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15 The Southwest; the South; Other States

1. Leon Adams, The Wines of America (Boston, 1973), p. 150. [BACK]

2. U. P. Hedrick, The Grapes of New York (Albany, N.Y., 1908), p. 229. [BACK]

3. According to the list of varietal wines produced in the United States published annually in the September number of Wines and Vines . [BACK]

4. Andrew Rolle, The Immigrant Upraised (Norman, Okla., 1968), p. 77. [BACK]

5. Allessandro Mastro-Valerio, "Italians," in U.S. Industrial Commission, Reports (Washington, D.C., 1901), 15: 505. [BACK]

6. Rolle, Immigrant Upraised , p. 79. [BACK]

7. John L. Mathews, "Tontitown," Everybody's 20 (January 1909): 9; Mastro-Valerio, "Italians," pp. 505-6. [BACK]

8. Mathews, "Tontitown," p. 9. [BACK]

9. Leslie Hewes, "Tontitown: Ozark Vineyard Center," Economic Geography 29 (1953): 139-40.

10. Ibid., p. 140. [BACK]

9. Leslie Hewes, "Tontitown: Ozark Vineyard Center," Economic Geography 29 (1953): 139-40.

10. Ibid., p. 140. [BACK]

11. Mastro-Valerio, "Italians," p. 506; U.S. Immigration Commission, Report (Washington, D.C., 1911), 21: 380. [BACK]

12. The standard discussions of the Sunnyside Italians do not name him; John Stewart says he was A.M. Piazza ("Little Italy of the Ozarks," Missouri Life 3 [July-August 1975]: 40). [BACK]

13. Mastro-Valerio, "Italians," p. 506. [BACK]

14. Eastern Grape Grower and Winery News 10 (August-September 1984): 34. [BACK]

15. Report of the Commissioner of Patents, 1859, Part II(Washington , D.C., 1860), p. 35. [BACK]

16. Terry G. Jordan, German Seed in Texas Soil: Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth-Century Texas (Austin, 1966), p. 43. [BACK]

17. Julia Nott Waugh, Castro-Ville and Henry Castro, Empresario (San Antonio, 1934), pp. 21, 25, 38-39 [BACK]

18. Jordan, German Seed p. 48. [BACK]

19. One of these hopeful Germans was Julius Dresel, a native of the great Rheingau wine town of Geisenheim, who planted Riesling vines on the Guadalupe River in southeast Texas in 1850. Twenty years later he migrated to California to take over the pioneer vineyard in Sonoma that his brother Emil had founded with Jacob Gundlach ( Illustrated History of Sonoma County [Chicago, 1889], p. 506). [BACK]

20. Jordan, German Seed p. 78. [BACK]

21. Report of the Commissioner of Patents, 1847 (Washington, D.C., 1848), p. 199. [BACK]

22. Liberty Hyde Bailey, "The Species of Grapes Peculiar to North America," Gentes Herbarum 3 (1934): 213. [BACK]

23. See, e.g., the reports of Gilbert Onderdonk in George Husmann, American Grape Growing and Wine Making (New York, 1880), pp. 145-52; and Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 1887 (Washington, D.C., 1888), p. 652. [BACK]

24. Husmann, American Grape Growing and Wine Making 4th ed. (New York, 1896), p. 123; Guido Rossati, Relazione di un viaggio d'istruzione negli Stati Uniti d'America (Rome, 1900), p. 348; Mastro-Valerio, "Italians," p. 500; Virginia H. Taylor, The Franco-Texan Land Company (Austin, 1969), p. 291 . [BACK]

25. On the Val Verde Winery, see American Wine Society Journal 13 (Summer 1981): 52. [BACK]

26. Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 1887 , p. 652. [BACK]

27. See Frank Giordano, Texas Wines and Wineries (Austin, 1984), pp. 123-32; Wines and Vines 66 (September 1985): 24-34. [BACK]

28. Pierre Viala, Une Mission viticole en Amérique (Montpellier, 1889), p. 206. [BACK]

29. A sketch of Munson's life is in the Dictionary of American Biography . [BACK]

30. Quoted in T. V. Munson Memorial Vineyard Report 2 (April 1982): [2]. [BACK]

31. Munson's major publication is Foundations of American Grape Culture (Denison, Tex., 1909). This contains a summary of his work, pp. 5-11.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

31. Munson's major publication is Foundations of American Grape Culture (Denison, Tex., 1909). This contains a summary of his work, pp. 5-11.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

33. LeRoy H. Fischer, "The Fairchild Winery," Chronicles of Oklahoma 55 (Summer 1977): 135-56. [BACK]

34. Munson's pronouncement was on the occasion of a grape exhibit held in 1899 by the Territorial Horticultural Association, Oklahoma City ( American Wine Press , September 1899, p. 22). [BACK]

35. Fischer, "Fairchild Winery," p. 155. [BACK]

36. Carolyn Baker Lewis, "Cultural Conservatism and Pioneer Florida Viticulture," Agricultural History 53 (July 1979): 627, 630-31.

