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Glossary
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Glossary

adab
Manners, proper social behavior, and etiquette, an important aspect of the Muslim culture of South Asia.
ahl-i bid‘at
Innovators; the term has negative connotations, implying breaking with orthodoxy.
ahl-i sunnat
Those who follow tradition; the term stands for “orthodoxy.”
‘ālim
Singular of ‘ulamā’; see below.
amīr
Military commander or leader; in the context of this study it means director or president.
‘aṣabīyyah
Kinship and tribal ties.
ashram
Hindu place of worship.
‘awām-parastī
Bending to popular will.
bai‘ah
Oath of allegiance traditionally given to caliphs, and in Sufism to Sufi masters.
birādrī
Lineage or extended family; in South Asia the term refers to tribal ties.
burqa‘
Face cover for women.
dars-i nizāmī
A syllabus of religious education which was popular in South Asia in the eighteenth century and which continues to be taught to this day.
dār’u‘ulūm
A place of advanced religious learning; seminary.
da‘wāh
To call to Islam; religious missionary activity.
dhimmī
Non-Muslims whose religion is tolerated by Islam; they are protected under Muslim law and must submit a poll tax to Muslims.
dīn
Literally, religion; used by Mawdudi to mean true faith, unwavering adherence to religious law.
fājir
Sinful, dishonest.
fāsiq
Corrupt.
fatwā
A religious decree issued by an ‘alim.
hadīth
The sayings of Prophet Muhammad.
haqq-parastī
Defending the truth.
hudūd
Punishments; plural of hadd, literally, limit. These are punishments for crimes clearly defined in the Qur’an and the sunnah.
hukūmat-i ilāhiyyah
Divine government.
i‘anat
Donation, contribution.
‘ibādah
Worship; performance of religious rituals and duties.
‘īdu’l-aẓhā
Commemoration of Abraham’s sacrifice of his son, Ishmael.
ijmā’
Consensus; a source of Islamic law.
ijtihād
Individual inquiry conducted by an ‘alim to determine the ruling of Islamic law.
ijtimā‘-i ‘ām
Public meeting; open meeting.
imārat
The office of the amir; see above.
iqāmat-i dīn
Establishing the rule of Islamic law.
iṭā‘at-i naẓm
Obedience to authority.
jāgīrdārī
Hereditary right to the revenue of a piece of land given by the government in return for services; hereditary patronage system centered in control of rural land.
jā’izah
Review.
jamā‘at
Party, organization.
jihād
Holy war; to strive in the path of God.
Karbala
The battle during which the grandson of Prophet Muhammad, Husain ibn ‘Ali, was martyred on the plains of Karbala (in what is now Iraq) in a.d. 682. Husain, along with 72 men, rose in rebellion against the formidable army of the corrupt Umayyad Caliph Yazid. In Sunni Islam Husain’s cavalier actions are seen as a manifestation of the battle of good against evil—the struggle for justice and righteousness. In Shi‘i Islam, where the tale of Karbala has fueled religious passions for centuries, Karbala occurred as Husain asserted his rightful claim to the caliphate.
khānaqāh
The place where Sufis congregate and engage in meditation.
Khatm-i Nubuwwat
Finality of Prophethood, the campaign to declare Ahmadis a non-Muslim minority in Pakistan in 1974.
khilāfat-i rabbānī
Divine caliphate.
kiswah
The cloth which covers the Ka‘bah in Mecca.
kufr
Blasphemy; disbelief; un-Islam.
madrasah
A school which trains ‘ulama.
majlis-i ‘amal
Council of action.
majlis-i‘āmilah
Executive council or assembly.
majlis-i shūrā’
Consultative assembly.
markazī majlis-i shūrā’
Central consultative assembly.
mashāyakh
Plural of shaikh; see below.
maṣlahat-parastī
Opportunism.
mīlādu’l-nabī
Commemoration of the birthday of Prophet Muhammad.
muhājirūn
Migrants; those who migrated with Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in a.d. 622.
muhāsibah
Calculation; taking stock of accounts.
munāfiq
One who sows discord among Muslims and brings disunity to the Muslim community.
murīd
Devotee; followers of a Sufi master.
murshid
Sufi master.
mu‘tamid-i a‘lā’
Supreme secretary (title of the secretary-general of IJT).
nā’ib amīr
Deputy amīr; see above.
nāmanzūr
Non-recognition.
nash’at-i naw
Renaissance; new beginning.
nāẓim-i ‘alā’
Supreme head or organizer (title of the overseer of the IJT).
panchāyat
Rural councils, usually consisting of five elders; voter councils.
pīr
Sufi master.
purdah
Literally, curtain; the system through which men and women are segregated.
qa’id-i a‘zam
Supreme leader (Jinnah’s title).
qā’im maqām-i amīr
Vice-amīr; see above.
qayyim
Overseer (title of the secretary-general of the Jama‘at).
ribā’
Usury, which is banned by Islam.
rīyāsat dar rīyāsat
State within a state.
ṣalāt
Muslim ritual prayer, performed five times a day.
ṣālih
Virtuous.
ṣālih qīyādat
Virtuous leadership; the Jama‘at’s term for the kind of leadership it hopes to bring to power.
sarmāyadārī
Capitalism.
sarsipurdagī
Literally, to submit one’s head; in Sufi terminology it means to commit oneself to the Sufi master.
shahādah
Muslim testimony of faith—“there is no god but God.”
shaikh
Sufi master.
sharī‘ah
The body of laws which govern Muslim personal and social life.
shirwānī
Long overcoat traditionally worn by Muslim Indian men.
sīratu’l-nabī
Literally, path of Prophet Muhammad; refers to following the example of Prophet Muhammad in conducting one’s life.
sunnah
Tradition; proper practice of Islam, following the example of the Prophet Muhammad.
swārāj
Home rule; policy introduced by the Congress party in its struggle for independence.
tablīgh
Missionary activity; propagation of Islamic teachings.
tajdīd
Literally, renewal; refers to Muslim millenarian yearnings.
ṭarīqah
Literally, the path; refers to the path of Sufism.
tawāzun
Balance.
‘ulamā’
Those educated in Islamic law and capable of issuing opinions on religious matters.
ummah
Community of Muslims.
zakāt
A canonical tax, the payment of which is incumbent on all Muslims.
zimmi
See dhimmī above.

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