Preferred Citation: Todd, Ellen Wiley. The "New Woman" Revised: Painting and Gender Politics on Fourteenth Street. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1993 1993.



Books and Articles

Abbott, Harriet. "What the Newest New Woman Is." Ladies Home Journal , August 1920, 154.

Adams, Henry. Thomas Hart Benton: An American Original . New York: Knopf, 1989.

Adams, Mildred. "Now the Siren Eclipses the Flapper." New York Times , July 28, 1929, sec. 5, pp. 4-5.

Albright, Thomas. "Street Artist of the Depression" (Reginald Marsh). San Francisco Chronicle , November 27, 1983, 14-15.

Alcoff, Linda. "Cultural Feminism vs. Post-Structuralism: The Identity Crisis in Feminist Theory." Signs 13, no. 3 (Spring 1988): 399-436.

Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the Nineteen-Twenties , First Perennial Library edition. New York: Harper and Row, 1931; reprint, 1964.

Alloway, Lawrence. "Isabel Bishop, the Grand Manner, and the Working Girl." Art in America 63 (September 1975): 61-65.

"American Painting Bought by the Metropolitan" (Isabel Bishop's Two Girls ). New York Herald-Tribune , February 20, 1936, p. 15.

Andrews, Benjamin R. Economics of the Household, Its Administration and Finance . New York: Macmillan, 1927.

———. "The Home Woman as Buyer and Controller of Consumption." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science: Women in the Modern World 143 (May 1929): 41-48.

Andrist, Ralph K., ed. The American Heritage History of the 1920s and 1930s . New York: American Heritage, n.d.

"Around the Galleries" (Raphael Soyer). Art News 30 (February 27, 1932): 10.

"Art, U.S. Scene." Time (December 24, 1934): 24-27.

Ashton, Dore. The New York School: A Cultural Reckoning. New York: Penguin Books, 1972.

Austin, Kay. What Do You Want for $1.98? A Guide to Intelligent Shopping . New York: Carrick and Evans, 1938.

Baigell, Matthew. The American Scene: American Painting of the 1930s . New York: Praeger, 1974.


Baigell, Matthew, and Julia Williams. Introduction to Artists Against War and Fascism: Papers of the First American Artists' Congress . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1986.

Baldwin, William. The Shopping Book . New York: Macmillan, 1929.

Banner, Lois W. American Beauty . Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

———. Women in Modern America: A Brief History . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974.

Banning, Margaret Culkin. Letters to Susan . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1936.

Banta, Martha. Imaging American Women: Ideas and Ideals in Cultural History . New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

Barbour, Marion H. "The Business Girl Looks at Her Job." Woman's Press 30 (January 1936): 18-19.

Barker, Virgil. "The Search for Americanism." American Magazine of Art 27 (February 1934): 51-52.

Barnard, Eunice Fuller. "Girl Graduate, 1936." Independent Woman 15 (July 1936): 203, 222.

Barthes, Roland. "From Work to Text." In Image-Music-Text , edited and translated by Stephen Heath, 155-164. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977.

Baur, John I. H. Revolution and Tradition in Modern American Art . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1951.

Beals, Clyde, Pearl Wiesen, Albion A. Hartwell, and Theresa Wolfson. "Should White Collar Workers Organize?" Independent Woman 15 (November 1936): 340-342.

Beckman, Frank. "I Remember When ..." New Yorker News (Spring 1964): 24.

Beers, Richard. "As They Are at Thirty-Four" (Raphael Soyer). Art News 32. (January 13, 1934): 13.

Belsey, Catherine. "Constructing the Subject: Deconstructing the Text." In Feminist Criticism and Social Change: Sex, Class, and Race in Literature and Culture , edited by Judith Newton and Deborah Rosenfelt, 45-64. New York: Methuen, 1985.

Benson, Susan Porter. "The Cinderella of Occupations: Managing the Work of Department Store Saleswomen, 1900-1940." Business History Review 55 (Spring 1981): 1-25.

