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Notes

Chapter 1— Introduction

1. Richmond Independent , November 9, 1964. [BACK]

Chapter 2— A School District Is Born

1. State of California Education Code, Section 17654, as amended by Stats. 1963, Ch. 2163 and Stats. 1963, Ch. 14. [BACK]

2. Contra Costa County Committee on School District Organization, Arguments For and Against Unification . [BACK]

3. Contra Costa County Committee on School District Organization, Arguments . [BACK]

4. Pinole Chamber of Commerce and Pinole-Hercules school board president, as reported in the Richmond Independent , October 9, 1964, and October 12, 1964, respectively. [BACK]

5. Rusd, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Education , August 17, 1966; September 15, 1967; June 5, 1968. The last date was before the June 30 fiscal deadline, but it was too late to call an election in time. [BACK]

6. Rusd, Minutes , January 8, 1969; February 5, 1969; April 16, 1969. [BACK]

7. Rusd, Report of the Personnel Standards and Ethics Commission, California Association of School Administration, California School Boards Association, California Teachers Association , November 1968; RUSD, Minutes, December 18, 1968. [BACK]

8. Rusd, Minutes , April 3, 1967. [BACK]

9. Kathleen Archibald, Wartime Shipyard: A Study in Social Disunity , p. 43. [BACK]

10. Robert Wenkert, et al., An Historical Digest of Negro-White Relations in Richmond, California , p. 18. [BACK]

11. Wenkert, An Historical Digest , p. 19. [BACK]

12. Archibald, Wartime Shipyard , p. 62. break [BACK]

13. Archibald, Wartime Shipyard , pp. 48, 60-61, 80-84, 128-150. [BACK]

14. Wenkert, An Historical Digest , p. 30. [BACK]

15. Wenkert, An Historical Digest , p. 21. [BACK]

16. Alan B. Wilson, Western Contra Costa County Population, 1965: Demographic Characteristics , p. 2. [BACK]

Chapter 3— White Against White

1. Daniel Bell, "Interpretation of American Politics" and "The Dispossessed"; Benjamin R. Epstein and Arnold Forster, The Radical Right: Report on the John Birch Society and Its Allies ; Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics ; Herbert H. Hyman, "England and America: Climates of Tolerance and Intolerance"; Robert E. Lane, Political Ideology ; Seymour Martin Lipset, "The Sources of the 'Radical Right'" and "Three Decades of the Radical Right: Coughlinites, McCarthyites and Birchers"; Talcott Parsons, "Social Strains in America"; David Riesman and Nathan Glazer, "The Intellectuals and the Discontented Classes"; Edward A. Shils, "Authoritarianism: Right and Left"; Peter Viereck, "The Revolt Against the Elite" and "The Philosophical 'New Conservatism'"; Alan F. Westin, "The Birch Society." [BACK]

2. Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style ; Lipset, "The Sources" and "Three Decades." For a critical application of this concept, see Raymond E. Wolfinger, et al., "America's Radical Right: Politics and Ideology." [BACK]

3. Edward C. Banfield and James Q. Wilson, City Politics ; James Q. Wilson, "Planning and Politics: Citizen Participation in Urban Renewal." [BACK]

4. Seymour Martin Lipset, Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics . [BACK]

5. Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style , p. 82. [BACK]

6. Bennett M. Berger, Working-Class Suburb , p. 23. [BACK]

7. James S. Coleman, et al., Equality of Educational Opportunity . [BACK]

8. Berger, Working-Class ; Jessie Bernard, Marriage and Family Among Negroes ; Peter Binzen, Whitetown USA ; Imogene Cahill, "Child-Rearing Practices in Lower Socio-Economic Ethnic Groups"; Herbert J. Gans, The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian-Americans and The Levittowners ; Scott Greer, "Urbanization and Social Character: Notes on the American Citizen"; Alan L. Grey, ed., Class and Personality in Society ; Gerald Handel and Lee Rainwater, "Persistence and Change in Working Class Life Style"; Mirra Komarovsky, Blue Collar Marriage ; Lipset, Political Man ; David Lockwood, "Sources of Variation in Working Class continue

Images of Society"; Leonard I. Pearlin and Melvin L. Kohn, "Social Class, Occupation, and Parental Values: A Cross-National Study"; Lee Rainwater, et al., Workingman's Wife ; Lee Rainwater, "Work and Identity in the Lower Class"; Hyman Rodman, "The Lower-Class Value Stretch"; Arthur B. Shostak and William Gomberg, Blue-Collar World: Studies of the American Worker ; Harold L. Wilensky, "Orderly Careers and Social Participation: The Impact of Work History on Social Integration of the Middle Mass," "Mass Society and Mass Culture: Interdependence or Independence," and "Class, Class Consciousness, and American Workers." [BACK]

