The Way the World is


 collapse section1  Ethnographic and Theoretical Introduction
 The Ethnographic Focus
 Incomplete Sharing and Cultural "Explanations"
 "Molecular" Processes and the Enduring Myth of Complete Sharing
 Culture and "Culture"
 "Status": Culture's Action Arm
 Culture and Its Distribution
 collapse sectionStatus: The Action Arm of Culture
 Salience Understandings
 Specific and General Expectations
 collapse sectionGeneral Expectations, Cultural Sharing, and the Effectiveness of Statuses
 "Tokens" and "Guides"
 "Cultural Models" and General Expectations
 Identifiers, General Expectations, and More on Models
 "Shame" and Its Agents
 "Role" as a Part of Status
 General Expectations and the Effects of Unshared Culture
 Cultural Distribution and Social Structure
 The Organization of Culture by Statuses
 collapse section2  Akher Zamani  Mombasa Swahili History and Contemporary Society
 The Swahili in Contemporary Mombasa
 Contemporary Old Town and Mombasa
 collapse sectionOld Mombasa
 Beginning: 1000–1500
 The Coming of the Two-Section Community: 1500–1836
 The Busaidi and the British: 1837–1964
 collapse section3  The Brotherhood of Coconuts  Unity, Conflict, and Narrowing Loyalties
 Asserting Arab Ethnicity and Its Effect on the Community
 collapse sectionNew Community Divisions
 "Natives" and "Nonnatives"
 Section Competitions
 Unity Through Competition and Its End
 National Politics and Its Indirect, Profound Influence
 Current State of the Community and the Section System
 "Ethnic" Status and the Destruction of the Two-Section System
 Marriage and Community in Contemporary Mombasa
 "Clans" and Other Designations Wrongly or Rarely Used
 Outside Contacts and Community Importance
 Diminished Prosperity
 Less Expensive Life-Crises Rituals
 collapse section4  He Who Eats with You  Kinship, Family, and Neighborhood
 Kin, Household, and Nuclear Family
 collapse sectionSwahili Kinship
 Parents and Children
 Mother's Siblings and Father's Siblings
 Siblings and Cousins
 Matrilateral Association and Affection
 Generational Kin Term Uses
 Kin and Expectations
 The Importance of General Expectations
 collapse sectionMutual Choice in Forming a Social "Pool"
 Relations with Non-Swahili Neighbors
 "One Character,"  "Accustomedness," and "Love":  The Emotional States Understood as Usual in Close Relationships
 Inclusive Neighborhoods: Old Town Sections
 Residence Choice and Household Location
 collapse section"Adoption"
 The Lives of Adopted Children and of "Natural" Children
 collapse sectionMarriage for Women, Jobs for Men
 Arranged First Marriages
 Selecting the Families of Those Who are to Marry
 Rejecting or Not Extending Proposals
 The Basis for Successful Marriages
 Bride Wealth
 collapse sectionNuclear Family Life
 Family Activity
 The Division of Activity by Gender in the Family and Generally
 The Central Place of the Nuclear Family
 collapse section5  Understanding is Like Hair  Limited Cultural Sharing and the Inappropriateness of "All by All" and "Some by Some" Models for Swahili Culture
 Measuring Cultural Sharing
 The Limits in the Amount of Family Culture Shared by Family Members and Community Members from Different Families
 Are the Swahili a "Homogeneous Society"?
 Extent of Sharing within the Family Versus Extent of Total Group Sharing
 Less Sharing Among Members of the Same Named Statuses than Among Fellow Family Members with Different Family Statuses
 "Family Member" as a Status
 Status Membership and the Sharing of Status Culture
 Relationships: Do Participants Share Their Culture More?
