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5 From the Revolution to the Beginnings of a Native Industry

1. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 47 (1923): 201-2. [BACK]

2. Jacques Pierre Brissot de Warville, New Travels in the United States of America , ed. Durand Echeverria (Cambridge, Mass., 1964), pp. 204-7. [BACK]

3. For Legaux generally, see S. Gordon Smyth, "Peter Legaux," Historical Sketches (Historical Society of Montgomery County, Pa.) 2 (1900): 92-125. [BACK]

4. François, duc de la Bochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels through the United States of North America (London, 1799), 1: 11-12. [BACK]

5. Smyth, "Legaux," p. 105. [BACK]

6. "A Memorial on the Practicability of Growing Vineyards in the State of South Carolina" (Charleston, 1798), p. 6. [BACK]

7. Pennsylvania, Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania from 1682 to 1809 , ed. J.T. Mitchell and Henry Flanders (Harrisburg, 1896-1908), 14: 356-60; 16:438, 516. [BACK]

8. Smyth, "Legaux," pp. 113-15 (26 January 1791).

9. Ibid., p. 116.

10. Ibid., p. 118. [BACK]

8. Smyth, "Legaux," pp. 113-15 (26 January 1791).

9. Ibid., p. 116.

10. Ibid., p. 118. [BACK]

8. Smyth, "Legaux," pp. 113-15 (26 January 1791).

9. Ibid., p. 116.

10. Ibid., p. 118. [BACK]

11. Annals of Congress , 3d Cong., 1st sess., 19 May 1794, col. 101. [BACK]

12. Henry Wansey and His American Journal, 1794 , ed. David John Jeremy (Philadelphia, 1970), pp. 39-40; Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels , 1: 11. [BACK]

13. Smyth, "Legaux," pp. 117-19. [BACK]

14. Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels , 1: 11. [BACK]

15. Smyth, "Legaux," p. 119. [BACK]

16. Legaux to Jefferson, 4 and 25 March 1801; Jefferson to Legaux, 24 March 1801 (MSS, Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress). [BACK]

17. Edwin Morris Betts, ed., Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book, 1766-1824 (Philadelphia, 1944), pp. 277-78 (11 May 1802). [BACK]

18. Smyth, "Legaux," p. 122.

19. Ibid., p. 121. [BACK]

18. Smyth, "Legaux," p. 122.

19. Ibid., p. 121. [BACK]

20. The extant journal is in the keeping of the American Philosophical Society, of which, one recalls, Legaux was a member. The journal for the years 1814-22, during which period the company collapsed and expired, is missing, perhaps deliberately suppressed.

22. Ibid., 1:135 (19 August 1804).

23. Ibid., 1: 171-72 (April 1805). Lee evidently formed a permanent interest in winegrowing but never fulfilled his promise to write a book on wines and vines. A prospectus for such a book, which was to include a general history, information on varieties, accounts of European vineyards, and advice on viticulture and enology, was noticed in the New England Farmer in 1823; four years later Niles' Register reported that Lee, now one of the auditors at Washington, was just on the point of going to press with his treatise on vine culture. I have found no further record of the book. It would have had an eager reception: James Madison, for example, wrote Lee on 16 December 1823 asking to be put down for two copies of the projected volume (MS, Historical Society of Pennsylvania). In 1816, after his return from France to the United States, Lee had been active in organizing the French Alabama settlement for wine and olive growing (see below, pp. 135-39, and Winston Smith, Days of Exile: The Story of the Fine and Olive Colony in Alabama [Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1967], p. 27). [BACK]

21. Peter Legaux, Journal, 1:38, 66 (see preceding note). [BACK]

20. The extant journal is in the keeping of the American Philosophical Society, of which, one recalls, Legaux was a member. The journal for the years 1814-22, during which period the company collapsed and expired, is missing, perhaps deliberately suppressed.

