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INDEX

A

Acidimeter, 182

Acorn, The , 389

Adams, John, 86

Adams, John Quincy, 129

Adams, Leon, xvii , 266 , 451 , 503 n2

Adams, Thomas, 77 , 79

Adlum, John, 128 , 151 , 152 , 155 , 200 ;

Adlum on Making Wine , 147 ;

career in winegrowing, 139 -49;

distributes American vines, 147 -48, 149 ;

introduces Catawba, 142 -45, 154 , 190 , 203 ;

Jefferson requests cuttings from, 128 , 141 ;

Memoir on the Cultivation of the Vine , 123 , 144 , 145 -46, 149 , 221 ;

Memoir , 2d ed., 148 ;

"On Propagating Grape Vines," 146 ;

sends wines and vines to Jefferson, 127 , 139 -40

Adulteration of wines, 250 , 251 , 304 -5;

California accused of, 257 , 297 ;

California accuses merchants of, 300 , 359 ;

in France, 276

Aesop, 444

Agricultural Marketing Act, 450

Agricultural societies, importance of, 216 -17

Agricultural Society of Albemarle County, 146 ;

Jefferson's list for, 128

Agricultural Society of South Carolina, 150 , 216

Aguillon, Camille, 338

Aguillon Winery, Calif., 316 , 338

Aigleville, Ala., 137 , 138

Aiken, S.C., 217 ;

convention at, 226 -27;

vineyards in, 225 , 413

Aiken Horticultural and Vine-Growing Association, 224 ;

calls convention, 226

Alabama, 216 , 218 , 219 ;

French Vine and Olive Association in, 136 -39;

vineyards in, 226 ;

winegrowing in after Civil War, 412

Alabama Fruit Growing and Winery Association, 412

Alabama Vineyard and Winery Company, 412

Alameda County, Calif., 320 , 322

Albemarle, Duke of, 34

Albemarle, N.C., 149 , 168

Albemarle County, Va., 413 , 414

Albemarle County Grape Growers' Association, 414

Albert, Prince, 218

Alexander (wine), 85 , 123 , 125 -26;

Jefferson on, 127 , 129 , 140

Alexander, James, and Alexander grape, 84 , 85 , 119 -20

Alexander, William ("Lord Stirling"), 383 ;

vineyard of in New Jersey, 92 -93

Alhambra, Calif., 303 , 304 , 308

Alicante, 277

Alicante (wine), 13 , 19

Alison, Dr. Francis, 88

Allen, John Fisk, 206 , 207 ;

Culture of the Grape , 206

Allen, Michael, 447

Allhoff, Martin, 260

Allston, Joseph, 59

Alta California , 289 , 367

Altar wine (sacramental wine), 173 , 300 , 399 , 436 ;

from wild grapes, 486 n45

Altus, Ark., 404

Amador County, Calif., 261 , 351

Amana Colonies, Iowa, 403

Amatis, Paul, 44

Amen (or Ammen) (of Cincinnati), 157

Amenia, N.Y., 333

American Agriculturist , 413

American Concentrated Must Company, 305

American Farmer , 141 , 142 , 221

American Institute, N.Y., 161 ;

and California wine judging, 256 -57

American Museum , 117

American Philosophical Society: Legaux elected to, 109 ;

publishes Antill's essay, 91 , 216 ;

wine exhibited at, 88

American Philological Society, list of approved grapes, 205 , 217

American Temperance Union, 431

American Wine Company, St. Louis, 186

American Wine Growers' Association, 168 , 217 , 257

Amerine, Maynard, 354


526

Amoureux, Short and Practical Treatise , 116

Anaheim, Calif.:

development of, 285 -91;

Pierce's Disease in, 292 -93;

WCTU in, 501 n29

Anaheim Disease. See Pierce's Disease

Anaheim Wine Growers' Association, 291

Anderson, Hugh, 44

Anderson, S. F., 447

Angelica (wine), 240 -41, 250 , 257 , 291 , 297 , 305 , 324

Annual Register , 69

Anti-Saloon League, 433

Antill, Edward, 73 , 75 , 115 , 383 ;

"Essay on the Cultivation of the Vine," 91 , 98 , 123 , 216 ;

proposes public vineyard, 92 ;

wins Royal Society of Arts premium for vineyard, 89 -92, 93

Antwerp exhibition, 349

Applejack (apple brandy), 384

Apples, 25 ;

in New Jersey, 31 , 383 , 384

Arata, Andrea, 330

Arata, B., 337 -38

Arcadia, N.C., 11 , 12

Archdale, John, 37

Aristotle, 426

Arizona, 420

Arizona Fruit Growers' Association, 420

Arkansas, 219 , 409 , 415 ;

winegrowing in, 404 -6

Arkansas River, 404

Arminius, 175

Armistead, Col. Henry, 67

"Artificial wine," for Virginia, 19

Asbury, Bishop Francis, 426

Asbury, Herbert, 434

Ashe, Thomas, 36 , 37

Asheville, N.C., 142

Ashley, Lord (Anthony Ashley Cooper, later Lord Shaftesbury), 34 , 35

Ashley River, S.C., 35

Asti, Calif., 327 , 328 , 329 , 354 , 370

Astor, John Jacob, 157

Atlantic City, N.J., 389

Atlas Iron Works, 367

Augusta, Ga., 224 , 226

Augusta, Mo., 175 , 179 , 180 , 392

Auspurger (of Georgia), 46

Austerlitz, 136 , 138

Austria, 102

Austrians in U.S., 184 , 285

Axt, Charles, promotes winegrowing in South, 225 -27

B

Baier, Fritz, Winery, Va., 414

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, 149 ;

Sketch of the Evolution oar Our Native Fruits , xvi , 209 , 211 , 212 -213, 444 , 446

Baker, Col., 82

Baldwin, E.J. "Lucky," and Santa Anita Ranch, 311 , 331

Bale, Dr. Edward, 259

Ball, Col., 83

Balleu, James, 51 , 52

Baltimore, Md., 119 , 300

Baltimore, 2nd Lord, 33

Baltimore, 6th Lord, 83 , 85

Balziger, J., 397

Bancroft, Hubert Howe, 298

Bandini, Don Juan, 252

Bandini, Father Pietro, 405 -6

Bank of California, 321

Barbera (wine), 329

Barney, Hiram, 396

Barton, Dr. Benjamin, 252

Barton, Robert, 318 , 320 , 415

Barton Estate, Fresno, 318 , 319

Barton Estate Company Ltd., 320

Bartram, John, on wine and temperance, 88 , 435

Bartram, William, 88 ;

on Alexander grape, 84 ;

on native grapes, 115 , 445 -46;

on St. Pierre, 180 ;

on vines in Florida, 59

Bartram's Gardens, grapes in, 88

Basking Ridge, N.J., 92 , 93

Bass Islands, Ohio, 174

Bastard (wine), 19

Bauchet (or Bouchet), Louis, 245 , 252

Bauer, John, 397

Baxter, Emil, 402

Bear River, Calif., 261

Bear Winery, N.C., 416

Bedford, Duke of, 62

Beecher, Henry Ward, 210

Beecher, Lyman, 429

Beer:

in New Harmony, 132 ;

produced in Anaheim, 293 ;

uncommonness of in early republic, 429

Belair, Md., 84

Bellet (wine), Jefferson favors, 127

Belleville, Ill., Germans in, 185 , 397

Bellevue Vineyards, Kans., 399

Benmarl Vineyards, N.Y., 208

Berckmans, Louis E., 226

Beringer Brothers, Calif., 316 , 331 , 367

Berkeley, Sir William:

as Carolina proprietor, 34 ;

vineyard of in Virginia, 22 -23, 93

Bernal, Juan, 259

Bernallilo, N. Mex., 234

Bernard, Jean, 251

Beutler, John, 254

Beverly, Robert, 69 , 100 ;

description of Vir-


527

ginia grapes, 64 ;

History of Virginia , 13 , 37 , 63 , 101 , 445 ;

History , 2d ed., 65 ;

makes wine at Beverley Park, 64 -67, 93 , 103 ;

seeks public support for winegrowing, 67 ;

on Spotswood expedition, 65

Beverley, William, 67

Beverley Park, Va., 64 , 65

Bewlie (Ga.), vineyards in, 52 , 53

Bidet, Nicolas, 73

Bierce, Ambrose, 501 n2

Big Bend, Ky., 118

Big Tree (proprietary name), 360 -61

Bioletti, F. T., 351

Bisceglia Winery, Calif., 331

Black rot (Guignardia bidwellii ), 25 -26, 182 , 373 , 377 , 392 ;

in Indiana, 125 ;

in Kentucky, 119 ;

in Missouri, 177 , 186 ;

in New Jersey, 385 , 388 ;

in New York, 187 , 190 ;

in Ohio, 169 -71, 379 ;

in South Carolina, 413

Black Warrior River, Ala., 136

Bland, Col. Theodorick, 148

Bloch, George, 338

Blooming Grove Winery, N.Y., 194

Bluffton, S.C., 225

Bluffton Wine Company, Mo., 390 -91, 393

Board of Trade, London, 99 , 102 ;