37. Ibid., p. 631; Rossati, Relazione , p. 363. [BACK]

36. Carolyn Baker Lewis, "Cultural Conservatism and Pioneer Florida Viticulture," Agricultural History 53 (July 1979): 627, 630-31.

37. Ibid., p. 631; Rossati, Relazione , p. 363. [BACK]

38. Lewis, "Cultural Conservatism and Pioneer Florida Viticulture," p. 632. [BACK]

39. Mastro-Valerio, "Italians," pp. 504-5; U.S. Immigration Commission, Report , 21: 301, 303. [BACK]

40. Alabama Fruit Growing and Winery Association, undated company brochure, California State University Library, Fresno; Rossati, Relazione , p. 362; Birmingham News , to November 1965. [BACK]

41. American Wine Press 3 (15 March 1898): 12; promotional map of Vinemont for Alabama Vineyard and Winery Company, undated (California State University Library, Fresno). [BACK]

42. DeBow's Review , n.s., 2 (1866): 269, reported 300-acres of vineyard around Aiken. [BACK]

43. First Report of the Secretary of Agriculture, 1889 (Washington, D.C., 1889), p. 401. [BACK]

44. San Francisco Merchant , 18 March 1887. [BACK]

45. First Report of the Secretary of Agriculture, 1889 , pp. 400 - 3. [BACK]

46. San Francisco Merchant , 17 July 1885, pp. 97-98; Hermann Schuricht, History of the German Element in Virginia (Baltimore), 2 (1900): 132-33. [BACK]

47. C. C. Pearson and J. E. Hendricks, Liquor and Anti-Liquor in Virginia, 1619- 1919 (Durham, N.C., 1967), p. 179n.; John Hammond Moore, Albemarle, Jefferson's County, 1727-1976 (Charlottesville, 1976), p. 250. [BACK]

48. San Francisco Merchant , 17 July 1885; Schuricht, History of the German Element in Virgina , 2: 133. [BACK]

49. S. W. Fletcher, "A History of Fruit Growing in Virginia," Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Virginia Horticultural Society (Staunton, Va., 1932), pp. 4-6. [BACK]

50. Moore, Albemarle , p. 250. [BACK]

51. 11th Census, 1890, Report on the Statistics of Agriculture in the United States (Washington, D.C., 1895), p. 602; 12th Census, 1900, Census Reports , 9 (1902): 634. [BACK]

52. 13th Census, 1910, Agriculture 1909 and 1910 (Washington, D.C., 1913), p. 717. [BACK]

53. According to a note by J.-E. Planchon in the French edition of the Bush & Son & Meissner catalogue, 1876. [BACK]

54. San Francisco Merchant , 8 February 1884. [BACK]

55. Jules-Emile Planchon, Les Vignes américaines (Montpellier, 1875), p. 40n. [BACK]

56. Clarence Gohdes, Scuppernong: North Carolina's Grape and Its Wines (Durham, N.C., 1982), P. 39.

57. Ibid., p. 42; Adams, Wines of America , p. 44. [BACK]

56. Clarence Gohdes, Scuppernong: North Carolina's Grape and Its Wines (Durham, N.C., 1982), P. 39.

57. Ibid., p. 42; Adams, Wines of America , p. 44. [BACK]

58. Gohdes, Scuppernong , pp. 43, 48.

59. Ibid., p. 51.

60. Ibid., p. 49.

61. Ibid., pp. 57-58. [BACK]

58. Gohdes, Scuppernong , pp. 43, 48.

59. Ibid., p. 51.

60. Ibid., p. 49.

61. Ibid., pp. 57-58. [BACK]

58. Gohdes, Scuppernong , pp. 43, 48.

59. Ibid., p. 51.

60. Ibid., p. 49.

61. Ibid., pp. 57-58. [BACK]

58. Gohdes, Scuppernong , pp. 43, 48.

59. Ibid., p. 51.

60. Ibid., p. 49.

61. Ibid., pp. 57-58. [BACK]

62. Adams, Wines of America , p. 45. [BACK]

63. Gohdes, Scuppernong , p. 29.

64. Ibid., p. 32; American Wine Press , 5 June 1897. [BACK]

63. Gohdes, Scuppernong , p. 29.

64. Ibid., p. 32; American Wine Press , 5 June 1897. [BACK]

65. Gohdes, Scuppernong , pp. 32-33. [BACK]

66. North Carolina State Horticultural Society, Report (Raleigh, N.C., 1893), p. 16. [BACK]

67. A few growers from Colorado responded to the Department of Agriculture's survey of national winegrowing in 1880; one gave his opinion that "the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains are specially adapted to vineyards." In the same survey it was reported that some of the Russian Hutterites in Bon Homme County, Dakota (then still a territory, and undivided) had succeeded in growing grapes (William McMurtrie, Report upon the Statistics of Grape Culture and Wine Production in the United States for 1880 [Washington, D.C., 1881], p. 48). In the Directory of the Grape Growers, Wine Makers and Distillers of California published by the California Board of State Viticultural Commissioners in 1891, a total of two and a half acres were reported for Colorado and Dakota. Montana and Wyoming did not become states until 1889 and 1890 respectively, and neither figures in any of the published reports or surveys after the dates of their statehood. There is now a winery operating in Montana, but it has, I think, no predecessor. [BACK]

