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 16, p. 879–907, 1930.

Lohmann, H.1908. “Untersuchungen zur Feststellung des vollständigen Gehaltes des Meeres an Plankton” . Komm. z. Wissensch. Untersuch. d. Deutschen Meere in Kiel und d. Biologischen Anstalt auf Helgoland. Wissensch. Meeresuntersuch., N.F., Abt. Kiel, Bd. 10, p. 131–370, 1908.

Lucas, C. E.1936. “On certain interrelations between phytoplankton and zooplankton under experimental conditions” . Conseil Perm. Internat. p. l'Explor. de la Mer, Jour. du Conseil, v. 11, p. 343–362, 1936.

MacGinitie, G. E.1939. “The methods of feeding of tunicates” . Biol. Bull, v. 77, p. 443–447, 1939.

Mackintosh, N. A.1934. “Distribution of the macroplankton in the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic” . Discovery Repts., v. 9, p. 65–160, 1934.

Marshall, S. M., A. G. Nicholls, and A. P. Orr. 1934. “On the biology of Calanus finmarchicus. V. Seasonal distribution, size, weight and chemical composition in Loch Striven in 1933 and their relation to phytoplankton” . Marine Biol. Assn. U. K., Jour., v. 19, p. 793–828, 1934.

Nielsen, S. E.1937. “On the relation between the quantities of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the sea” . Conseil Perm. Internat. p. l'Explor. de la Mer. Jour. du Conseil, v. 12, p. 147–154, 1937.

Nikitin, W. N.1931. “Die untere Planktongrenze und deren Verteilung im Schwarzen Meer” . Internat. Rev. d. ges. Hydrobiol. u. Hydrogr., Bd. 25, p. 102–130, 1931.

Orton, J. H.1937. Oyster biology and oyster culture. London, Edward Arnold & Co., 211 pp., 1937.

Parr, A. E.1934. “Report on experimental use of a triangular trawl for bathypelagic collecting. With an account of the fishes obtained and a revision of the family Cetomimidae” . Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., Bull., v. 4, art. 6, 59 pp., 1934.

Pearse, A. S.1939. Animal ecology. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 642 pp., 1939.

Petersen, C. G. J.1913. “Valuation of the sea. II. The animal communities of the sea bottom and their importance for marine zoogeography” . Danish Biol. Sta., Repts., v. 21, p. 1–44, 1913.

Petersen, C. G. J.1918. “The sea bottom and its production of fish food” . Danish Biol. Sta., Repts., v. 25, 62 pp., 1918.

Pütter, A.1907. “Der Stoffhaushalt des Meeres” . Zeitschr. f. allg. Physiol., v. 7, p. 321–368, 1907.

Redfield, A. C., and A. B. Keys. 1938. “The distribution of ammonia in waters of the Gulf of Maine” . Biol. Bull., v. 74, p. 83–92, 1938.

Renn, C. E.1937. “Bacteria and the phosphorus cycle in the sea” . Biol. Bull., v. 72, p. 190–195, 1937.

Ricketts, E. F., and J. Calvin. 1939. Between Pacific tides. Stanford Univ. Press, 320 pp., 1939.

Rittenberg, Sydney C.1940. “Bacteriological analysis of some long cores of marine sediments” . Jour. Marine Research, v. 3, p. 191–201, 1940.

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Scofield, W. L.See: California, Div. Fish and Game.

Seiwell, H. R., and G. E. Seiwell. 1938. “The sinking of decomposing plankton in sea water and its relationship to oxygen consumption and phosphorus liberation” . Amer. Philos. Soc., Proc., v. 78, p. 465–481, 1938.


Shelford, V. E., A. O. Weese, et al.1935. Some marine biotic communities of the Pacific coast of North America. Ecological Monographs, v. 5, p. 251–354, 1935.

Stephenson, M.1939. Bacterial metabolism. New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 2nd ed., 391 pp., 1939.

Tressler, Donald K.1923. Marine products of commerce. New York, Chemical Catalog Co., 762 pp., 1923.

Vaughan, T. Wayland. 1930. The oceanographic point of view. p. 40–56 in Contributions to marine biology. Stanford Univ. Press, 277 pp., 1930.

Waksman, S. A.1934. “The role of bacteria in the cycle of life in the sea” . Scientific Monthly, v. 38, p. 35–49, 1934.

Waksman, S. A., M. Hotchkiss, C. Carey, and Y. Hardman. 1938. “Decomposition of nitrogenous substances in sea water by bacteria” . Jour. Bact., v. 35, p. 477–486, 1938.

Wilson, C. B.1932. “Copepods of the Woods Hole region, Massachusetts” . U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 158, 623 pp., 1932.

Yonge, C. M.1928. “Feeding mechanisms in the invertebrates” . Biol. Reviews. v. 3, p. 21–76, 1928.

Yonge, C. M.1931. “Digestive processes in marine invertebrates and fishes” . Conseil Perm. Internat. p. l'Explor. de la Mer, Jour. du Conseil, v. 6, p. 175–212, 1931.

Yonge, C. M.1936. “Mode of life, feeding, digestion, and symbiosis with Zooxanthellae in the Tridacnidae” . Great Barrier Reef Exped. 1928–29, Repts., v. 1, p. 283–321, 1936.

Yonge, C. M.1940. “Observations on the biology of coral reefs” . Sixth Pacific Sci. Congr., California, 1939, Proc., v. 3, p. 605–613, 1940.

ZoBell, Claude E.1935. “The assimilation of ammonium nitrogen by Nitzschia closterium and other marine phytoplankton” . Nat. Acad. Sci., Proc., v. 21, p. 517–522, 1935.

ZoBell, Claude E.1938. “Studies on the bacterial flora of marine bottom sediments” . Jour. Sedimentary Petrol., v. 8, p. 10–18, 1938.

ZoBell, Claude E., and D. Q. Anderson. 1936a. “Observations on the multiplication of bacteria in different volumes of stored sea water and the influence of oxygen tension and solid surfaces” . Biol. Bull., v. 71, p. 324–342, 1936.

ZoBell, Claude E., and D. Q. Anderson. 1936b. “Vertical distribution of bacteria in marine sediments” . Amer. Assn. Petrol. Geol., Bull., v. 20, p. 258–269, 1936.

Interrelations of Marine Organisms

Preferred Citation: . The Oceans, Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology. New York:  Prentice-Hall,  c1942 1942.