Florida project of, 59 , 60 ;

and Huguenots in South Carolina, 95 , 98 ,

and North Carolina winegrowing, 61 ;

and Palatines, 103 ;

request for premiums from, 55

Bogen, G. and P., Cincinnati, 166

Bohlin, Frank, 339

Bohune, Dr. Laurence, 14

Boissiere, Ernest Valeton de, and Silkville, Kans., 402

Bolle Winery, Calif., 316

Bolling, Col. Robert:

"Address to the Friends of Vine Planting," 75 ;

"Essay on the Utility of Vine Planting," 75 ;

on fox grape, 444 ;

"Sketch of Vine Culture," 73 , 74 , 76 , 98 , 123 , 190 ;

vineyard of in Virginia, 73 -77, 81 , 81 , 91

Bonaparte, Joseph, 135 , 476 n23

Bonapartists. See Alabama: French Vine and Olive Association in

Bonnall, Jacques, 15 , 16

Bonoell, John, His Majesties Gracious Letter , 16 -17, 23 , 123 , 443

Boonville, Mo., 396

Boonville Wine Company, Mo., 391

Bordeaux:

exhibition at, 349 ;

Haraszthy visits, 276 ;

vines from, in Pennsylvania, 33 , 110 , 111 , 112 , 113 , 114 .

See also Château Haut-Brion; Château Lafite; Chateau Margaux

"Bordeaux" (native wine), 423

Bordeaux mixture, 171 , 391 -92, 403 , 413

Bordentown, N.J., 135

Bordi, Placido, 331

Boston, 156 ;

and California wine, 297 ;

early trials of vines in, 29 ;

and Great Western, 197 -98;

vines from, 265 ;

wine from wild grapes, 486 n45

Bostwick, Rev. William, 195 -96, 197

Bottles, provision of, 157 -58

Bourgmont, Capt. Etienne Venyard de, 398

Bowles, Samuel, 283

Boyd, James, 37

Boyle, Andrew, 252

Boyle, Robert, 24

Brace, Charles Loring, The New West , 177 , 267 -68, 289

Bradford, William, 29

Brady, Boy, xvii ;

"The Swallow That Came from Capistrano," xvi , 138

Brailow, Alexander, 447

Brandeis, Justice Louis, 440

Brandy, 111 ;

added to native wines, 71 , 86 , 129 , 145 , 146 , 151 , 157 , 158 ;

in California, 241 , 246 , 253 , 291 , 297 , 299 , 307 , 321 , 324 , 329 , 345 ;

distilling from native grapes recommended for, 70 ;

during Prohibition, 436 ;

from Catawba, 161 ;

in fortifying wines, 241 ;

tax on, 369 ;

in Virginia, 414 .

See also Applejack; Peach brandy

Brannan, Sam, 265 , 321

Brenner, Adam, 398 , 399

Brenner, George, 399

Brenner, Jacob, 398 , 399

Brighton, N.Y., 207

Brinckleyville, N.C., 223 , 415

Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre: discourages American wine industry, 117 ;

New Travels in the United States of America , 108 , 109

British wines, 305

Broad River, S.C., 99

Brocas, Capt. William, 22 , 23

Brocton, N.Y., 194 , 200 , 201 , 333 , 334 , 376

Brocton Wine Cellars, N.Y., 202 , 376

Brooklyn, N.Y., 187 , 192

Brotherhood of the New Life, 332 -35

Brotherhood Winery, Brocton, N.Y., 194 , 334

Brotherhood Winery, Washingtonville, N.Y., 194

Brown, Gov. Edmund, 269

Brown, John, 399

Browning, Robert, 350 ;

"Mr. Sludge" and catawba, 162

Browning Brothers, Anaheim, 290

Bryant, Edwin, What I Saw in California , 249

Bryant, William Cullen, 210

Buchanan, Pres. James, California wine sent to, 249


528

Buchanan, Robert, 160 , 165 , 168 ;

sells wine to Missouri, 186 ;

Treatise on Grape Culture , 169 , 222

Buchetti, J. F., 122 -23

Buckingham County, Va., 82

Buckley, Christopher, 326

Buena Vista Vineyard, Calif., 263 , 270 , 273 -75, 277 , 281 , 282 , 284 , 337

Buena Vista Vinicultural Society, Calif., 282 -83, 321 , 326

Buffalo, N.Y., 200 , 215 , 383

Bull, Ephraim, and Concord grape, 211 -15, 219

Bullock, William, 22 , 23

Bundschu, Charles, 273

Bunyan, John, 426

Burbank, Luther, 334

Burger (wine), 324

Burgundy, 57 , 98 ;

Haraszthy visits, 276 ;

Jefferson compares Virginia to, 80 ;

vines from, to Georgia, 43 , 49 ;

vines from, to Pennsylvania, 110 , 111 , 114 ;

vines from, to South Carolina, 98

Burgundy (wine):

from London, 43 ,

gift of, to Franklin, 87 .

See also Chambertin

"Burgundy" (domestic wine), 257

Burnaby, Rev. Andrew, 85

Burns, A.M., 398

Burr, Aaron, 111

Burr, John, 207 , 398

Bush, Isidor, 184 , 186 , 390 , 393 , 394

Bush & Son & Meissner, catalogue of, 184

Butte County, Calif., 322

Byrd, William, as vinegrower, 66 -69

C

Cabernet Sauvignon (wine), 308 , 329 , 360

Cabet, Etienne, 402 ;

Voyage en Icarie , 335

Cadillac, France, 246

Cady Winery, Calif., 3 , 16

Cahokia, Ill., 174

Caire, Justinian, 311

California, 82 , 177 , 185 , 200 , 228 , 237 , 375 , 395 , 415 ;

Central Valley of, 267 , 317 -20;

contrast between north and south, 266 -67, 315 ;

oldest winery in, 252 ;

regional classification of, 323 .

See also Anaheim; Fresno; Grapes, European varieties; Haraszthy, Agoston; Los Angeles; Napa County; Sonoma County

California, missions of:

—and commerce in wine, 241 -42

—Mission Dolores, wine from, 238

—San Buenaventura, 240

—San Diego: vines at, 238 ;

ruins of, 243

—San Fernando, 240 , 242

—San Gabriel, 238 , 241 , 245 , 294 , 298 ;

effect of secularization at, 243 ;

wines described, 240 ;

winegrowing at, 238 -39

—San Jose, 238 , 258 , 326 , 332 ;

wine described, 243 ;

winegrowing at, 240

—San Juan Capistrano, first vines at, 238

—San Luis Bey, 240 , 272

—Santa Clara, 238 , 258

—Santa Cruz, 238

—secularization of, 242 -43

—winemaking methods of, 241

California, University of, 185 , 304 , 344 , 395 ;

at Davis, 294 ;

Department of Viticulture, at Berkeley, 350 - 55.

See also Hilgard, Eugene

California, vines in:

—native hybrids, 259 , 260 , 262 , 266 , 318 , 324

—vinifera, imported:

by Brannan, 321 ;

by French in Santa Clara, 263 -65;

by Haraszthy, 263 , 265 , 272 , 274 , 279 -81;

by Keller, 250 ;

by Kohler & Frohling, 256 , 267 ;

by Vignes, 246 , 263 ;

by Wilson, 296

California, wine industry in:

—depression in, 355 -56

—early development of:

in Los Angeles region, 243 -58, 262 ;

at missions, 237 -43;

in north, 258 -67

—effect of Prohibition on, 437 -39

—and export of wines, 493 n48;

to Canada, 305 ;

to England, 305 , 328 , 355 ;

to Japan, 297 , 328 ;

to other countries, 328

—growth of, 310 -21, 373

—insufficient experience in, 262 , 267 -68, 493 n49

—large-scale enterprise in, 321 -29

—and machines for winemaking, 365 -67

—and national commerce, 256 -58, 297 , 300 ;

difficulties in establishing, 355

—and phylloxera, 343 -45, 346

—production of: in Anaheim, 290 ;

in 1860, 229 , 266 ;

in 1860-1890, 313 ;

in 1870-1900, 312 ;

in 1895-1910, 363

—publications devoted to, 367 -68

—varietal selection in, 345 -47

—wines, descriptions of, 240 , 246 , 249 , 256 -57, 267 -68;

Anaheim, 289 ;

by Hilgard, 493 n49;

Lake Vineyard, 297 ;

San Gabriel Wine Company, 304 , 308 -9

California Board of State Viticultural Commissioners, 282 , 292 , 307 , 316 , 337 , 395 ;

and conflict with university, 350 ;

work of, 342 - 50;

dissolved, 354 -55

California Farmer , 262 , 368

California Grape Protective Association, 502 n41

California Horticultural Society, 262

California Produce Company, 306

California State Agricultural Society, 251 , 264 ,


529

275 , 342 ;

committee of on wines, 267 ;

Transactions , 262 -63, 275 , 282 , 388

California State Fair, prizes at, 249 , 254 , 262 , 264 , 274 , 421

California State Legislature:

appoints commission on grapes, 263 , 275 ;

exempts new vines from taxation, 263 ;

Haraszthy reports to, 277 ;

special act for Buena Vista, 485 n44

California State Register , 262

California State Vinicultural Society, 266 , 340 -41

California State Viticultural Convention, 349

California Wine and Wool Register , 368

California Wine Association, 318 ;

founding and operation of, 356 -62

California Wine-Growers' Association, 341

California Wine Makers' Corporation, 358 -59, 362

California Wine, Wool and Stock Journal , 368

Calistoga, Calif., 265 , 321

Calvert, Charles, 33

Calvin, John, 426

Calwa Winery, Calif., 356

Calwa wines (proprietary name), 356 , 360 , 361

Camacho, Don José, brings first vines to California, 238

Campbell, George W., 207

Campbell, Col. James, 227

Campbell Town, Fla., 101

Camuse, M., 228

Canada, 11 , 18 , 186 , 206

Canandaigua Lake, N.Y., 198 , 199 , 375

Canary Islands, wine from, 13 , 19 , 33 , 34 .