 Neither "All by All" Nor, without Modification, "Some by Some"
 Dealing with the Fact of Diversity
 collapse section6  Close One of Your Eyes  Concealing Differences Between the Generations and the Uses of "Tokens"
 Differences Between Younger and Older Men and Women
 collapse sectionDifferences Between Age Groupings, Uniformity within Them
 Attempting to Measure Generation Gap Differences
 The Survey Study of Generational Differences in Sharing Understandings Concerning the Generation Gap
 Apparent Differences Between Culture and Behavior
 "Phatic Communion," Interpersonal Relations, and Questionnaires
 "Tokens" and "Guides"
 Sharing, Nonsharing, and Social Life: Predictability
 collapse section7  Liking Only Those in Your Eye  Relationship Terms, Statuses, and Cultural Models
 Status, Culture's Action Arm
 Role, a Subunit of Status
 Cultural Models, Language, and Statuses
 collapse sectionFour Kinds of Statuses
 Simplex and Multiplex Relationships and the Statuses Involved
 Two Functions of Statuses
 Statuses, Expectations, and Evaluations
 Who is a What?
 Expectations and Double Contingency
 collapse section"Relationship Terms" and Shared Understandings
 Investigating Terms Concerning Expectations and Relationships
 Honor and Deference: How Terms Encourage Conformity
 Unfavorable Terms and Understandings Mainly about the Young
 Expectations in Specific Relationships
 Effects of Relationship Terms through Contrast
 collapse sectionThe Virtues of Reserving Special Treatment for Those in Special Relationships
 Liking Only Those in Your Eye
 Being Accustomed
 Broad Personal Traits, Broad Expectations, and Hierarchy
 Respect and Reciprocity
 Hierarchy as a General Understanding Supported by the Use of a Variety of Terms
 Terms and Conformity
 collapse sectionSome General Understandings of the World and Relationships
 Characterizations of Conflict Bringers
 Insults, Conflict, and Secrecy/Privacy
 Insults, Honor, and Expectations
 The Part of Relationship Terms in Cultural Dynamics: Cultural Models
 collapse section8  Tongues are Spears  Shame and Differentiated Conformity
 collapse sectionShame, Status, and Limited Sharing
 Double Status Relativity and, Also, Uniform Judgment
 The Power of "Aibu"
 Secrecy and Shame
 Recognizing Aibu: Different Ideals and Different Agents
 Some Universal Bases for Aibu
 Aibu without Personal Belief in Having Erred
 Aibu and Significant Others: Arbiters and Sanctioners
 The Distribution of Culture
 Statuses as the Basis for Judgment
 Status Differences and Privacy
 Self-Reinforcing "Fear"
 Aibu as a Social and Psychological Process
 collapse sectionCultural Change, Shame, and Cultural Distribution
 Arbiters and Cultural Change
 collapse sectionShame, Behavior, and the Distribution of Culture
 Balancing Shame and Contrary Forces: A Little Case
 Shame as a Support for Cultural Diversity
 collapse section9  Leaning on the Cow's Fat Hump  Medical Choices, Unshared Culture, and General Expectations
 Cultural Organization
 Limited Sharing of Vital Understandings and Organization
 A Cultural Pattern: An Intrinsic Organization
 collapse sectionExpert Understanding of Body Functioning and Illness
 Body Functioning and the Bodily Elements
 The Classification of Food and Drink in the Balance System
 collapse sectionExpert Understandings of the Causes of Illness
 Diagnosis and Treatment
 Morality, Illness, and Organization
 Balance as a Desideratum in Social Relations
 Balance in Understandings about the Body and about Social Relations
 Patterns, Nonsharing, and Cultural Organization
 Laymen's Understandings about Illness and Body Functioning
 Cultural Organization and Guidance: Choice without Understandings
 Illness and Treatment
 Medical Care and Advisers
 Advice in Multiplex Relations with General Expectations
 Advisers' Understandings and Experience
 Social Relationships and Plans of Action: Cultural But Extrinsically Organized
 collapse sectionGeneral Expectations and Cultural Organizations: It isn't What You Know
 Why Advice is Followed
 Illness, Nonsharing and "Patterns"
 Conclusion and Summary