22. Ibid., 1:135 (19 August 1804).

23. Ibid., 1: 171-72 (April 1805). Lee evidently formed a permanent interest in winegrowing but never fulfilled his promise to write a book on wines and vines. A prospectus for such a book, which was to include a general history, information on varieties, accounts of European vineyards, and advice on viticulture and enology, was noticed in the New England Farmer in 1823; four years later Niles' Register reported that Lee, now one of the auditors at Washington, was just on the point of going to press with his treatise on vine culture. I have found no further record of the book. It would have had an eager reception: James Madison, for example, wrote Lee on 16 December 1823 asking to be put down for two copies of the projected volume (MS, Historical Society of Pennsylvania). In 1816, after his return from France to the United States, Lee had been active in organizing the French Alabama settlement for wine and olive growing (see below, pp. 135-39, and Winston Smith, Days of Exile: The Story of the Fine and Olive Colony in Alabama [Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1967], p. 27). [BACK]

20. The extant journal is in the keeping of the American Philosophical Society, of which, one recalls, Legaux was a member. The journal for the years 1814-22, during which period the company collapsed and expired, is missing, perhaps deliberately suppressed.

22. Ibid., 1:135 (19 August 1804).

23. Ibid., 1: 171-72 (April 1805). Lee evidently formed a permanent interest in winegrowing but never fulfilled his promise to write a book on wines and vines. A prospectus for such a book, which was to include a general history, information on varieties, accounts of European vineyards, and advice on viticulture and enology, was noticed in the New England Farmer in 1823; four years later Niles' Register reported that Lee, now one of the auditors at Washington, was just on the point of going to press with his treatise on vine culture. I have found no further record of the book. It would have had an eager reception: James Madison, for example, wrote Lee on 16 December 1823 asking to be put down for two copies of the projected volume (MS, Historical Society of Pennsylvania). In 1816, after his return from France to the United States, Lee had been active in organizing the French Alabama settlement for wine and olive growing (see below, pp. 135-39, and Winston Smith, Days of Exile: The Story of the Fine and Olive Colony in Alabama [Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1967], p. 27). [BACK]

24. Legaux, Journal, 2: 33, 84 (12 June 1806, June 1807). [BACK]

25. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 48 (1924): 79. [BACK]

26. Legaux, Journal, 2:96 (October 1807).

27. Ibid., 3: 2, 31 (August 1809, 4 May 1810). [BACK]

26. Legaux, Journal, 2:96 (October 1807).

27. Ibid., 3: 2, 31 (August 1809, 4 May 1810). [BACK]

28. See below, p. 119. [BACK]

29. Legaux, Journal, 3:6 (26-29 September 1809).

30. Ibid., 3:10 (1811).

31. Ibid., 3: 19, 35 (1813). [BACK]

29. Legaux, Journal, 3:6 (26-29 September 1809).

30. Ibid., 3:10 (1811).

31. Ibid., 3: 19, 35 (1813). [BACK]

29. Legaux, Journal, 3:6 (26-29 September 1809).

30. Ibid., 3:10 (1811).

31. Ibid., 3: 19, 35 (1813). [BACK]

32. Smyth, "Legaux," p. 123. [BACK]

33. S. W. Johnson, Rural Economy (New Brunswick, N.J., 1806), pp. 156-57. [BACK]

34. U. P. Hedrick, History of Horticulture in America to 1860 (New York, 1950), p. 84. [BACK]

35. Copy, George Morgan Papers, Library of Congress. [BACK]

36. Morgan to ?, 11 June 1802: copy, Morgan Papers. [BACK]

37. Max Sayelle, George Morgan, Colony Builder (New York, 1932), p. 233. [BACK]

38. 28 February 1807 (MS, American Philosophical Society). [BACK]

39. MS, American Philosophical Society. [BACK]

40. William Bartram, in James Mease, ed., Domestic Encyclopaedia (Philadelphia, 18o3-4), 5: 289-92. The Catalogue of Bartram's Gardens published in 1807 lists these species available according to Bartram's classification: occidentalis, labrusca, vulpina, taurina, and serotina, adding that "the varieties are infinite." [BACK]

41. Mease, ed., Domestic Encyclopaedia 5: 292- 96. [BACK]

42. U. P. Hedrick, The Grapes of New York (Albany, N.Y., 1908), p. 43. [BACK]

43. E.g., Joseph Cooper, who farmed on the banks of the Delaware across from Philadelphia. He had been making wine from native grapes and encouraging their cultivation since the time of the Revolution. He was a friend of Mease's and of Adlum's, and a grape of his introducing is described by Prince, so that it is clear that his work in favor of native vines was well known in quarters where attention was paid to such matters. See also p. 93 above for other evidence of interest in the native grape. For Cooper, see John Adlum, A Memoir on the Cultivation of the Vine in America, and the Best Mode of Making Wine (Washington, D.C., 1823), pp. 107-9, and Hedrick, History of Horticulture , p. 432. [BACK]