———. "'The Clerking Sisterhood:' Rationalization and the Work Culture of Saleswomen in American Department Stores, 1890-1960." Radical America 12 (March-April 1978): 41-55.

———. Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890-1940 . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986.

Berger, John. Ways of Seeing . London and New York: Penguin Books, 1972.

Bergman, Andrew. We're in the Money: Depression America and Its Films . New


York: New York University Press, 1971.

Betterton, Rosemary. "How Do Women Look? The Female Nude in the Work of Suzanne Valadon." In Looking On: Images of Femininity in the Visual Arts and Media , edited by Rosemary Betterton, 217-234. London and New York: Pandora Press, 1987.

Bishop, Isabel. "Concerning Edges." Magazine of Art 32 (January 1939): 53-58.

Blankenhorn, Mary Dewhurst. "Behind the Counter." Outlook 144 (December 22, 1926): 531-532.

Blossom, Frederick A. "Reginald Marsh as a Painter." Creative Art 12 (April 1933): 256-265.

Blumer, Herbert. Movies and Conduct . New York: Macmillan, 1933.

Bolin, Winifred D. Wandersee. "American Women in the Twentieth-Century Work Force: The Depression Experience." In Woman's Being, Woman's Place: Female Identity and Vocation in American History , edited by Mary Kelley, 296-312. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979.

Brettell, Richard R., and Suzanne Folds McCullagh. Degas in the Art Institute of Chicago . New York: Abrams, 1984.

Breuning, Margaret. "Art in New York" (Raphael Soyer). Parnassus 10 (March 1938): 20.

———. "Little Touched by a Changing World" (Kenneth Hayes Miller). Art Digest 28 (October 1, 1953): 19, 31.

Brindze, Ruth. How to Spend Money: Everybody's Practical Guide to Buying . New York: Vanguard Press, 1935.

Bromley, Dorothy Dunbar. "Feminist—New Style." Harper's Monthly Magazine 155 (October 1927): 552-560.

"Brook and Soyer Enter the Metropolitan." Art Digest 7 (September 1, 1933): 7.

Brophy, Loire. If Women Must Work . New York: Appleton-Century, 1936.

Brown, Milton W. American Painting from the Armory Show to the Depression . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955; reprint, 1972.

Brown, Paul. "Shopgirls: 1930 Model." Commonweal 12 (October 8, 1930): 576-578.

Buchalter, Helen. "Carnegie International, 1939." Magazine of Art 32 (November 1939): 630.

Buhle, Mari Jo. Women and the American Left: A Guide to Sources . Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983.

Burgin, Victor. Between . Oxford: Basil Blackwell in association with the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 1986.

Burroughs, Alan. "Kenneth Hayes Miller." The Arts 14 (December 1928): 301-306.

———. Kenneth Hayes Miller . American Artists Series. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1931.

———. "Young America—Reginald Marsh." The Arts 3 (February 1923): 138.


Cades, Hazel Rawson. Jobs for Girls . New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1928.

Caffin, Charles. The Story of American Painting . New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1907.

Calvin, Alice. "The Shop Girl." Outlook 88 (February 15, 1908): 383-384.

Campbell, Helen Stuart. "Among the Shop-Girls." In Victorian Women: A Documentary Account of Women's Lives in Nineteenth-Century England, France, and the United States , edited by Erna Olaf Hellerstein, Leslie Parker Hume, and Karen M. Often, p. 374. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1981.

Carey, Henry R. "This Two-Headed Monster—the Family." Harper's Monthly Magazine 156 (January 1928): 162-171.

Chafe, William H. The American Woman: Her Changing Social, Economic, and Political Roles, 1920-1970 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1972 .

"Charlotte Gilman's Reply to Ellen Key." Current Opinion 54 (March 1913): 220-221.

Chase, Stuart, and J. F. Schlink. Your Money's Worth: A Study in the Waste of the Consumer's Dollar . New York: Macmillan, 1927.

Clayson, Hollis. "Avant-Garde and Pompier Images of Nineteenth-Century French Prostitution: The Matter of Modernism, Modernity, and Social Ideology." In Modernism and Modernity , Vancouver Conference Papers, edited by Benjamin H. D. Buchloh, et al., 43-64. Halifax: Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 1983.