See also Vidonia

Cannon, Clarence, 441

Cannon, Bishop James, 433

Cape Fear River, N.C., 35 , 61 ;

wine produced along, 149 -50

Cape of Good Hope, 110

Caradeuc, Achille de, 224 ;

Grape Culture and Winemaking in the South , 222 , 224

Carbon bisulphide, 344

Carignane (wine), 329

Carolina:

Huguenots migrate to, 101 ;

Lords Proprietors of, 34 , 35 ;

winegrowing plan for, 33 -34.

See also North Carolina; South Carolina

Carpenter, Lemuel, 245

Carpin, M., 413

Carpy, Charles, 356

Carr, J. F., 300

Carr (early grower), 155

Carrera, Juan de la, on vines in Virginia, 15 -16

Carriger, Nicholas, 259

Carroll, Charles, of Annapolis, 83 , 100

Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton, 83 , 100

Carter, Charles, 70 -71, 81

Carter, Col. Landon, 71 , 81

Carteret, Maj. James, 51

Cartier, Jacques, 11

Castroville, Tex., 407

Catawba (wine), 143 ;

Adlum's, 145 ;

Buchanan's, 164 ;

in Georgia, 226 ;

from Hermann, 177 ;

from Kentucky, 221 ;

Longworth's, 159 , 161 , 163 ;

in Missouri, 186 ;

in Virginia, 221 , 414 ;

Werk's, 167

Catawba cobbler, 164 -65

Catawba River, N.C., 142

Catesby, Mark, 67

Causton, Thomas, 48 , 51

Cayuga Lake, N.Y., 199

Caywood, Andrew Jackson, 207 -8, 209

Census, U.S.:

of 1860, 229 , 266 ;

of 1890, 403 ;

of 1910, 362

Central California Colony, 318

Central California Railroad, 317

Central Vineyards, Kans., 399

Cette, France, 276

Chalmers, Robert, 260

Chambertin, 127 , 140 , 276

"Chambertin" (Calif.), 348

Champagne (region), 98 , 394 ;

vines from, in Pennsylvania, 110 , 111 , 114

Champagne (wine), and sparkling catawba, 161 , 164

"Champagne" (native), 223 ;

from apples, 383 -84;

in California, 253 -54, 257 , 283 ;

in New Jersey, 384

Champion, John, 338

Champlin, Charles, 104 , 197

Chapman, Alfred, 299

Chapman, Charles, 245

Chapman, Joseph, 245

Chaptalizing, 38

Chard, William, 245

Charles II (king of England), 30 , 33 ;

pays charges of Huguenots to Carolina, 36 , 94

Charleston, S.C., 43 , 57 , 60 , 99 , 150 ;

early trials in, 35 , 37 ;

vineyards in, 225

Charlottesville, Va., 81 , 127 , 413 ;

as capital of Virginia "wine belt," 82 , 414

Chateau Bellevue, Calif., 321

Château d'Yquem, 322

Château Haut-Brion, 87 ;

vines from, 112 , 113

Château Lafite, 276 , 322 ;

vines from, 112 , 113

Château Larose, 322

Château Margaux, 276 ;

vines from, 112 , 113

Chateau Montelena, Calif., 316

Château Rauzan, 276

"Chateau Yquem" (Calif.), 348

Chautauqua County, N.Y., 200 , 201 , 376 , 385 , 388


530

Chautauqua district. See New York

Chautauqua Institution, 200 , 376

Chautauqua Lake, N.Y., 200

Chautauqua Wine Company, N.Y., 376

Chauvet, Jean, 338

Chazotte, Peter, 477 n49

Chellow, Va. (Bolling's estate), 73 , 75 , 81 , 82

Chelsea Botanical Garden, 43 , 89

Cherry juice (cordial), 304 -5

Chicago, 297 , 300 , 328

Child, Dr. Robert, 29 -30

China, and Virginia wine, 23

Chinese, and California winegrowing, 273 , 282 , 283 , 325 , 329 -30;

in southern California, 298

Christianity, and drink, 426 , 427

Christy, David, 228

Cider, 429 ;

in England, 150 ;

in New Jersey, 31 , 383 ;

in Virginia, 433

Cincinnati, 123 , 126 , 174 , 177 , 179 , 197 , 253 , 257 ;

Belmont, 162 ;

decline of winegrowing in, 172 ;

development of winegrowing around, 156 -72;

Eden Park, 162 ;

Germans in, 159 ;

Gibson House, 164 ;

pigs in, 163 ;

supplies vines to Hermann, 176 , 177 ;

winemaking methods in, 166 -68.

See also Longworth, Nicholas

Cincinnati Horticultural Society, 160 , 169 ;

promotes winegrowing, 161

Civil War:

and Cincinnati industry, 172 ;

and Georgia, 227 ;

and Missouri, 178 ;

and prohibition movement, 432 ;

and winegrowing in South, 225 , 411

Clarendon, Lord, 34

Claret, 33

"Claret" (native), 32 , 33 , 101 ;

in California, 250 , 257 , 291 , 337 ;

in North Carolina, 416 ;

in Virginia, 414

Clarksburgh, Md., Catawba discovered in, 142

Clay, Henry, 118 , 190 ;

toast by, 121

Clayton, Rev. John, 22

Clemens, Orion, 228

Clement, Michael, 251

Cleveland, 172 , 200 , 300 , 377 -78, 383 ;

Temperance Hall in, 377

Cliff Cave Wine Company, Mo., 390

Clinton (wine), 396 , 414

Cloverdale, Calif., 335

Cloverdale Wine Company, Calif., 316

Coit, H. O., 172

Coleman, Evan, 304 , 306

Coligny, Gaspard de, 11

Colle, Va. (Mazzei's estate), 79 , 80

Colleton, Col., 57

Collinson, Peter, 67 , 68

Coloma, Calif., 261

Coloma County, Calif., 261

Coloma Vineyard, Calif., 260

Colorado, 419

Colson, Alexander, 338

Colson, John, 338

Colson Brothers Winery, Calif., 316 , 338

Columbia, S.C., 150 , 152 ;

winegrowing around, 150 -51, 225

Columbia Wine Cellars, N.Y., 376

Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 324 , 409 , 412 ;

California wines at, 347 , 348 ;

grape juice at, 389

Columbus, Christopher, 6 , 110

Columella, 73

"Commission upon . . . the Grape-vine in California," 263 , 275 , 342 ;

reports of, 277 , 484 n23

Communities, religious or utopian, and winemaking:

Brotherhood of the New Life, 331 -36;

Community of True Inspiration, 403 ;

Harmonists (Rappites), 130 -34;

Icahans, 335 -36, 402 -3;

Pietists, 103 ;

in Silkville, Kans., 402 ;

in Vineland, Tenn., 227 .