 collapse section10  A Wife is Clothes  Family Politics, Cultural Organization, and Social Structure
 collapse sectionPower in Marriage
 Women's Social Relations and Prestige
 Gender Statuses and Salience Understandings
 Gender Statuses and Differences Between Them
 Comparing Men's and Women's Social Relations
 Wedding Ceremonies and the Gender Statuses
 Relations with Close Kin: Warmth for Women, Restrictions for Men
 The Spouse Relationship: Feelings and Funds
 Divorce, Death, and Gender Differences in the Significance of Marriage
 Husbands, Wives, Love, and Marriage
 The Real Power of the Husband/Father
 The Husband/Father's Real Need for Warmth and Emotional Support
 Women's Happiness and Wives' Power
 Understandings about Women, Social Structure, and Wives' Power
 Social Structure's Strictures: More on Unshared Culture
 collapse section11  The Dynamics of Swahili Culture  A Status-Centered View
 Invoking "Shared Beliefs and Values"—and Why Not
 How Cultural Elements Affect Those Who Do Not Share Them: Statuses, Cultural Distribution, and Prediction
 Statuses: Bringing Culture to Bear on Everyday Concerns for Sharers and Nonsharers Alike
 Evaluation as the Foundation of Social Life, Status as the Foundation of Evaluation
 How Unshared Evaluative Understandings Serve to Affect Behavior
 Statuses as a Source of Morality When Understandings Differ
 Broader Consequences of Social Relationships
 "Delivery Systems" and Cultural Guidance for Life's Problems
 Limited Sharing within Statuses and the Sources of Statuses' Effectiveness: The Issues
 Conformity and Status Effectiveness: Universal Sharing and the Role of Tokens
 When Tokens are Not Guides But Have Manifest Results
 Divergent Understandings and Double Contingency
 The Necessity for "Common Standards" and the Question of Sharing
 Universal Sharing and the Importance of Relationships: "I Know You!"
 Relationship Terms and Cultural Models
 The Importance of Positive Assessments: A Universal Lesson and Ubiquitous Source of Cultural Conformity
 Cultural Conformity: Bases for Shame and Guilt
 Conformity to Communitywide and Status-Specific Understandings
 Statuses and Cultural Conformity
 Judging and Sharing: Conformity Independent of Consensus
 Limiting Cultural Diversity with Cultural Models
 Multiplex Relationships, Conformity, and General Expectations
 General Expectations, Cultural Sharing, and the Scope of Multiplex Relationships
 collapse sectionSharing Identifying Understandings
 Importation in Swahili Medical Treatment: It isn't What You Know
 Cultural Organization and General Expectations
 collapse section"Patterns" or Common Element Organizations
 A "Pattern" and How It Can Be Effective Given Limited Sharing
 Transmission by Simplex Relationships and Its Limits
 Social Structure as an Independent Influence on Behavior
 The Social Structural Importance of Multiplex Relationships and Their General Expectations
 Social Structure as an Independent Influence on Behavior
 Culture and "Cultural Products"
 Wives' Power De Nihilo: Social Structure's Effects Independent from Culture
 Social Structure's Effect: Blocking and Channeling
 Hakuna Refu Lisilo Ncha : Nothing is So Long that it has No End

 collapse sectionNotes
 1 Ethnographic and Theoretical Introduction
 2 Akher Zamani Mombasa Swahili History and Contemporary Society
 3 The Brotherhood of Coconuts Unity, Conflict, and Narrowing Loyalties
 4 He Who Eats with You Kinship, Family, and Neighborhood
 5 Understanding is Like Hair Limited Cultural Sharing and the Inappropriateness of "All by All" and "Some by Some" Models for Swahili Culture
 6 Close One of Your Eyes Concealing Differences Between the Generations and the Uses of "Tokens"
 7 Liking Only Those in Your Eye Relationship Terms, Statuses, and Cultural Models
 8 Tongues are Spears Shame and Differentiated Conformity
 9 Leaning on the Cow's Fat Hump Medical Choices, Unshared Culture, and General Expectations
 10 A Wife is Clothes Family Politics, Cultural Organization, and Social Structure
 11 The Dynamics of Swahili Culture A Status-Centered View
 collapse sectionIndex

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