Coates, Robert. "Latter Day Impressionist" (Raphael Soyer). New Yorker , March 13, 1948, pp. 61-62.

Cohen, Marilyn. Reginald Marsh's New York: Paintings, Drawings, Prints, and Photographs . New York: Whitney Museum of American Art in association with Dover, 1983.

Coles, Jessie Vee. The Consumer-Buyer and the Market . New York: Wiley, 1938.

"Colorado Springs Buys" (Bishop's Head ). Art Digest 16 (March 15, 1942): 15.

"The Conflict between 'Human' and 'Female' Feminism." Current Opinion 56 (April 1914): 291-292.

"Congress Seceders." Art Digest 14 (June 1, 1940): 18.

Connoly, Louise. "The New Woman." Harper's Weekly 57 (June 7, 1913): 6.

Contemporary American Painting and Sculpture . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1963.

Cott, Nancy. The Grounding of Modern Feminism . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.

Cowley, Malcolm. Exile's Return . New York: Viking Press, 1951.

Coyle, Grace L. "Women in the Clerical Occupations." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science: Women in the Modern World 143 (May 1929): 180-187.

Cranston, Mary Rankin. "The Girl behind the Counter." World Today 10 (March 1906): 270-274.


Craven, Thomas. "A Paean for Marsh." Art Digest 11 (December 1, 1936): 10.

"Critics Lose Some Enthusiasm for Miller." Art Digest 9 (February 15, 1935): 8.

"Critics Unanimously Condemn Modern Museum's Mural Show." Art Digest 6 (May 15, 1932): 7.

Davies, Margery. Woman's Place Is at the Typewriter: Office Work and Office Workers, 1870-1930 . Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982.

———. "Woman's Place Is at the Typewriter: The Feminization of the Clerical Labor Force." Radical America 8 (July-August 1974): 1-28.

Davis, M. D. "Nineteen-Twenty: An Editorial." Ladies Home Journal , January 1, 1920, p. 3.

Davis, Stuart. "The New York American Scene in Art." Art Front 1 (February 1935): 6.

Dayton, Dorothy. "Personality Plus—or Minus." Independent Woman 15 (November 1936): 343, 362.

Dehn, Adolph. "My Friend, Reggie." Demcourier 13 (June 1943): 11.

de Lauretis, Teresa. Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.

———. Technologies of Gender: Essays on Theory, Film, and Fiction . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

D'Emilio, John, and Estelle B. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America . New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Dijkstra, Bram. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin-de-Siècle Culture . New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Donovan, Frances. The Saleslady . Introduction by David Park. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1974.

Doss, Erica L. "Images of American Women in the 1930s: Reginald Marsh and Paramount Picture." Woman's Art Journal 4 (Fall 1983-Winter 1984): 1-4.

Downey, Fairfax. Portrait of an Era As Drawn by C. D. Gibson . New York: Scribner, 1936.

Dubuc, Frances Fisher. "Women Wanted by Department Stores." Saturday Evening Post , June 23, 1928, 130-134.

Duncan, Carol. "Virility and Domination in Early Twentieth-Century Vanguard Painting." In Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany , edited by Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard, 293-314. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.

Editor's statement. "The New Woman." Current History 27 (October 1927): 1.

Eglington, Laurie. "Exhibitions in New York" (Raphael Soyer). Art News 33 (February 23, 1935): 10.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment . Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1984.

Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Deirdre English. For Her Own Good: One Hundred Fifty Years of the Experts' Advice to Women . Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, 1978.


"Ellen Key's Attack on 'Amaternal' Feminism." Current Opinion 54 (February 1913): 138-139.

"Ellen Key's Revaluation of Woman's Chastity." Current Literature 52 (February 1912): 200-201.

"Ellen Key's Startling Views on Love and Marriage." Current Literature 50 (April 1911): 403-405.

Elzea, Rowland, and Elizabeth Hawkes. John Sloan, Spectator of Life . Wilmington: Delaware Art Museum, 1988.