See also Alabama: French Vine and Olive Association in; Huguenots; Italian Swiss Colony

Community of True Inspiration, 403

Compton, Calif., 432

Conant's Island, Mass., 29

Concannon Winery, Calif., 316

Concentrated must:

export of, 305 -6, 355 ;

and Prohibition, 437

Concord (wine), 214 , 381 , 396

Concord, Mass., 211 , 214 , 219

Coney Island, N.Y., 31

Connecticut, 228 ;

production in, 229

Conshohocken, Pa., 108

Constantia (wine), 110 , 119

Constitutional Convention (Philadelphia), 109

Consumption of wine, per capita, 373 , 374

Contra Costa County, Calif., 259

Cook, Isaac, 186

Cooke, Col. William, 46 -47, 50

Cook's Imperial (sparkling wine), 186

Cooksey (of Georgia), 46 , 50

Cooper, Anthony Ashley. See Lord Ashley

Cooper, Joseph, 466 n43

Cooper River, S.C., 37

Coopers and cooperage, 363 -65, 378

Corbin, Austin, 404 , 405

Cordials, 129 , 241

Cork oak (Quercus suber ), 494 n84

Corks, 366

Corneau and Son, Ky., 166 , 168

Cotton:

and slavery, 152 ;

in South, 225 , 411 ;

in South Carolina, 151


531

Couderc, Georges, 394

Council Bluffs, Iowa, 396 , 400

Council of Trade and Plantations, London, 64

Covington, Ky., 166

Coxe, Dr. Daniel, 32 -33

Cozzens, Frederick S., 221

Cozzens' Wine Press , 221

Crabb, H. W., 342 , 347 , 348

Cralle Winery, Calif., 316

Crawfordville, Ga., 226

Cresta Bianca Winery, Calif., 316 , 348 , 350

Cribari, B., 331

Crickets, in Indiana, 125

Crocker, Charles, 321

Croton Point Vineyards, N.Y., 191 , 192 -94

Crushers, grape, 365 , 378

Crystal Springs, Calif., 272 , 273

Cucamonga, Calif., 251 -52, 311 , 326 , 362

Cucamonga Vineyards, Calif., 356 , 357

Cupertino, Calif., 331 , 351

Curtis, J. M., 365

Cynthiana (wine), 390 , 414

D

Dale, Sir Thomas, 15

Dallidet, Pierre, 316

Dalton, Henry, 251 , 331

Dalton, Joseph, 35

Dancy, W. E., 410

Daphne, Ala., 412

David, Jean, and Jefferson, 128

Davis, William, on New Mexico, 234 -35

Davis, William Heath:

Seventy-Five Years in California , 238 , 259 ;

on Vignes, 248

De Brahm, John William, 54 , 99 -100

D'Eon, Chevalier, 87

De La Warr (Delaware), Lord, 14 -15, 24 , 93

De Lyon, Abraham, 104 ;

and vinegrowing in Georgia, 47 -48;

leaves Georgia, 49 , 51

De Turk, Isaac, 309 , 336 -37, 342 , 367

Dehay, Armand, 335 , 336

Delafield Winery, Calif., 316

Delaware (state), 31

Delaware (wine), 209 , 381 , 390 , 414 , 416

Delaware, Ohio, 207 , 209

Delaware Bay, 103

Delaware River, 31 , 89 , 209

Della Torre, Antonio, 153

Delmas, Antoine, 263 -65, 281

Delsol, Louis, 422

Demateis, Giovanni, 331

Demopolis, Ala., 136 , 137

Denison, Tex., 409 , 410

Deppe, Ferdinand, 239

Des Moines County, Iowa, 402

Detroit, Mich., 300

Dewey, H. T., 378 , 384

Diamond Wine Company, Ohio, 378

Dias, Senhor, 48

Dinzler Winery, N.Y., 375

District of Columbia, 146

Doan, Judge J., 407 , 410

Dobbs, Gov. Arthur, 62

Doerner, Adam, Winery, Ore., 421

Doma Vineyard, Calif., 316

Domestic Encyclopaedia , Bartram and Mease in, 115

Domingo, Juan (Johann Groningen), 245 , 252

Doniphan, Col. Alexander, 236

Doniphan County, Kans., 399

Doniphan Vineyard, Kans., 399

Douglas County, Kans., 399

Dover Bay Grape and Wine Company, Ohio, 378

Dowlen, Ethelbert, and Pierce's Disease, 307

Downey, Gov. John, 275 , 326

Downing, Andrew Jackson, 145 , 209 ;

Fruits and Fruit Trees of America , 281 ;

Horticulturist , 221

Downing, Charles, 209

Doz, Andrew, plants vines for Penn, 33 , 85 , 101 -2

Draycur, Auguste, 338

Drayeur, N.C., 338

Drayton, Michael, 13

Dresel, Emil, 282

Dresel, Julius, 347 , 498 n19

Dreyfus, Benjamin, 104 ;

and Anaheim, 290 -91

Dreyfus, B., and Co., 291 , 300 , 301

Dreyfus Winery, Calif., 291 , 292 -93

Dry Creek Winery, Calif., 316 , 338

Dubois, Emile, 412

Dubuque, Iowa, 396

Duden, Gottfried, and German emigration to Missouri, 174 , 175 , 179

Duflot de Mofras, Eugèene, 248

Dufour, John Francis, 120

Dufour, John James (Jean Jacques), 92 , 113 , 114 , 127 , 130 , 136 , 137 , 139 , 141 , 154 , 157 , 216 , 218 , 219 ;

American Vine-Dresser's Guide , 123 -25, 221 , 466 n47;

in Indiana, 123 -26;

in Kentucky, 119 -22;

makes first commercial wine in U.S., 117 -26;

returns to Europe, 122

Duhaut-Cilly, Capt. Auguste, 241 ;

on California wines, 240 , 246

Duhme, H., 168

Dunmore, Lord, 79

Dunz, Charles, 340

Dupalais, André, 112

Duran, Father, 240

Durand de Dauphiné, 100

Duroy & Haines Winery, Ohio, 378


532

E

Eagle Winery, Calif, 316

Easterby Ranch, 317

Ebenezer, Ga., 54 , 104

Eberhart, Adolf, 297

Eck & Chicolot, 363

Economy, Pa., vines in, 133 , 156 , 403

Edenton, N.C., 149

Egg Harbor City, N.J., 384

Eggers Vineyard, Calif., 318 , 320

Egmont, Earl of:

as Georgia Trustee, 47 ;

on De Lyon, 48 , 49

Eichelberger, Thomas, 135 , 155 , 190

Eighteenth Amendment, 329 , 370 , 424 , 425 , 434 -35

Eisen, Francis, in Fresno, 317 -18

El Aliso Vineyard, Los Angeles, 246 , 253 , 254

El Cajon Land Company, 312

El Dorado County, Calif., 261

"Eldorado" (wine), 250

E1 Paso. See New Mexico (Spanish)

El Pinal Vineyard, Calif., 265

Eliot Jared, 88

Elliott, C. W., 165

Ellsworth, Henry Leavitt, 477 n50

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 219

Emory, Col. William:

Notes of a Military Reconnoisance , 249 ;

Report , 237

Empire State Wine Company, N.Y., 376

Engelmann, Dr. George, 183 - 85, 397 ;

"Notes on the Grape Vines of Missouri," 184 ;

"True Grape Vines of the United States," 184

Engelmann, Theodore, 397

Engels and Krudwig, Ohio, 379

England:

colonial policy and wine, 12 -13, 55 ;

export to, 300 , 305 -6, 355 , 362 ;

grapes from, 421

English:

in California, 250 , 251 , 259 , 338 ;

investments in California, 301 , 307 , 311 , 320

English colonists, and winemaking efforts, 12 , 24 , 46

Ensenburger, G. A., 397

Epernay, France, 274 , 283 , 472 n26

Eppes, Francis, 82

Ericsson, Leif, 3

Erie, Lake, islands: development of, 378 -81;

suitability for vines, 172 -74

Erie, Lake, region, 167 , 202 , 217 ;

development of, in Ohio, 172 -74, 377 -81;

development of, in New York, 200 -202, 333 , 376 ;

distinction between Ohio and New York ends, 201 ;

and grape juice, 389

Erie, Pa., 200

Erie Canal, 199

Erie County, N.Y., 200

Erie County, Pa., 383

Ernst, A. H., 165

Erskine, Edwin Morris, survey of American winegrowing, 228 -29

Estave, André, 81 , 115 , 153 ;

opposed by Bolling, 75 , 76 , 77 , 82 ;

winegrowing efforts of in Virginia, 71 -73

Estrella Creek, Calif., 316

Evans, Lambert, 422 , 423

Evanston, Ill., 431

Evansville, Ind., 217

Eyre, Severn, 71

F

Fabricius, George, 261

Fair, James G., 325 -26

Fair Oaks Winery, Calif., 330

Fairchild, Edward, 410

Fairchild Winery, Okla., 411

Fairs and exhibitions, contribution of, 217 -18

Fages, Pedro, 258

Farm wineries, 423

Farmers' and Merchants' Bank of Los Angeles, 357

Fauquier County, Va., 223

Fay, Deacon Elijah, 200 -201, 202

Fay, Joseph, 201

Fay, Lincoln, 201

Fayetteville, N.C., 416

Federal government. See United States

Feldmeyer, B. W., 339 , 340

Fermentation:

prohibitionist view of, 400 ;

study of, 352 -54

Ferrar, John, 22

Field, Eugene, 497 n87

Field, Kate, lectures on California wine, 350

Figueroa, Gov. José, 240

First Baptist Church (Brocton, N.Y.), 201

Fischer, George Friedrich, 339

Fischer Winery, Calif., 316

Fisher, S. I., Observations on . . . European Vine , 147

Fitzwalter, Joseph, 44

Flagg, W. J.:

on cobbler, 164 -65;

on Longworth, 172

Flint, Timothy, 122 , 123

Florida, 146 ;

Huguenots near Pensacola, 101 ;

New Smyrna project in, 59 -60, 101 ;

wildvines in, 59 ;

wine exported from, 59 ;

wine made by French in, 11 , 45 , 59 ;

winegrowing in after Civil War, 411 -12

Florissant, Mo., 185

Flushing, Long Island, 188

Fontaine, John, 64 -65

Fort Duquesne, Pa., 116

Fort Vancouver, Wash., 421

Fountain Grove, Calif., 334 -35, 336

Fountain Grove Wine Press , 334

Fourier, Charles, 402


533

Fournier, M., 161

Fox, Bernard, 265

Foxiness in native grapes, 6 -7;

in Alexander, 123 ;

in Catawba, 143 , 163 ;

in Concord, 214 ;

in labrusca, 205 ;

in Sage, 206

France, 12 , 13 , 94 , 168 , 171 ;

American vines in, 381 , 394 , 409 ;

Jefferson in, 127 , 129 ;

as market for California wine, 305 ;

phylloxera in, 305 , 392 -93;

vines from, 15 , 16 , 30 , 78 , 91 , 128 , 133 , 151 , 152 , 224 , 263 , 264 .

