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1. Chatan (November 15, 1989): 19. [BACK]

2. For a discussion of inclusionary corporatism, see Alfred Stephan, The State and Society: Peru in Comparative Perspective (Princeton, 1978), and Shahrough Akhavi, “Shi‘ism, Corporatism, and Rentierism in the Iranian Revolution,” in Juan R. I. Cole, ed., Comparing Muslim Societies: Knowledge and the State in a World Civilization (Ann Arbor, 1992), 261–93. [BACK]

3. ‘Abdu’l-Ghafur Ahmad, Pher Martial Law A-Giya (Lahore, 1988). General Chishti argues that as the government became desperate it turned to the military and that the coup was planned with Bhutto’s knowledge. See Lt. General Faiz Ali Chishti, Betrayals of Another Kind: Islam, Democracy, and the Army in Pakistan (Cincinnati, 1990), 66–69. Kawthar Niyazi of the People’s Party also says that by March Bhutto had begun to turn to the military for advice and support and a military crackdown had been discussed on numerous occasions; Kausar Niazi, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan: The Last Days (New Delhi, 1992), 79–88, and 163–70. This view was also supported by Ghulam Mustafa Khar in interview. [BACK]

4. Interviews with Malik Ghulam ‘Ali, ‘Abdu’l-Ghafur Ahmad, and Mahmud A‘zam Faruqi. [BACK]

5. Chishti, Betrayals, 16. [BACK]

6. Interview with Khurshid Ahmad. [BACK]

7. Cited in Sarwat Saulat, Maulana Maududi (Karachi, 1979), 101. [BACK]

8. U. S. Embassy, Islamabad, disp. #7789, 7/11/1979, DFTUSED, no. 45, 99–100. [BACK]

9. Interview with ‘Abdu’l-Ghafur Ahmad and Sardar Shairbaz Khan Mazari. [BACK]

10. See Mian Tufayl Muhammad, “General Zia ul-Haq Shaheed,” in Shaheed ul-Islam: Muhammad Zia ul-Haq (London, 1990), 46–47. [BACK]

11. The possibility of a strong showing by the People’s Party in the elections was taken seriously. Mufti Mahmud of the Jami‘at-i Ulama-i Islam, for instance, went to great pains to attack the People’s Party’s record in office and to underline Islam’s prohibition against rule by women in order to dampen enthusiasm for the People’s Party, which was at this time led by Benazir Bhutto and Begum Nusrat Bhutto; U. S. Embassy, Islamabad, disp. #7502, 7/3/1979, DFTUSED, no. 45, 83–84. [BACK]

12. Saulat, Maulana Maududi, 101. [BACK]

13. Interview with Mian Tufayl Muhammad in Takbir (November 16, 1989): 55–56. [BACK]

14. Interview with Mawdudi in Asia (September 4, 1977): 4–5. [BACK]

15. These posts were filled by Ghafur Ahmad, Chaudhri Rahmat Ilahi, and Mahmud A‘zam Faruqi, respectively. The first two were deputy amirs and the third was amir of Karachi at the time. [BACK]

16. Mawdudi was, putatively, opposed to the Jama‘at’s joining the government, believing that the party would compromise its individuality; interview with Khwajah Amanu’llah. [BACK]

17. Interview with Mian Tufayl in Takbir (November 16, 1989): 55. [BACK]

18. U. S. Embassy, Islamabad, disp. #8356, 7/25/1979, DFTUSED, no. 46, 15–19. [BACK]

19. The contents of this deal were discussed by Mufti Mahmud with U. S. Embassy officials; U. S. Embassy, Islamabad, disp. #1449, 10/14/1979, DFTUSED, no. 46, 80–82. [BACK]

20. Cited in Nawa’-i Waqt (October 25, 1978): 1. [BACK]

21. Zia had favored holding municipal elections before national elections, hoping to satiate the appetite for elections without paving the way for handing over power to civilians. The PNA had objected, arguing that the results could be used to postpone national elections; U. S. Embassy, Islamabad, disp. #5223/01–02, 5/7/1979, DFTUSED, no. 45, 56–59. [BACK]

22. ISIT(2), 41. [BACK]

23. In 1986 the Jama‘at won in the Karachi municipal elections again. This time it won 36 percent (85 out of 232) of the seats, thus retaining hold over the mayoralty of the city. [BACK]

24. ISIT(2), 41. [BACK]

25. Interviews with Mian Tufayl, Chaudhri Rahmat Ilahi, Mahmud A‘zam Faruqi, and ‘Abdu’l-Ghafur Ahmad. Also see Siraj Munir, “Azadi ka Ik Nia Mur,” Urdu Digest (August 1988): 211–17. [BACK]

26. These talks were given on March 8 and 10, and April 7 and 8, 1978. They were subsequently published as Sayyid Abu’l-A‘la Mawdudi, System of Government under the Holy Prophet (Lahore, 1978). [BACK]

27. Interview with Khurshid Ahmad. [BACK]

28. ISIT(2), 43–44. [BACK]

29. Ibid, 47. [BACK]

30. Ibid, 76–77. [BACK]

31. Interviews with Mahmud A‘zam Faruqi and Sayyid Munawwar Hasan. [BACK]

32. Khurram Badr, Qazi Husain Ahmad (Karachi, 1988), 70–71. [BACK]

33. The benefits from involvement in the Afghan jihad led the party to become directly involved in other Islamic causes. The Jama‘at has actively aided separatist forces in Kashmir since 1989 and provided support to Muslim forces opposing the restoration of the Communist government in Tajikistan in 1993; see Herald (February 1993): 29. [BACK]