Engle, William. "Portrait of Two Girls Bought by Metropolitan Reunites Two Ex-Waitresses Who Posed for It." New York World-Telegram , February 27, 1936, P. 3.

Ewen, Elizabeth. Immigrant Women in the Land of Dollars . New York: Monthly Review Press, 1985.

Ewen, Stuart. Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

Ewen, Stuart, and Elizabeth Ewen. Channels of Desire: Mass Images and the Shaping of American Consciousness . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.

Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1951.

"Exhibitions in New York" (Raphael Soyer). Art News 31 (February 18, 1933): 5.

Fahlman, Betsy. Guy Pène du Bois, Artist about Town . Washington, D.C.: Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1980.

Fairbrother, Trevor J. The Bostonians: Painters of an Elegant Age, 1870-1930 . Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1986.

Ferry, John William. A History of the Department Store . New York: Macmillan, 1960.

Filene, Peter. Him/Herself: Sex Roles in Modern America . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.

Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980.

Ford, Donna. "Other Women's Lives." Worcester Telegram , May 20, 1941, n.p.

Foster, Lawrence. Religion and Sexuality: Three American Communal Experiments of the Nineteenth Century . New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Fox, Richard Wightman. "Epitaph for Middletown." In The Culture of Consumption , edited by Richard Wightman Fox and T. J. Jackson Lears, 103-141. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983.

Frank, Lawrence K. "Childhood and Youth." In Recent Social Trends in the United States: Report of the President's Research Committee on Social Trends , 751-800. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934.

———. "Social Change and the Family." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 160 (March 1932): 94-102.

Freedman, Estelle B. "The New Woman: Changing Views of Women in the 1920s."


Journal of American History 61 (September 1974): 372-393.

Garver, Thomas H. Reginald Marsh: A Retrospective Exhibition . Newport Beach, Ca.: Newport Harbor Art Museum, 1972.

Genauer, Emily. "Miss Bishop Rates High as Painter." New York World-Telegram , February 15, 1936, p. 15.

Genn, Lillian G. "The Bachelor Girl: Is She a Menace?" Independent Woman 7 (December 1928): 538, 563-564.

Gettings, Frank. Raphael Soyer: Sixty-five Years of Printmaking . Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, for the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1982.

Gilfillan, Lauren. "Weary Feet." Forum and Century 90 (October 1933): 201-208.

Goodrich, Lloyd. "The Arts Magazine: 1920-1931." American Art Journal 5 (May 1973): 79-85.

———. "Exhibitions in New York." The Arts 15 (May 1929): 322-342.

———. "In the New York Galleries" (Raphael Soyer). The Arts 15 (May 1929): 334.

———. Kenneth Hayes Miller . New York: Arts Publishing Corporation, 1930.

———. Raphael Soyer . New York: Abrams, 1972.

———. Reginald Marsh . New York: Abrams, 1972.

Gordon, Linda. Woman's Body, Woman's Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America . New York: Penguin Books, 1977. Reprint, 1986.

Graham, Julie. "American Women Artists' Groups: 1867-1930." Woman's Art Journal 1 (Spring-Summer 1980): 7-12.

Grant, Madison, The Passing of the Great Race . New York: Scribner, 1916. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1970.

Gutman, Walter K. "Kenneth Hayes Miller." Art in America 18 (February 1930): 86-92.

———. "Raphael Soyer." Creative Art 6 (April 1930): 258-260.

Gutman, Walter K., Jerome Klein, and Raphael Soyer. Raphael Soyer: Paintings and Drawings . New York: Shorewood, 1961.

Haas, Kenneth Brooks. Adventures in Buysmanship . Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edwards Brothers, 1937.

Hale, Nathan G., Jr. Freud and the Americans . New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Halper, Albert. "Behind the Scenes of Union Square." Wings 7 (March 1933): 5-8.

———. Union Square . New York: Viking Press, 1933.

Hapgood, Norman. "What Women Are After." Harper's Weekly 58 (August 16, 1913): 28-29.