See also Bordeaux; Burgundy; Champagne; Orleans

Franciscans, 233 , 235 ;

plant vines in New Mexico, 233 -34;

and winegrowing in California, 237 , 238 -43

Franklin (wine), 384

Franklin, Benjamin:

and Alexander grape, 462 n10;

and American Philosophical Society, 91 ;

gifts of wine to, 87 ;

interest of in wine and winemaking in colonies, 85 -87;

invoked by Loubat, 187 ;

and Mazzei, 77 ;

Poor Richard's Almanack , 86 ;

and Royal Society of Arts, 89

Franklin County, Kans., 402

Frash and Company, 414

Frederica, Ga., 47 , 50 ;

wine from, 53

Fredericksburg, Tex., 407

Free Society of Traders in Pennsylvania, 102

French:

anxious for their wine trade, 96 , 109 ;

in Alabama, 136 -39;

in California, 245 -46, 248 , 251 , 261 , 263 , 311 , 322 , 335 -36, 338 ;

in Florida, 60 ;

in Georgia, 51 ;

in Idaho, 422 ;

in Illinois, 118 , 132 , 174 , 185 ;

in Indiana, 174 ;

in Kansas, 399 , 402 ;

in Louisiana, 136 ;

in Mississippi Valley, 174 ;

in Missouri, 174 ;

in New York, 187 , 194 , 197 ;

in North Carolina, 150 , 224 ;

in Ohio, 116 , 156 -57, 161 ;

in Pennsylvania, 116 , 139 ;

in South Carolina, 104 , 151 , 413 ;

in Tennessee, 227 , 228 ;

in Texas, 407 , 408 ;

in Virginia, 14 , 15 -16, 20 -21, 69 ;

not eager to emigrate, 104 ;

prohibit colonial viticulture, 174 , 468 n16;

propose trade treaty, 342 ;

wine of compared to American, 382 ;

wine of from American varieties, 382 ;

winemaking of in Illinois, 468 n16.

See also Alabama: French Vine and Olive Association in; Huguenots; Legaux

French Agricultural and Manufacturing Society, 135 -36

Frenchtown, N.J., 209

Frenchtown, R.I., 30

Frenzeny, Paul, 330

Fresno, Calif., 317 , 351 , 370 , 415

Fresno Colony, 318

Fresno County, Calif., 258 ;

raisins in, 315 , 318 ;

winegrowing in, 317 -20

Fresno Vineyard Company, Calif., 318 , 320

Fried, Eunice, 445

Friend Winery, W. Va., 500 n70

Frisco Railroad, 405 , 406

Frohling, John, 104 ;

and early commerce in California wine, 254 -56

Frontinac (wine), 128 , 151

Fruit Industries Incorporated, 376 , 437

Fruithurst, Ala., 412

Fugger, Jacob, 176

Fukier's Restaurant, Warsaw, 243

Fulda Brothers, 363

Fungus diseases. See Black rot; Mildew, downy; Mildew, powdery

Furrer, J., 384

G

Gall, Dr. Ludwig:

Improvements in Wine-Making , 277 ;

"Practical Guide," 182

Gallegos, Juan, 325 , 331

Gallegos Winery, Calif., 326

Gallipolis, Ohio, wine made at, 116 , 156

Gallo, Ernest and Julio, 331

Garden, Alexander, 57

Gardener's Monthly , 209 , 384

Garrett, Paul, 223 , 437 ;

and "Virginia Dare," 415 -19

Garrett and Company, 415

Garrett brothers, 415

Garrett Winery, N.Y., 376 , 416

Gasconade County Fair (Mo.), 178

Gasconade Grape Growing Society, 217

Gasconade River, 175

Genet, Citizen, 111

Geneva, N.Y., 200 , 377

George III (king of England), 83 , 99

Georgetown, D.C., 116 , 139 , 141 , 148

Georgia, 87 , 100 ;

colonial efforts of at winegrowing, 40 -54;

rivalry of with South Carolina, 52 -53;

trustees of, 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 -47, 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 53 ;

Vine Growers' Association of, 226 ;

wild vines in, 45 ;

wine from native grapes in, 46 -47, 53 ;

winegrowing in, 19th century, 153 -54, 225 -26.

See also Savannah, Ga.

Gerke, Henry, 261 , 322 , 324

Germania Concert Society, 254

Germania Wine Cellars, N.Y., 376

Germanna, Va., 65

Germans, 94 ;

contributions of to American winegrowing, 104 ;

large emigrations of, 102 -3;

in Arkansas, 404 ;

in California, 251 , 252 , 254 , 265 , 285 , 288 , 290 , 305 , 322 , 331 , 338 -40;

in Georgia, 54 , 104 ;

in Illinois, 185 , 397 ;

in Indiana, 131 -32, 217 ;

in Iowa, 403 ;

in Kansas, 398 -99;

in Michigan, 382 ;

in Missouri, 174 -85, 390 , 404 ;

in Nebraska, 400 ;

in New Jersey, 384 ;

in New York, 103 , 197 ,


534

Germans (continued )

198 , 375 ;

in North Carolina, 103 -4;

in Ohio, 159 -60, 165 , 174 , 378 , 379 -80, 381 ;

in Pennsylvania, 33 , 85 , 102 , 103 , 130 -31, 133 , 134 , 135 , 383 ;

in South Carolina, 99 ;

in Tennessee, 227 ;

in Texas, 407 , 409 ;

in Utah, 420 ;

in Virginia, 65 , 69 , 413 ;

in Washington, 422

Germantown, Pa., 33 , 34 , 103 , 288

Germany, 152 , 168 ;

Haraszthy visits, 276 ;

Jefferson in, 127 ;

vines from, 86 -87, 99 , 131 -32, 265

Gervais, John Lewis, 99

Gervais, Prosper, 369

Geyser Peak Winery, Calif, 316

Geyserville Winery, Calif., 339 , 340

Gibbons, Ambrose, 29

Gibbs, Col. George, 155 , 192 ;

and Isabella grape, 190

Gibson, John, 338

Giessen, University of, 179

Gimbrede, Thomas, 194

Girard, Stephen, 111

Glaister, Thomas, 338

Glasgow, Ky., vineyards, 122 -23, 132

Glasier & Flint, 436 n45

Glassell Winery, Calif., 316

Glen Ellen Ranch, 337

Glen Ellen Vineyards, Calif., 356

Glover, Thomas, 23

Gobbi, Julius, 337

Gobbi, Peter, 337

Gobrugge Winery, Calif., 316

Gohdes, Clarence, 446

Gold Rush, 258 , 261 , 285

Golden Belt Wine Company, Calif., 290

Golden Eagle Winery, Ohio, 380

Gould, L. A., 265

Graffenried, Baron Christopher de, 103

Grant, Dr. C. W., and Iona grape, 209 -11

Grant, Pres. Ulysses S., 390

Grant, William, 52

Grape belt (N.Y.), 200 , 202

Grape berry moth, 25

"Grape boom," 202 , 209 -10, 215 ;

in South, 222 -28

Grape Culturist , 182 , 221 , 390

Grape cure, 194

Grape Growers' Association (Calif.), 342

Grape juice, 201 , 215 ;

invention and development of, 384 -90;

and Prohibition, 436

Grape-leaf hopper, 25

Grapes:

for fresh fruit, 197 , 215 , 253 ;

tendency to variation in, 5 , 203 -4;

world distribution of, 4 -5

Grapes, American species:

—accompanied by native diseases, 25

—adapted for fresh fruit, 215

—characteristics of, 5 -6, 120

—collected and studied by Patent Office, 219 -20

—described:

by Beverley, 64 ;

by Bartram, 115 ;

by Engelmann, 184 ;

by Lawson, 60 -61;

by Munson, 409 ;

by Prince, 190 ;

by Rafinesque, 154

—entered into hybrids, 9

—fallacy of improving by cultivating ("taming"), 14 , 88 , 93 , 194

—"Fox" grape, 6 , 153 ;

in South, 61 ;

in Virginia, 64

—idea of cultivating for wine:

Berkeley, 22 -23, 93 ;

Beverley, 64 , 93 , 101 ;

Collinson, 67 , 68 ;

Cooper, 466 n43;

Coxe, 32 -33;

De La Warr, 15 , 93 ;

Durand de Dauphiné, 100 ;

Estave, 71 , 72 , 76 , 115 ;

French in Ohio, 116 ;

Harriot, 93 ;

Sir Nathaniel Johnson, 37 , 93 ;

Robert Johnson, 13 -14, 93 ;

Laurens, 57 ;

Lawson, 61 ;

Mazzei, 80 ;

Penn, 32 , 93 ;

Royal Society of Arts, 93 , 115 ;

Washington, 81

—methods of making wine from:

Boneil's, 17 ;

Carter's, 70 ;

Franklin's, 86 ;

Hill's, 70

V aestivalis (summer grape), 7 , 151 , 394 , 407 ;

recommended for hybridizing, 205

V. berlandieri , 453 n14

V. Bourquiniana (subspecies of aestivalis ), 151 , 152 ;

in hybridizing, 208

V. californica , 345 , 431

V. candicans (mustang), 407 , 453 n14;

in hybridizing, 410

V. champini , 453 n14;

in hybridizing, 410

V. cinerea , 453 n14

V. cordifolia (winter grape), 7 , 394 ;

wine made from, 70 ;

Washington plants, 81

V. Doaniana , 407 , 410

V. labrusca (fox grape), 6 -7, 394 ;

in hybridizing, 206 , 207 , 208 , 209

V. lincecumii (post oak grape), 394 , 453 n14;

in hybridizing, 410

V. longii , 453 n14

V. monticola , 453 n14

V . riparia , 7 , 394 ;

in hybridizing, 207 ;

for resistant rootstocks, 402 .

V. rotundifolia (muscadine), 7 , 11 , 12 , 46 , 115 , 149 ;

Bartram hopes to propagate, 88 ;

does not readily hybridize, 9 ;

first reported wine in U.S. made from, 11 ;

in Florida, 411 -12;

in Leacock's vineyard, 89 ;

in North Carolina, 61 ;

in South Carolina, 37

V. rupestris (sand grape), 7 , 394 ;

wine made from, 116 , 394

V. vulpina (variant of riparia ), 7

—wine made from:

colonial, by Balleu, 51 , 52


535

by Beverley, 64 -67;

by Bohune, 14 ;

at Boston, 29 ;

by Bourgmont, 398 ;

by Brocas, 22 ;

by Charles Carter, 70 ;

by Landon Carter, 71 ;

by Durand de Dauphiné, 100 ;

by Houston, 53 ;

by Huguenots, 30 , 32 , 101 ;

by Livezey, 87 ;

by Mazzei, 80 ;

by Moravians, 62 ;

around Philadelphia, 88 -89;

by Stephens, 52 ;

in Virginia, 14 , 19

Grapes, American varieties.

See also names of particular grapes as sources of wine

—Blue Favorite, 153

—Carolina Purple Muscadine, 147

—Concord, 31 , 217 , 377 , 411 , 446 ;

and grape juice, 388 , 389 -90;

history of, 211 -15;

in Alabama, 412 ;

in Arkansas, 405 ;

in Iowa, 402 ;

in Kansas, 398 ;

in Michigan, 382 ;

in Missouri, 177 ;

in New Jersey, 384 ;

in New York, 197 , 201 , 376 ;

in Ohio, 335 , 378 , 382 ;

in Oklahoma, 411 ;

in Oregon, 421 ;

in South Carolina, 413 ;

in Washington, 422 ;

memorial to, 215 ;

as standard grape for Americans, 6 , 212 , 447 ;

wins Greeley prize, 214

—Elkton, 148

—Guignard, 151

—Halifax, 223

—Luffborough, 148

—Mammoth, 206 , 219

—"Red Juice Grape," 131 , 147

—Rupestris St. George, 345

—Sage, 206 , 219

—Scuppernong, 7 , 168 , 227 , 415 -16;

American "champagne" grape, 223 ;

"Mother Wine," 12

—"Virginia" grape, 83

Grapes, European species (V. vinifera ):

—ancient tradition of, 5

—evolution of, 6

—first planted in U.S., 11

—future of in eastern U.S., 40 , 82

—and general conviction that vinifera will not grow in U.S., 91 , 259 , 421

—successful trials of, 369 -70

—succumbs to native American diseases, 25 -28;

in Alabama, 137 -38;

in Arkansas, 405 ;

in Georgia, 153 ;

in Illinois, 402 ;

in Indiana, 125 , 132 ;

in Kentucky, 120 ;

in Maryland, 139 ;

in New York, 187 , 192 ;

in North Carolina, 223 , 415 ;

in Pennsylvania, 89 ;

in South Carolina, 150 ;

in Texas, 407 ;

in Virginia, 72

—supported: by Bolling, 73 , 75 ;

by Fisher, 147 ;

by Prince, 190 ;

by St. Pierre, 98

—trials of: in Alabama, 137 ;

by Antill, 91 -92;

in Arkansas, 405 ;

by Bolling, 75 -77;

by Du-four, 119 -20;

in Georgia, 43 , 45 , 46 ;

in Idaho, 422 ;

in Illinois, 402 ;

in Indiana, 131 -32;

by Jefferson, 81 ;

by Lawson, 61 ;

by Leacock, 89 ;

by Legaux, 108 -113;

by Longworth, 157 , 187 ;

in Maryland, 83 -84, 139 , 147 ;

in Massachusetts, 30 ;

by Mazzei, 79 ;

by Monroe, 128 ;

in Missouri, 176 , 179 , 474 n113;

in New York, 31 , 187 , 192 ;

in New Jersey, 92 ;

in North Carolina, 223 -24, 415 ;

in Oregon, 421 -22;

in Pennsylvania, 33 , 101 , 103 , 133 ;

by St. Pierre, 96 -100;

in South Carolina, 150 ;

in Texas, 407 , 408 ;

in Virginia, 15 , 67 , 70 , 79 , 223 ;

by George Washington, 81 ;

in Washington, 422

—used expressly for wine, 215

Grapes, European varieties.

See also names of particular grapes as sources of wine

—Affenthaler, 280

—Aleatico, 351

—Alicante, 190

—Alicante Bouschet, 438

—Bakator, 280

—Barbera, 348

—Black Burgundy, 347

—Black Hamburgh, 206

—Black St. Peters. See Zinfandel

—Blue Cluster, 91

—Boros, 280

—Burger, 297 , 318 , 324 , 347

—"Burgundy" grape, 83 , 92 , 111

—Cabernet Sauvignon, 5 , 280 , 311 , 324 , 334 , 347 , 348 , 351 , 438

—Calytor, 280

—Carignane, 280 , 297 , 348 , 415

—Charbono, 324 , 347

—Chardonnay, 5 , 280 , 347 , 348 , 438

—Chasselas Blanc, 57 , 206

—Chasselas de Fontainebleau, 206

—Chenin Blanc, 280 , 347

—Cinsaut, 415

—Clairette, 415

—Claret grape, 83

—Constantia, 110 .

See also Grapes, hybrid varieties: Alexander

—Corinthe, 280

—Criolla, and Mission, 234

—Csaszar szolo, 280

—Dinka, 280

—Emperor, 438

—Ferdeges, 337

—Flame Tokay, 438

—Folle Blanche, 263 , 297

—French Colombard, 263

—Frontiniac (Frontinac), black, white, and red, 92 .

See also Muscat de Frontignan

—Furmint, 280

—Gewurztraminer, 280

—Greco della Torre, 76


536

Grapes, European varieties (continued )

—Grenache, 280 , 297 , 415

—Grey Riesling, 263 , 337

—Gutedel, 131 , 257 , 346 , 347

—Jajos, 280

—Kadarka, 280

—Kishmish, 280

—Lisbon, 59 , 89

—Malbec, 324 , 347 , 348

—Malvoisie, 324 , 326

—Marocain Noir, 280

—Mataro, 297

—Melie Blanc, 91

—Mission, in California, 234 , 237 , 241 , 246 -47, 254 , 256 , 259 , 263 , 275 , 281 , 283 , 287 , 291 , 292 , 293 , 296 , 297 , 315 , 318 , 321 , 322 , 326 , 346 ;

in champagne, 254 ;

and Pierce's Disease, 292 , 293

—Mourastel, 415

—Mourvedre, 415

—Muscadelle de Bordelais, 119

—Muscadine (?), white and others, 91 , 92

—Muscat de Frontignan, 128 , 347 , 486 n39

—Muscat of Alexandria, 486 n39

—Nebbiolo, 276

—Orleans, black, 91 , 92 , 265

—Pedro Ximenes, 240

—Petite Sirah, 312 , 347 , 348

—Pinot Noir, 5 , 223 , 280 , 312 , 334 , 347 , 348 , 438

—Portugal, white, 70 , 92

—Primitivo di Gioia. See Zinfandel

—Rhenish grape, 83 , 86 -87

—Riesling, 5 , 131 , 265 , 280 , 324 , 346 , 347 , 348 , 438 , 498 n19

—Sauvignon Blanc, 280 , 324 , 347

—Semillon, 5 , 280 , 321 , 324 , 347 , 348

—Sylvaner, 131 , 265 , 280

—Syrah, 280 , 347

—Tautovina, 280

—Thompson Seedless, 315

—Tinta Cão, 351

—"Tokay," 57 , 92 , 111

—Torok Malozsla, 280

—Traminer, 265

—Trousseau, 297 , 326

—Valdepeñas, 351

—Veltliner, 131

—Verdelho, 347

—White Pineau, 347

—Wine-Island (Madeira), 59

—Zante, 57

—Zinfandel, 257 , 297 , 311 , 315 , 318 , 324 , 326 , 334 , 337 , 346 , 347 ;

and Haraszthy, 280 -82, 284 ;

and Primitivo di Gioia, 281 .