9. Louis Schneider and Sverre Lysgaard, "The Deferred Gratification Pattern: A Preliminary Study." For an excellent critique, see S. M. Miller, Frank Riessman, and Arthur A. Seagull, "Poverty and Self-Indulgence: A Critique of the Non-Deferred Gratification Pattern." [BACK]

10. Allison Davis, "The Motivation of the Under-Privileged Worker"; Herbert Hyman, "The Value Systems of Different Classes: A Social Psychological Contribution to the Analysis of Stratification"; Genevieve Knupfer, "Portrait of the Underdog"; Oscar Lewis, La Vida ; Elliot Liebow, Tally's Corner ; Walter B. Miller, "Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency"; Daniel P. Moynihan, The Negro Family: The Case for National Action . For critiques of this view, see: Laura Carper, "The Negro Family and the Moynihan Report"; Herbert J. Gans, "Culture and Class in the Study of Poverty: An Approach to Antipoverty Research," and "The Negro Family: Reflections on the Moynihan Report," in People and Plans ; Thomas Gladwin, Poverty USA ; Hylan Lewis, "Culture, Class and Family Life Among Low-Income Urban Negroes"; Bernard Mackler and Morsley G. Giddings, "Cultural Deprivation: A Study in Mythology"; S. M. Miller and Frank Riessman, "The Working-Class Subculture: A new View," and Social Class and Social Policy ; Lee Rainwater, "Work and Identity" and "Crucible of Identity: The Negro Lower-Class Family"; Lee Rainwater and William L. Yancey, The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy ; Frank Riessman, "In Defense of the Negro Family"; Charles A. Valentine, Culture and Poverty: Critique and Counter Proposals and "Deficit, Difference and Bi-Cultural Models of Afro-American Behavior"; William L. Yancey, "The Culture of Poverty: Not So Much Parsimony." [BACK]

11. Banfield and Wilson, City ; Wilson, "Planning." [BACK]

12. Wilson, "Planning," pp. 412-413. [BACK]

13. Wilson, "Planning," pp. 413-414. [BACK]

14. Wilson, "Planning," p. 414. break [BACK]

15. Melvin Tumin, "Captives, Consensus and Conflict: Implications for New Roles in Social Change." [BACK]

16. Wilson, "Planning." [BACK]

17. Lipset, Political Man . [BACK]

18. For a perceptive analysis of class-related differences that fueled a school controversy in Levittown, see Gans, The Levittowners . [BACK]

19. See Pearlin and Kohn, "Social Class," where they present some recent empirical evidence on this point. Also, for some discussions on work, alienation, and life style, see: Berger, Working-Class ; Robert Blauner, Alienation and Freedom: The Factory Worker and his Industry ; Eli Chinoy Automobile Workers and The American Dream ; Robert Dubin, "Industrial Workers' World: A Study of the Central Life Interests of Industrial Workers"; John J. Goldthorpe, et al., The Affluent Worker: Industrial Attitudes and Behavior ; Lewis Lipsitz, "Work Life and Political Attitudes: A Study of Manual Workers" and "On Political Belief: The Grievances of the Poor"; Lockwood, "Sources"; Charles R. Walker and Robert H. Guest, The Man on the Assembly Line . [BACK]

20. Harold L. Wilensky, "The Moonlighter: A Product of Relative Deprivation." [BACK]

21. Harvey Aronson, "Life with Cappelli on $101 a Week"; Pete Hamill, "The Revolt of the White Lower-Middle Class"; S. M. Miller, "Sharing the Burden of Change"; Brendon Sexton, "Workers and Liberals: Closing the Gap." [BACK]

22. Cf. Gans, The Urban Villagers . [BACK]

23. Robert A. Dentler and Constance Elkins, "Intergroup Attitudes, Academic Performance, and Racial Composition." [BACK]

24. Michael P. Rogin, "Wallace and the Middle Class: The White Backlash in Wisconsin," and "Politics, Emotion, and the Wallace Vote." [BACK]