Hargreaves, Mary. "Darkness before the Dawn: The Status of Working Women in the Depression Years." In Clio Was a Woman , edited by Mabel E. Deutrich and


Virginia Purdy, 178-189. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1980.

Harrison, Helen A. "John Reed Club Artists and the New Deal: Radical Responses to Roosevelt's 'Peaceful Revolution.' "Prospects 5 (1980): 241-268.

Hart, John. Albert Halper . Boston: Twayne, 1980.

Hawkes, Elizabeth H. American Painting and Sculpture . Wilmington: Delaware Art Museum, 1975.

Haywood, Robert. "George Bellows's Stag at Sbarkey's : Boxing, Violence, and Male Identity." Smitbsonian Studies in American Art 2 (Spring 1988): 3-15.

Higashi, Sumiko. "Cinderella vs. Statistics: The Silent Movie Heroine as Jazz-Age Working Girl." In Woman's Being, Woman's Place: Female Identity and Vocation in American History , edited by Mary Kelley, 209-126. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979.

Hills, Patricia. "John Sloan's Images of Working-Class Women: A Case Study of the Roles and Interrelationships of Politics, Personality, and Patrons in the Development of Sloan's Art, 1905-1916." Prospects 5 (1980): 157-196.

———. Social Concern and Urban Realism: American Painting of the 1930 s. With an essay by Raphael Soyer. Boston: Boston University Art Gallery, 1983.

Hills, Patricia, and Roberta K. Tarbell. The Figurative Tradition and the Whitney Museum of American Art: Paintings and Sculpture from the Permanent Collection . Foreword by Tom Armstrong. New York and Newark, Del.: Whitney Museum of American Art in association with the University of Delaware Press, 1980.

Hogner, Nils, and Guy Scott. Cartoon Guide of New York City . New York: Augustin, 1938.

Hopkins, Mary Alden. "The Girls behind the Counter." Collier's , March 16, 1912, 16-17, 30.

———. "Women March." Collier's , May 18, 1912, 13, 31.

Hoppin, Martha J. Marie Danfortb Page: Back Bay Portraitist . Springfield, Mass.: George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum, 1979.

Howells, William Dean. Criticism and Fiction . 1891. Reprint. New York: Hill and Wang, 1967.

Hutchins, Grace. Women Who Work . New York: International Publishers, 1934.

International Commercial Service. Gazette des Dames . Album of Fashion with Shopping Guide. London and New York, 1921.

"Isabel Bishop." Current Biography Yearbook . New York: Wilson, 1977.

"Isabel Bishop Finds the Critics Receptive." Art Digest 13 (February 1, 1939): 21.

"Isabel Bishop Shows Her New York Types." Art Digest 10 (February 15, 1936): 19.

"Is Feminism Really So Dreadful? Listen to Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Delineator (August 1914): 6.

Jamison, Jack. "Hollywood's Lost Children." Modern Screen , September 1934, 62-63.


Jones, Alfred Haworth. "The Search for a Usable American Past in the New Deal Era." American Quarterly 23 (December 1981): 710-724.

Kahr, Madlyn Millner. "Danaë: Virtuous, Voluptuous, Venal Woman." Art Bulletin 60 (March 1978): 43-55.

Kasson, John. Amusing the Million: Coney Island at the Turn of the Century . New York: Hill and Wang, 1978.

"Kenneth Hayes Miller." Art News 28 (December 7, 1929): 13.

"Kenneth Hayes Miller." Art News 30 (November 28, 1931): 10.

Kenneth Hayes Miller: A Memorial Exhibition . New York: Art Students League of New York, 1953.

"The Kenneth Hayes Miller Papers." Archives of American Art Journal 13 (1973): 19-24.

Kent, Rockwell. It's Me O Lord: The Autobiography of Rockwell Kent . New York: Dodd, Mead, 1955.

Kern, Louis J. An Ordered Love: Sex Roles and Sexuality in Victorian Utopiasthe Shakers, the Mormons, and the Oneida Community . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

Kessler-Harris, Alice. Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States . New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

———. Women Have Always Worked: A Historical Overview . Old Westbury, N.Y.: Feminist Press, 1981.