34. Amiru’l-‘Azim, “Talabah Huquq Bihali ki Jadd’u Jahd,” TT, vol. 2, 357–63. [BACK]

35. Interview with Mian Tufayl. [BACK]

36. Ibid. [BACK]

37. The breakdown of these thirteen seats was as follows: two from Punjab (Sargodha and Liyah); five from North-West Frontier Province (Dir three, Mardan and Swat one); five from Sind (all in Karachi); and one from Baluchistan (Turbat); Report on General Elections, 1985 (Islamabad, n.d.), vol. 3. [BACK]

38. Interview with Mian Tufayl. [BACK]

39. Interview with Khurram Murad in Awaz-i Jahan (November 1989): 10. [BACK]

40. Interview with Malik Ghulam ‘Ali. [BACK]

41. See, for instance, Jasarat (March 10, 1990): 6. [BACK]

42. Information provided by the Jama‘at-i Islami of Karachi. [BACK]

43. Sayyid As‘ad Gilani, a senior Jama‘at leader, has gone so far as to refer to Zia as “one who sows discord among Muslims” (munafiq)—a title reserved for the enemies of the Prophet during the early years of Islam—and to chastise Mian Tufayl for his tendency to side with authoritarian regimes. See interview with Gilani in Nida (April 17, 1990): 14–15. [BACK]

44. Mujibu’l-Rahman Shami, “Jama‘at-i Islami Awr Peoples Party: Fasilah Awr Rabitah, Ik Musalsal Kahani,” Qaumi Digest 11, 2 (July, 1988): 22. [BACK]

45. These meetings occurred in 1982 and again in 1984 between Qazi Husain Ahmad (the secretary-general of the Jama‘at at the time) and Faruq Laghari (the secretary-general of the Pakistan People’s Party) in Lahore, and between Ghafur Ahmad and Piar ‘Ali Alana of the People’s Party in Karachi, also in 1984; Takbir (July 14, 1988): 5. [BACK]

46. It was in this context, allege the Jama‘at’s leaders, that the chief minister of Sind, Ghaws ‘Ali Shah, actively supported the MQM—if not actually creating it—to undermine the Jama‘at; Takbir (July 7, 1988): 12–13. [BACK]

47. The Jama‘at won 20 out of the 232 seats on the Karachi Municipal Corporation, down to 8.6 percent from 36.6 percent in 1983. Figures provided by the Jama‘at-i Islami of Karachi. [BACK]

48. Badr, Qazi, 85–86; and Shami, “Jama‘at-i Islami,” 21. [BACK]

49. Farida Shaheed, “The Pathan-Muhajir Conflict, 1985–1986: A National Perspective,” in Veena Das, ed., Mirrors of Violence: Communities, Riots, and Survivors in South Asia (Delhi, 1990), 194–214. [BACK]

50. Interviews with Ghafur Ahmad and Mahmud A‘zam Faruqi. [BACK]

51. Interview with Faruqi. [BACK]

52. Chatan (November 15, 1989): 19. [BACK]

53. Interview with Ghafur Ahmad in Takbir (July 7, 1988): 15–19. [BACK]

54. Ibid, 16. The bill was designed to enforce the shari‘at ordinance which had been promulgated earlier. For a discussion of debates surrounding the bill and the Jama‘at’s position in them, see Charles H. Kennedy, “Judicial Activism and Islamization after Zia: Toward the Prohibition of Riba,” in Charles H. Kennedy, ed., Pakistan 1992 (Boulder, 1993), 60–64. [BACK]

55. Badr, Qazi, 81–84, and Takbir (July 7, 1988): 15–19. [BACK]

56. Takbir (June 30, 1988): 12. [BACK]

57. Badr, Qazi, 97; Munir, “Azadi,” 211–17. The Jama‘at was, moreover, quick to point out that it would not look favorably upon the postponement of future elections on account of the shari‘at bill; interview with Qazi Husain in Takbir (June 30, 1988): 11–14. [BACK]

58. Badr, Qazi, 83. [BACK]

59. Ibid., 84–96. [BACK]

60. Interview with Sardar Shairbaz. The interviewee was present at the first Ghafur-Benazir meetings. [BACK]

61. Cited in Takbir (June 23, 1988): 24. [BACK]

62. Both Mian Tufayl and Na‘im Siddiqi hinted that Muhammad Salahu’ddin was prompted to criticize Ghafur Ahmad by General Zia; see Takbir (June 23, 1988): 24. Also see Akhlaqi Jang (March 29, 1990): 23. [BACK]

63. Takbir (June 23, 1988; July 14, 1988; July 21, 1988). [BACK]

64. Takbir (July 14, 1988): 7. [BACK]

65. Qazi Husain charged that Zia had encouraged Asghar Khan, the leader of Tahrik-i Istiqlal, to travel to Iran in 1977, where the Shah had persuaded the retired air marshal to part ways with the PNA; Akhlaqi Jang (March 29, 1990): 20–23, and Jasarat (June 18, 1988 and June 19, 1988). [BACK]

66. Jasarat (June 3, 1988): 2 and (June 18, 1988; June 19, 1988): 4. [BACK]

67. Interview with Khurshid Ahmad. [BACK]

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