25. Coleman et al., Equality ; United States Commission on Civil Rights, Racial Isolation in the Public Schools . [BACK]

26. Rusd, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Education , May 25, 1966, p. 180. [BACK]

27. Richmond Independent , August 25, 1970. [BACK]

28. Robin M. Williams, Jr., and Margaret W. Ryan, Schools in Transition . [BACK]

29. Reginald G. Damerell, Triumph in a White Suburb . [BACK]

Chapter 4— The Seeds of Disharmony

1. Rusd, Memorandum , August 23, 1967. [BACK]

2. Cf. Annie Stein, "Strategies of Failure," where she argues that continue

institutional racism has consistently thwarted both desegregation and improvement in schooling in New York City. [BACK]

3. Robert Wenkert, An Historical Digest of Negro-White Relations in Richmond, California , pp. 53-54. [BACK]

4. RUSD, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Education , September 22, 1965, p. 43. [BACK]

5. RUSD, Minutes , July 28, 1965, pp. 18-20. [BACK]

6. Letter to the RUSD Board, November 18, 1965. [BACK]

Chapter 5— The Liberal Dilemma

1. Herbert J. Gans, The Levittowners , p. 309. [BACK]

2. Citizen's Advisory Committee on DeFacto Segregation hearing, Minutes , January 27, 1967, p. 5. [BACK]

3. Peter Bachrach, The Theory of Democratic Elitism: A Critique , p. 4. [BACK]

4. Cf. Robert A. Dahl, A Preface to Democratic Theory ; Andrew Hacker, ed., The Federalist Papers . [BACK]

5. T. W. Adorno, et al., The Authoritarian Personality ; Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism ; Erich Fromm, Escape from Freedom ; Emil Lederer, State of the Masses. [BACK]

6. Adorno, et al., The Authoritarian Personality . [BACK]

7. See John P. Kirscht and Ronald C. Dillehay, Dimensions of Authoritarianism: A Review of Research and Theory . [BACK]

8. Robert A. Dahl, Pluralist Democracy in the United States , p. 261. [BACK]

9. Bernard R. Berelson, et al., Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign , p. 313. [BACK]

10. For one of the clearest and most concise statements of liberal pluralist elitism in the literature, see Edward A. Shils, The Torment of Secrecy . Also see Robert A. Dahl, Who Governs? , a study based on the pluralist model. [BACK]

11. For typical statements, see William Kornhauser, Politics of a Mass Society , and David Truman, Governmental Process . [BACK]

12. Kornhauser, Politics ; Philip Selznick, Leadership in Administration ; Truman, Governmental . For an excellent critique of this viewpoint, see Michael P. Rogin, The Intellectuals and McCarthy: The Radical Specter . [BACK]

13. Edward C. Banfield and James Q. Wilson, City Politics ; Berelson, et al., Voting ; Kornhauser, Politics ; Robert E. Lane, Political Ideology ; Seymour Martin Lipset, Political Man: the Social Bases of Politics ; Joseph A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy . break [BACK]

14. See, for example, Berelson, et al., Voting ; Dahl, Who Governs? ; Truman, Governmental . [BACK]

15. Berelson, et al., Voting , p. 312. [BACK]

16. Banfield and Wilson, City ; Berelson, et al., Voting ; Lane, Political Ideology ; Lipset, Political Man ; Schumpeter, Capitalism ; Shils, The Torment . [BACK]

17. Melvin Tumin, "Captives Consensus and Conflict: Implications for New Roles in Social Change," p. 98. [BACK]

18. Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France ; Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan ; José Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses . [BACK]

19. For example: Arendt, The Origins ; Emile Durkheim, The Division of Labor in Society ; Kornhauser, Politics ; Lederer, State ; Shils, The Torment . [BACK]

20. Daniel Bell, ed., The Radical Right ; Philip E. Converse, "The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics"; Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform and 'The Paranoid Style in American Politics ; Lane, Political Ideology ; Lipset, Political Man . For criticism of this approach see: William A. Gamson and James McEvoy, "Police Violence and Its Public Support"; Lewis Lipsitz, "Work Life and Political Attitudes: A Study of Manual Workers," and "On Political Belief"; Michael P. Rogin, The Intellectuals and McCarthy: The Radical Specter , "Politics and the Wallace Vote," and "Non-Partisanship and the Group Interest." [BACK]

21. Raymond E. Callahan, Education and the Cult of Efficiency ; Alan K. Campbell, "Who Governs the Schools?"; Michael Decker and Louis H. Masotti, "Determining the Quality of Education: A Political Process"; Jason Epstein, "The Politics of School Decentralization"; Mario Fantini, Maryilyn Gittell, Richard Magat, Community Control and the Urban School ; Marilyn Gittell and Alan G. Hevesi, The Politics of Urban Education ; Michael B. Katz, The Irony of Early School Reform: Educational Innovation in Mid-Nineteenth Century Massachusetts ; James D. Koerner, Who Controls American Education? ; Robert H. Salisbury, "Autonomy vs. 'Political Control' of Schools." [BACK]