Key, Ellen. Love and Ethics . New York: Huebsch, 1911.

———. Love and Marriage . Translated by Arthur G. Chater. New York: Putnam, 1911.

———. "Motherliness." Atlantic 110 (October 1912): 562-570.

Kinser, Suzanne L. "Prostitutes in the Art of John Sloan." Prospects 9 (1984): 231-254.

Kirkpatrick, Clifford. "Techniques of Marital Adjustment." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 160 (March 1932): 178-183.

Klein, Cecelia F. Editor's Statement, "Depictions of the Dispossessed." Art Journal 49 (Summer 1990): 106- 109.

Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Modern Perspectives in Western Art History . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.

Koch, Robert. "Gibson Girl Revisited." Art in America 1 (1965): 70-73.

Kouwenhoven, John A. The Columbia Historical Portrait of New York . Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1953.

Kramer, Hilton. "Marsh's Search for a Style." New York Times , June 24, 1979, sec. 2, p. 31.

———. "Miller's Art: City in a Dimmed Light." New York Times , January 17, 1970, p. 25.

———. "Reginald Marsh, New York Romantic." Undated clipping from New York Times News Service.


———. "The Unhappy Fate of Kenneth Hayes Miller." New York Times , March 11, 1979, sec. D, p. 31.

Kwiat, John. "John Reed Club Art Exhibition." New Masses 8 (February 1933): 23.

Lane, James W. "Bishop." Art News 41 (June 1942): 42.

———. "Canvases by Isabel Bishop, Painter of Subtle Tonalities." Art News 37 (January 21, 1939): 12.

———. "The Passing Shows" (Raphael Soyer). Art News 40 (April 1-15, 1941): 29.

Laning, Edward. East Side, West Side, Ail Around the Town . Tucson: University of Arizona Museum of Art, 1969.

———. "The New Deal Mural Projects." In The New Deal Art Projects: An Anthology of Memoirs , edited by Francis V. O'Connor, 79-113. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972.

———. "Reginald Marsh." Demcourier 13 (June 1943): 3-7; 16.

———. The Sketchbooks of Reginald Marsh . Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1973.

Law, Helen. "A New Job for the College Girl." Review of Reviews 81 (June 1930): 74-76.

Leader, Bernice Kramer. "Antifeminism in the Paintings of the Boston School." Arts Magazine 56 (January 1982): 112-119.

Lears, T. J. Jackson. "From Salvation to Self-Realization: Advertising and the Therapeutic Roots of the Consumer Culture, 1880-1920." In The Culture of Consumption , edited by Richard Wightman Fox and T. J. Jackson Lears, 3-38. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983.

———. No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880-1920 . New York: Pantheon Books, 1981.

Lederer, Joseph. All Around the Town . New York: Scribner, 1975.

Lemons, J. Stanley. The Woman Citizen: Social Feminism in the 1920s. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973.

Le Sueur, Meridel. "Women on the Breadlines." New Masses 7 (January 1932): 5-7.

Leuchtenberg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal . New York: Harper and Row, 1963.

———. The Perils of Prosperity , 1914-1932. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Levin, Gall. "Edward Hopper's Office at Night." Arts Magazine (January 1978): 134-137.

Lipton, Eunice. Looking into Degas: Uneasy Images of Women and Modern Life . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.

Lunde, Karl. Isabel Bishop . New York: Abrams, 1975.

Lurie, Alison. The Truth about Lorin Jones . Boston: Little, Brown, 1988.


Lynd, Robert S. "Family Members as Consumers." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 160 (March 1932): 86-93.

———. "The People as Consumers." In Recent Social Trends in the United States: Report of the President's Research Committee on Social Trends , 857-911. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934.

Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrell Lynd. Middletown: A Study in Contemporary American Culture . New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1929.

McBride, Henry. "Some Others Who Arouse Interest." New York Sun , February 15, 1936, p. 28.

McCabe, Cynthia Jaffee, and Daniel J. Boorstin. The Golden Door: Artist Immigrants of America, 1876-1976 . Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press for the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1976.