44. Hedrick, Grapes of New York , p. 43. [BACK]

45. Clarence Gohdes, Scuppernong: North Carolina's Grape and Its Wines (Durham, N.C., 1982), p. 12, quoting a letter from Mease published 7 March 1811. [BACK]

46. Constantine F. Volney, View of the Climate and Soil of the United States of America (London, 1804), pp. 363-64. [BACK]

47. John James Dufour, The American Vine-Dresser's Guide (Cincinnati, 1826), pp. 20-21. [BACK]

48. Volney, View of the Climate and Soil , p. 364. [BACK]

49. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , p. 20. [BACK]

50. A copy of the broadsheet is in the Innes Papers, Library of Congress. Some years later the poet John Keats, writing to his brother George, who had emigrated to Louisville, Kentucky, wondered whether Kentucky could not grow a wine like his favorite claret: "Would it not be a good spec. to send you some vine-roots? Could it be done? I'll enquire. If you could make some wine like claret, to drink on summer evenings in an arbour!" (February 1819). [BACK]

51. J. P. Brissot de Warville, "Thoughts on the Cultivation of Vines—and on the Wine Trade between France and America," American Museum , December 1788, pp. 568-71. [BACK]

52. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , pp. 7-8. On Dufour generally, see Perret Dufour, The Swiss Settlement of Switzerland County, Indiana (Indianapolis, 1925). [BACK]

53. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , p. 8. Dufour says that his left arm was "maimed"; Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , p. 8, says that it was the right. [BACK]

54. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , p. 18. [BACK]

55. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , pp. 18-19; 8. [BACK]

56. Bernard Mayo, Henry Clay (Boston, 1937), p. 117. [BACK]

57. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , p. 9; Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , pp. 9-10. [BACK]

58. François André Michaux, Travels to the Westward of the Allegany Mountains (London, 1805). pp. 163-68. [BACK]

59. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , pp. 9-10. [BACK]

60. Partly because of uncertainty about what it really was, the Alexander has generated a more than usual number of synonyms, some of them clearly reflecting its mixed character, in which the perfect flowers of vinifera are mingled with the unmistakable flavor of a native grape. Among the names it has gone under at different times and places are Cape, Black Cape, Schuylkill Muscadel, Constantia, Springmill Constantia, Clifton's Constantia, Tasker's Grape, Vevay, York Lisbon, and York Madeira. [BACK]

61. Liberty Hyde Bailey, Sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits (New York, 1898), p. 42. [BACK]

62. American Farmer 7 (22 July 1825): 140. [BACK]

63. Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , p. 19. [BACK]

64. Mayo, Henry Clay , p. 117. [BACK]

65. Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , pp. 307-9; 315-17. The eminent botanist and writer Liberty Hyde Bailey visited the site of First Vineyard and published a description of it in his Sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits (1898). At the end of the century, the property had become a sheep pasture, the old log house had disappeared, and only a pear tree and the vestiges of a stone wall marking the boundary of the vineyard remained to memorialize Dufour's struggles there to grow vines and make wine. [BACK]

66. Dufour to Thomas Jefferson, 1 February 1801 (Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress). [BACK]

67. Dufour to Thomas Jefferson, 15 January 1802 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

68. Statutes at Large of the United States of America, 1789-1873 , 6 (1846): 47-48 (1 May 1802). [BACK]

69. Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , p. 18. [BACK]

70. Statutes at Large of the United States of America, 1789-1873 , 6 (1846): 126 (2 August 1813). [BACK]

71. Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , pp. 33-34.

72. Ibid., p. 70. [BACK]

71. Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , pp. 33-34.