68. The Vergennes grape originated in 1874, the Green Mountain before 1885. [BACK]

69. See, e.g., Husmann, American Grape Growing and Wine Making , 4th ed., pp. 117-18; Rossati,

Relazione , P. 359. [BACK]

70. The English traveller Adlard Welby found vineyards at Wheeling, West Virginia, in 1819 (Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Early Western Travels, 1748-1846 [Cleveland, 1904-7], 12: 204). The Friend Winery at Dunbar, West Virginia, was established in the 1850s ( Eastern Grape Grower and Winery News 8 [1982]: 10). [BACK]

71. Minnesota Grape Growers Association, Growing Grapes in Minnesota (n.p., 1978), p. 1. [BACK]

72. Hedrick, Grapes of New York , pp. 438-39. [BACK]

73. Minneapolis Tribune , 10 September 1978. [BACK]

74. Adams, Wines of America , pp. 348-49; a report by A. B. Ballantyne, "Grape Growing in Utah," appears in the Official Report of the International Congress of Viticulture (San Francisco, 1915), pp. 102-6. [BACK]

75. Reed W. Farnsworth, The Power of Adversity (n.p., n.d.), pp. 133-42. [BACK]

76. Scofield to Shorb, 7 April 1888; H.R. Patrick to Shorb, 6 August 1890 (Shorb Papers, Huntington Library). 11th Census, 1890, Report on the Statistics of Agriculture , p. 602. [BACK]

77. J. R. Cardwell, "The First Fruits of the Land: A Brief History of Early Horticulture in Oregon," Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 7 (1906): 29.

78. Ibid., p. 34; E. R. Lake, "The Grape in Oregon," Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin no. 66 (Corvallis, June 1901), p. 63. [BACK]

77. J. R. Cardwell, "The First Fruits of the Land: A Brief History of Early Horticulture in Oregon," Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 7 (1906): 29.

78. Ibid., p. 34; E. R. Lake, "The Grape in Oregon," Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin no. 66 (Corvallis, June 1901), p. 63. [BACK]

79. Transactions of the California State Agricultural Society,, 1859 (Sacramento, 1860), pp. 180, 270. [BACK]

80. Cardwell, "First Fruits of the Land," p. 31. [BACK]

81. Grape Culturist 2 (March 1870): 75; Premium list in Catalogue of Oregon State Fair, 1876, 1877. [BACK]

82. Elizabeth Purser and Lawrence J. Allen, The Winemakers of the Pacific Nortliwest (Vashon Island, Wash., 1977), p. 154. [BACK]

83. By Richard Sommer, at Hillcrest Vineyard, near Roseburg (Adams, Wines of America , p. 341). [BACK]

84. Lake, "The Grape in Oregon," p. 71. [BACK]

85. His name was David Hill (Tom Stockley, Winery, Trails of the Pacific Northwest [Mercer Island, Wash., 1977], p. 5). [BACK]

86. C. I. Lewis, "The Grape in Oregon," in International Congress of Viticulture, Official Report , pp. 91-97. [BACK]

87. Grape Culturist 2 (October 1869): 297; Northwest Wine Almanac , November 1985, p. 1. [BACK]

88. Purser and Allen, Winemakers of the Pacific Northwest , p. 66. [BACK]

89. E. H. Twight, "The Vineyards of the Columbia River Basin," in International Congress of Viticulture, Official Report , pp. 89- 91.

90. Ibid., p. 90. Robert N. Wing, "Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington: Home of

Northwest's First Wineries?" Wine Almanac of the Pacific Northwest , 16 November 1987, pp. 1-2. Robert Schleicher published "Grape Culture in Lewiston-Clarkston Valley" (Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Wash., 1906). [BACK]

89. E. H. Twight, "The Vineyards of the Columbia River Basin," in International Congress of Viticulture, Official Report , pp. 89- 91.

90. Ibid., p. 90. Robert N. Wing, "Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington: Home of

Northwest's First Wineries?" Wine Almanac of the Pacific Northwest , 16 November 1987, pp. 1-2. Robert Schleicher published "Grape Culture in Lewiston-Clarkston Valley" (Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Wash., 1906). [BACK]


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