22. RUSD, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Education , May 17, 1967, p. 218. [BACK]

Chapter 6— The Electorate Stirs: 1967

1. RUSD, The Report of the Citizens' Advisory Committee on DeFacto Segregation to the Board of Education , p. 49. break [BACK]

Chapter 7— The Community Polarizes: 1967-1969

1. For an inside account, see Mark Peppard, "School Desegregation: A Case Study of Polarization Within a Community." [BACK]

2. La 'Tina Johnson, et al. vs. Richmond Unified School District, et al. [BACK]

3. RUSD, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Education , December 18, 1968, pp. 158-160. [BACK]

4. RUSD, Minutes , February 7, 1968, pp. 180-181. [BACK]

5. RUSD, Minutes , November 6, 1968, p. 122. [BACK]

6. RUSD, Minutes , November 6, 1968, p. 122. [BACK]

Chapter 8— The Electorate Roars: 1969

1. Source: Contra Costa County Superintendent of Schools. [BACK]

2. Richmond Independent , February 13 and April 4, 1969. [BACK]

3. Richmond Independent , March 29 and April 11, 1969. [BACK]

4. Richmond Independent , April 6, 1969. [BACK]

5. Alan B. Wilson, Western Contra Costa County Population, 1965. Demographic Characteristics. [BACK]

Chapter 9— The Lame Duck Board

1. CEE Policy Statement, Richmond Independent , June 28, 1969. [BACK]

2. RUSD, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Education , June 4, 1969. [BACK]

Chapter 10— Conservatives Take Office

1. RUSD, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Education , July 1, 1969, p. 3. [BACK]

2. RUSD, Minutes , August 20, 1969. [BACK]

3. RUSD, board meeting August 20, 1969. [BACK]

4. RUSD, Minutes , October 1, 1969. [BACK]

5. Willmoore Kendall, The Conservative Affirmation , p. 55. [BACK]

Chapter 11— Conclusion

1. For a recent analysis of a national sample and a review of the literature, see Gertrude J. Selznick and Stephen Steinberg, The Tenacity of Prejudice . [BACK]

2. Martin Meyerson and Edward C. Banfield, Politics, Planning, and the Public Interest , p. 253. break [BACK]

3. Gordon W. Allport, The Nature of Prejudice , p. v. [BACK]

4. Reginald G. Damerell, Triumph in a White Suburb , p. 336. [BACK]

5. Seattle Post-Intelligencer , October 2, 1971. [BACK]

6. Michael P. Rogin, The Intellectuals and McCarthy: The Radical Specter , p. 268. [BACK]

7. Melvin Tumin, "Captives, Consensus and Conflict," p. 111. [BACK]

8. Aaron V. Cicourel and John I. Kitsuse, The Educational Decision-Markers ; Kenneth B. Clark, Dark Ghetto ; James S. Coleman, et al., Equality of Educational Opportunity ; George Dennison, The Lives of Children ; Robert A. Dentler, et al., eds., The Urban R's ; Harvard Education Review, eds., Equal Educational Opportunity ; Nat Hentoff, Our Children Are Dying ; James Herndon, The Way It Spozed to Be ; August B. Hollingshead, Elmtown's Youth ; John Holt, How Children Fail and How Children Learn ; Herbert Kohl, Teaching the "Unteachable" and 'Thirty-six Children ; Jonathan Kozol, Death at an Early Age ; Eleanor Burke Leacock, Teaching and Learning in City Schools ; S. M. Miller and Frank Riessman, Social Class and Social Policy ; A Harvey Passow, eds., Education in Depressed Areas ; Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson, Pygmalion in the Classroom ; Walter E. Schafer, et al., "Programmed for Social Class: Tracking in High School"; Peter Schrag, Village School Downtown ; Patricia Cayo Sexton, Education and Income and The American School ; David Street, ed., Innovation in Mass Education ; United States Commission on Civil Rights, Racial Isolation in the Public Schools ; Alan B. Wilson, "Residential Segregation of Social Classes and Aspirations of High School Boys," Educational Consequences of Segregation in a California Community , and "Social Class and Equal Educational Opportunity. [BACK]

9. John Sharnik, "When Things Go Wrong All Blacks Are Black and All Whites Are Whitey." [BACK]

10. For an excellent and lucid discussion, see Philip Green, "Decentralization, Community Control, and Revolution: Reflections on Ocean Hill-Brownsville." break [BACK]


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