Synonyms : Black St. Peters, 281 ;

Black Zinfardel, 281 ;

Zeinfindall, 281 ;

Zinfindal, 281

Grapes, hybrid:

—controlled breeding of:

contribution to American winegrowing, 208 ;

development of, 203 -15;

by Allen, 206 ;

by Bull, 211 -15;

by Burr, 207 ;

by Campbell, 207 ;

by Caywood, 207 -8;

by Grant, 209 -11;

by Haskell, 207 ;

by Moore, 207 -8;

by Pond, 205 ;

by Prince, 205 ;

by Rogers, 206 -7;

by Rommel, 207 ;

by Stayman, 207 ;

as national sport, 207 ;

proposed by Dufour, 125 , 205

—French-American, 82 , 394

—importance of discovery of, 94

—introduced:

by Burns, 398 ;

by Illinois Germans, 397 ;

in Minnesota, 420 ;

by Missouri Germans, 182 ;

by Munson, 409 -10;

by Prince, 190 ;

by Thompson, 400 ;

by S. Underhill, 194

—planted in France, 382

—random breeding of, 94 , 148 , 205 , 208

—South Carolina as center of, 57

Grapes, hybrid varieties.

See also names of particular grapes as sources of wine

—Abby Clingotten, 211

—Ada, 206 , 211

—Adelaide, 211

—Adelia, 211

—Agawam, 206 , 421

—Alexander, 148 , 203 , 206 ;

Col. Tasker makes wine from, 85 ;

discovery of, 84 , 94 ;

Dufour selects, 120 ;

Legaux calls "Cape" or "Constantia," 110 , 113 , 142 ;

perfect-flowered, 120 ;

planted in Indiana, 122 , 123 , 125 , 132 ;

in Kansas, 398 ;

in Kentucky, 119 , 122 , 123 ;

in Maryland, 127 , 139 , 140 ;

in Ohio, 157 ;

in Pennsylvania, 131 , 134 , 135 , 383 ;

in Virginia, 127 -28;

question of origin and identity of, 119 -20, 476 n3;

recognized as hybrid, 205 ;

recommended by Mease, 115 ;

as starting point of eastern viticulture, 114

Synonyms : Cape, 113 ;

Black Cape, 466 n60;

Cape of Good Hope, 110 ;

Clifton's Constantia, 147 ;

Constantia, 110 ;

Schuylkill, 120 ;

Schuylkill Muscadel, 147 ;

Springmill Constantia, 466 n60;

Tasker's Grape, 466 n60;

Vevay, 466 n60;

York Claret, 135 ;

York Lisbon, 135 ;

York Madeira, 135

—Allen's Hybrid, 206

—Armalaga, 410

—Bacchus, 207

—Beauty of Minnesota, 420

—Beta, 420

—Bland's Grape, 75 , 115 , 119 , 147 -48, 149 , 398 ;

as hybrid, 205 .

Synonyms : Bland's Madeira, 148 ;

Madeira (?), 148 ;

Powell, 148

—Bland's Madeira. See Bland's Grape

—Campbell Early, 422

—Cape. See Alexander


537

—Catawba, 126 , 140 , 146 , 147 , 151 , 154 , 191 , 202 , 205 , 209 , 227 , 382 , 399 , 411 ;

described, 143 ;

discovered by Adlum, 142 ;

and Isabella, 148 , 190 ;

planted in Arkansas, 404 ;

in California, 259 , 262 , 266 , 324 ;

in Georgia, 226 ;

in Missouri, 177 , 179 ;

in New Jersey, 384 ;

in New York, 192 , 196 , 197 , 200 , 201 , 375 , 376 ;

in Ohio, 157 -74, 378 ;

in Oregon, 421 ;

in Tennessee, 227 ;

susceptible to disease, 171 , 177 .

Synonyms : Muncy, 147 ;

Tokay, 142 , 147

—Champion, 377

—Clevener, 384

—Clifton's Constantia. See Alexander

—Clinton, 394 , 399 , 413 ;

in New York, 197 .

Synonym : Worthington, 147

—Constantia. See Alexander

—Creveling, 399

—Croton, 377

—Cynthiana, 404 , 405 , 412 , 487 n68

—Delaware, 171 , 197 , 208 , 375 , 382 , 399 , 411 , 412 , 420 , 421 ;

history of, 208 -9

—Delicatessen, 410

—Diana, 197 , 205 , 209 , 266

—Don Juan, 207

—Dutchess, 208 , 382

—Elvira, 182 , 208 , 375 , 399

—Empire State, 377

—Eumelan, 384

—Goethe, 206 , 399

—Green Mountain, 420

—Headlight, 410

—Herbemont, 151 , 223 ;

in California, 266 , 324 ;

in Georgia, 226 ;

in North Carolina, 224 ;

in Texas, 408 , 409 .

Synonyms : Herbemont's Madeira, 151 ;

Madeira, 151 ;

Warrenton, 153

—Herbemont's Madeira. See Herbemont

—Iona, 197 , 398 ;

and Greeley prize, 214 ;

promoted by Grant, 209 -11

—Isabella, 149 , 191 , 203 , 205 ;

as favorite on Long Island, 192 ;

in hybridizing, 206 ;

introduction of, 148 , 189 , 190 ;

planted in California, 259 , 266 ;

at Hermann, 176 , 177 ;

in New York, 187 , 192 , 196 , 197 , 198 , 200 , 201 , 375 ;

in Oregon, 421 ;

in Russia, 447 ;

in Tennessee, 227 ;

as most widely planted grape in world, 475 n127

—Island Belle (Campbell Early), 422

—Ives' Seedling, 171 -72, 399 , 413 ;

in Alabama, 412 ;

in Arkansas, 404 ;

in New Jersey, 384 ;

in New York, 197

—Jefferson, 377

—Lady Washington, 207

—Lenoir, 152 , 223 , 227 ;

in California, 318 , 324 , 487 n68;

in France, 394 ;

in Georgia, 226 ;

in Missouri, 177 ;

in Texas, 408 , 409 ;

as rootstock, 345

—Leon, 211

—Letovey, 211

—Lewis, 211

—Lexington, 211

—"Lisbon," 132

—Lukfata, 410

—"Madeira": in Alabama, 139 ;

in Indiana, 122 , 125 , 132 ;

in Kentucky, 119 , 123 ;

in Pennsylvania, 131 .

See also Herbemont

—Martha, 384 , 390 , 413

—Massasoit, 206

—Missouri Riesling, 182

—Moore's Diamond, 208 , 421

—Moore's Early, 375

—Muncy. See Catawba

—Neva Munson, 410

—Niagara, 377 , 412 , 421 , 447

—Noah, 394

—Norton, 82 , 151 , 178 , 404 ;

introduced, 149 ;

planted in California, 318 ;

in Florida, 412 ;

in Kansas, 399 ;

in Missouri, 177 ;

in New Jersey, 384 ;

in New York, 197 ;

in North Carolina, 223 ;

in South Carolina, 413 ;

in Virginia, 82 , 222 .