72. Ibid., p. 70. [BACK]

73. Timothy Flint, Condensed Geography (1828), quoted in Harlow Lindley, ed., Indiana as Seen by Early Travellers (Indianapolis, 1916), p. 449. [BACK]

74. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , pp. 24, 113; Karl J. R. Arndt, A Documentary History of the Indiana Decade of the Harmony Society, 1814-1824 (Indianapolis, 1975-78), 1: 11-12. [BACK]

75. American Farmer 2 (16 March 1821): 405. [BACK]

76. John Melish, Travels through the United States (Philadelphia, 1812), 2:131; John F. Von Daacke, "'Sparkling Catawba': Grape Growing and Wine Making in Cincinnati, 1800-1870" (M.A. thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1964), p. 7. [BACK]

77. Niles' Weekly Register 4 (24 July 1813): 344. [BACK]

78. William Cobbett, in Lindley, ed., Indiana as Seen by Early Travellers , p. 508:17 June 1817. [BACK]

79. Timothy Flint, Recollections of the Last Ten Years (Boston, 1826), pp. 59-60. [BACK]

80. Lindley, ed., Indiana as Seen by Early Travellers , p. 522. [BACK]

81. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , p. 33. [BACK]

82. Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , p. 25. [BACK]

83. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , p. 11.

84. Ibid., p. 7. [BACK]

83. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , p. 11.

84. Ibid., p. 7. [BACK]

85. American Farmer 2 (26 November 1819): 281. [BACK]

86. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , pp. 74-75.

87. Ibid., pp. 39, 41. [BACK]

86. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide , pp. 74-75.

87. Ibid., pp. 39, 41. [BACK]

88. Perret Dufour, Swiss Settlement , p. 363n. [BACK]

89. Report of the Commissioner of Patents, 1847 (Washington, D.C., 1848), p. 462. [BACK]

90. Cozzens' Wine Press , 20 February 1858, p. 172, citing the Cincinnati grower and winemaker Robert Buchanan. [BACK]

91. Karl Postel in Lindley, ed., Indiana as Seen by Early Travellers , p. 522; Hedrick, Grapes of New York , p. 19. [BACK]

92. Betts, ed., Jefferson's Garden Book , p. 572. [BACK]

93. To M. de Neuville, 13 December 1818 ( Writings of Thomas Jefferson , ed. Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh [Washington, D.C., 1903], 15: 178). [BACK]

94. The title of an instructive exhibition mounted in 1975 at the Wine Museum of San Francisco. See also R. de Treville Lawrence, Sr., ed., Jefferson and Wine (The Plains, Va., 1976). [BACK]

95. Wine Museum of San Francisco, Thomas Jefferson and Wine in Early America (San Francisco, 1976), p. 11. [BACK]

96. See Vinifera Wine Growers Journal , Fall 1984, p. 142a. [BACK]

97. Jefferson to John Adlum, 7 October 1809 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

98. Jefferson to John Adlum, 13 January 1816 (Betts, ed. , Jefferson's Garden Book , p. 554). [BACK]

99. Jean David to Jefferson, 26 November 1815 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

100. Jefferson to David, 13 and 16 January 1816 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

101. Jefferson to Adlum, 13 January 1816 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

102. Jefferson to James Monroe, 16 January 1816 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

103. Jean David to Jefferson, 1 February 1816 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

104. Quoted by Rodney True, "Early Days of the Albemarle Agricultural Society," in Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1918 (Washington, D.C., 1921), 1: 245. [BACK]

105. Betts, ed. , Jefferson's Garden Book , p. 637.

106. Ibid., p. 572. [BACK]

105. Betts, ed. , Jefferson's Garden Book , p. 637.

106. Ibid., p. 572. [BACK]

107. Jefferson to John Adlum, 13 June 1822 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

108. They were identified to him as Ebinezer Pettigrew, of Edenton, and George E. Spruill, of Plymouth, who "owns the famous vine covering an acre of ground" (Francis Eppes to Jefferson, 21 April 1823, in The Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson , ed. E. M. Betts and J. A. Bear, Jr. [Columbia, Mo., 1966], p. 447). [BACK]

109. Jefferson to John Adlum, 13 June 1822 (Jefferson Papers). [BACK]

110. American Farmer 7 (29 April 1825): 45. [BACK]

111. Nicholas Longworth, in American Farmer 15 (21 December 1832): 326. [BACK]

112. F. C. Reimer in a report of 1909 cited in Lawrence, ed. , Jefferson and Wine , p. 83. [BACK]

113. Cozzens' Wine Press 4 (20 May 1858): 198. [BACK]

114. Betts, ed., Jefferson's Garden Book , pp. 126-27 (to William Drayton, 30 July 1787). [BACK]


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