McCausland, Elizabeth. "The Daniel Gallery and Modern American Art." Magazine of Art 44 (November 1951): 280-285.

MacGibbon, Elizabeth Gregg. "Exit—the Private Secretary." Occupations 15 (January 1937): 295-300.

———. Manners in Business . New York: Macmillan, 1936.

McGovern, James R. "The American Woman's Pre-World War I Freedom in Manners and Morals." Journal of American History 55 (September 1968): 315-333.

McMenamin, Hugh L. "Evils of the Woman's Revolt against the Old Standards." Current History 27 (October 1927): 30-33.

Marchand, Roland. Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity , 1920-1940. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985.

Marling, Karal Ann. "A Note on New Deal Iconography: Futurology and the Historical Myth." Prospects 4 (1979): 421-440.

Marsh, Reginald. "Kenneth Hayes Miller." Magazine of Art 45 (April 1952): 170-171.

———. "Let's Get Back to Painting." Magazine of Art 37 (December 1944): 292-296 .

———. "A Short Autobiography." Art and Artists of Today 1 (March 1937): 8.

———. "What I See in Laning's Art." Creative Art 12 (March 1933): 186-188.

Masteller, Richard N. "We, the People?" Satiric Prints of the 1930s. Walla Walla, Wash.: Donald H. Sheehan Gallery, Whitman College, 1989.

Matthews, Glenna. "Just a Housewife": The Rise and Fall of Domesticity in America . New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Maule, Frances. She Strives to Conquer: Business Behavior, Opportunities, and Job Requirements for Women . New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1937.

Maule, Mary K. "What Is a Shop-Girl's Life?" World's Work 14 (September 1907): 9311-9316.

Melosh, Barbara. Engendering Culture: Manhood and Womanhood in New Deal Public Art and Theater . Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.

Meyerowitz, Joanne. "Sexual Geography and Gender Economy: The Furnished


Room Districts of Chicago, 1890-1930." Gender and History 2 (Autumn 1990): 274-296.

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Millier, A. "Murals and Men." Art Digest 9 (September 1, 1935): 6.

Moi, Toril. Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory . London and New York: Methuen, 1985.

Monroe, Gerald M. "Art Front." Archives of American Art Journal 13 (1973): 13-19.

Moore, Sally. "Isabel Bishop: Half a Century of Painting the Flotsam of Union Square." People , May 26, 1975.

Morris, Lloyd. Incredible New York: High Life and Low Life of the Last One Hundred Years . New York: Random House, 1951.

Moses Soyer . Introduction by Alfred Werner. Memoir by David Soyer. South Brunswick, N.J., and New York: A. L. Barnes, 1970.

Mulvey, Laura. "Afterthoughts on 'Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema' Inspired by Duel in the Sun. " In Feminism and Film Theory , edited by Constance Penley, 69-79. London and New York: Routledge, 1988.

———. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema." In Art after Modernism: Rethinking Representation , edited by Brian Wallis, 361-373. New York and Boston: New Museum of Contemporary Art in association with Godine, 1984.

Murals by American Painters and Photographers . New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1932.

"Museumized: Noon Hour by I. Bishop Bought by Springfield." Art Digest 13 (May 1, 1939): 5.

Myers, Bernard, ed. "Sleeping Child by Isabel Bishop." Scribner's American Painters Series, no. 9. Scribner's 122 (November 1937): 32.

Myerson, Abraham. The Nervous Housewife . Boston: Little, Brown, 1920.

Nead, Lynda. "Representation, Sexuality, and the Female Nude." Art History 6 (June 1983): 227-236.

Nemser, Cindy. "A Conversation with Isabel Bishop." Feminist Art Journal 5 (Spring 1976): 14-20.

"The New Baby Bloom." Time , February 22, 1982, 52-58.

"The New Erotic Ethics." The Nation 94 (March 14, 1912): 261.

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Preferred Citation: Todd, Ellen Wiley. The "New Woman" Revised: Painting and Gender Politics on Fourteenth Street. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1993 1993.