Synonym : Virginia Seedling, 82

—Orwigsburgh, 147

—Othello, 394

—Pocklington, 413

—Pond's Seedling, 205

—Powel/Powell. See Bland's Grape

—Salem, 206 ;

and Thomas Lake Harris, 333

—Schuylkill.See Alexander

—Schuylkill Muscadel. See Alexander

—Tasker's Grape. See Alexander

—Tokay. See Catawba

—Vergennes, 420

—Virginia Seedling. See Norton

—Walter, 208

—Warren (perhaps Herbemont), 226

—Warrenton. See Herbemont

—White Concord, 208

—Wilder, 206

—Worden, 421

—Worthington. See Clinton

—XLNTA, 410

—York Claret. See Alexander

—York Lisbon. See Alexander

—York Madeira. See Alexander

—Zane, 211

—Zelia, 211

—Zinnia, 211

—Zita, 211

—Zoe, 211

Grapes and Wines of California (California State Vinicultural Society), 266

Grappa, 329

Grayson, William John, 152 ;

on South Carolina winegrowing during Civil War, 225


538

Great Exhibition, London: Catalogue , 168 ;

Ohio producers exhibit at, 161 -62, 168 , 170 , 218

Greece: as model for Virginia viticulture, 23 ;

vignerons from, 60

Greeks, in Florida, 59 -60

Greeley, Horace, 210 ;

prize for grape, 214

Green, Col. Wharton, 416

Green Oaks Winery, Calif., 316

Greenville, S.C., 413

Gregg, Josiah, Commerce of the Prairies , 234

Grein, Nicholas, 182

Grenville, George, Prime Minister, 59

Greystone Cellars, Calif., 356

Griffin, Dr. John, 250

Guasti, Secondo, 311 , 331 , 362

Guerin, M., 227

Guignard, James S., 151

Gundlach, Jacob, 104 , 273 , 316 , 337 , 338 , 348 , 367

Gunn Winery, Calif., 316 , 338

Gutedel (wine), 257

Guyot, Jules, 415

Gwin, Sen. William, 303

H

Habersham, James, 52

Haehl, Conrad 339

Hague, The, 102

Hakluyt, Richard, 12 , 13 , 34 , 41 , 402

Hamburg, 248

Hamilton, Alexander, 111

Hammond, James, 226

Hammondsport, N.Y., 196 , 197 , 198 , 376

Hammondsport and Pleasant Valley Wine Company. See Pleasant Valley Wine Company

Hammondsport Wine Company, N.Y., 376

Hamor, Ralph, 15

Hansen, E. C., 353

Hansen, George, lays out Anaheim, 285 -88

Haraszthy, Agoston, 315 , 321 , 326 , 330 , 363 ;

in California, 272 -83;

leaves California, 283 -84;

as commissioner in Europe, 275 -77;

early career of, 269 -71;

Grape Culture, Wines and Wine-Making , 222 , 277 , 278 , 284 ;

imports European vines, 263 , 265 , 279 -81;

"Report of Commissioners," 277 ;

"Report on Grapes and Wines of California," 240 , 262 -63, 275 , 277 ;

Travels in America , 271 ;

in Wisconsin, 271 -72;

and Zinfandel, 280 -82, 284

Haraszthy, Arpad, 238 , 271 , 274 , 282 , 283 , 312 , 317 , 349 ;

"The Haraszthy Family," 483 n5;

on history of Zinfandel, 484 n33;

as president, State Viticultural Commissioners, 342 , 350 ;

"Wine-Making in California," 315

Haraszthy, Attila, 271 , 274 , 283

Haraszthy, Bela, 271

Haraszthy, Geza, 271 , 274

Haraszthy, Ida, 276

Haraszthy, Otelia, 283

Harmonists. See Rapp, George

Harmony, Pa., winegrowing at, 130 -31, 132

Harper and Brothers, 276

Harriot, Thomas, Briefe and True Report , 93

Harris, Thomas Lake, wine communities in New York and California, 332 -35

Harris, Louis, Winery, Ohio, 378

Harrod's, London, 362

Haskell, George, 207

Hatarask Island, N.C., 12

Havre de Grace, Md., Adlum's vineyard at, 127 , 139 , 141 , 145

Hawkins, Sir John, reports wine made in Florida, 11

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 206 , 211

Hayne, A. B., 351

Heald, J. L., 367

Hearst, Sen. George, 326

Hecker, Friedrich, 397

Hedrick, Ulysses Prentiss: Grapes of New York , xvi , 6 , 64 , 115 , 135 , 197 , 199 -200, 206 , 208 , 209 , 211 ;

Grapes and Wines from Home Vineyards , 211 , 475 n 122;

History of Horticulture , 147 ;

work on vinifera, 369 -70, 377

Heil, August, 384

Heineken and Peters, 414

Heineman, Gustav, 380

Hellman, Isaias, 303 , 307 , 308 , 326 ;

acquires California Wine Association, 356 -57

Hencke, Ludwig, 397

Henrico, Va., 15

Henriques, Isaac Nunez, 48

Henze, Henry, 392

Herbemont, Nicholas, 154 , 190 ;

plan for state winegrowing, 152 -53;

"Treatise on the Culture of the Vine," 152 ;

work of in South Carolina, 151 -53

Hermann, Mo., 186 , 217 , 288 ;

after Civil War, 392 ;

development of as winegrowing center, 174 -79

"Hermitage" (Calif.), 348

Hermitage, white, 127

Herrara, Alonso de, Agricultura General 241

Hicks, James, 123

Hilgard, Eugene, 185 . 326 , 342 ;

on bad California wine, 493 n49;

directs university work on wine, 351 -55;

on phylloxera, 491 n14

Hilgard, Theodore, 185

Hilgardsberger (wine), 185

Hill, Aaron, "Directions for Cultivating Vines in America," 70 , 86

Hill Crest (wine), 360


539

Hillsborough, Lord, 96 , 463 n67

Hincke, Julius, 394

Hittell, John S., Resources of California , 268

Hobart, Alice Tisdale, The Cup and the Sword , 331 , 438

Hobbs, S. Decatur, 297

Hock, 159 , 164

"Hock" (native), 223 ;

California, 257 , 291

Holst Winery, Calif., 316

Hommel, M., Winery, Ohio, 378

Hood, Eliza, 337

Hoover, Pres. Herbert, 434

Hoover, Leonce, 251 , 252

Hoover, Victor, 251 , 252

Hopkins, Mark, 321

Horticultural Review , 227

Horticulturist, The , 221

Horton, Lieutenant, 46 -47

Hotopp, William, 413

House of Burgesses, Va. See Virginia, General Assembly of

Houston, Patrick, 53

Houston, William, 300

Houston, Dr. William, 43 , 44

Hovey and Co., 212 , 213

Howard, Charles Webb, 327

Howard, Gen. Volney, 299

Howard County, Md., 83

Hubbard, William, 31

Huber, Theophile, 397

Hudson River, 31 , 103 , 200

Huerta de Cuati, 294

Hughes, John T., Doniphan's Expedition , 236

Huguenots, 135 , 335 ;

in Florida, 11 , 101 ;

in Massachusetts, 30 , 101 , 102 ;

in New York, 102 ;

in Pennsylvania, 32 , 33 , 101 -2;

in Rhode Island, 30 , 102 ;

in South Carolina, 36 -37, 57 , 94 , 95 -100, 224 , 225 ;

in Virginia, 100 -101

Hundhausen, Julius, 392

Hungary, vines from, 133 , 280

Huntington, Collis P., 321

Huntington, Henry E., 301 , 308

Huntington Art Gallery, 301 -2

Huntington Library, xvii

Husmann, George, 104 , 178 , 327 , 336 , 390 , 397 ;

American Grape Growing and Wine-Making , 347 , 391 ;

on bad wines, 359 ;

and Bluffton Wine Company, 390 ;

in California, 346 , 395 -96;

Cultivation of the Native Grape , 181 , 222 ;

Essay on the Culture of the Grape , 180 -81, 222 ;

founds Grape Culturist , 182 , 221 ;

Grape Culture and Wine-Making in California , 395 ;

sends vines to France, 393 , 394 ;

and winemaking technology, 181 -82

Husmann, George C., 323 , 345

Hutton, Isaac G., The Vigneron , 146

Huxley, Thomas, 307

Hyatt, T. Hart, Hand-Book of Grape Culture , 260

Hybrid defined, 204

Hybrid vines. See Grapes, hybrid

Hyde, Dr. J. s., 333 , 334

Hydrometer, 153 , 167

I

Icaria Speranza, 335 -36, 338 , 402

Icaria Winery, Calif., 336

Icarians, in Illinois and Iowa, 402

Idaho, 369 , 422

Illinois, 179 , 185 , 217 , 374 , 396 , 397 , 402 , 403

Illustrated London News , 162

Independent Order of Good Templars, 429

Independent Order of Rechabites, 429

Indian River, Fla., 60

Indian Territory. See Oklahoma

Indiana, 148 , 415 ;

Dufour's work in, 113 , 121 -26;

as leader in early U.S. wine production, 131 ;

production of in 1860, 229 ;

vineyards in, 165 ;

winegrowing at New Harmony, 131 -33.

See also Vevay, Ind.

Indiana Territory, 121

Indians, North American: in California wine-growing, 241 , 242 , 253 , 298 , 311 ;

and distilled liquors, 426 -27;

and lack of knowledge of wine, 11 ;

supply grapes to Bourgmont, 398

Inglenook Winery, Calif., 316 , 324 , 326

Internal Revenue Service, and enforcement of Prohibition, 435 -36

International Congress of Viticulture, in San Francisco, 369 -70, 422

Iohlink (wine), 384

Iona (wine), 211 , 381

Iona Island, N.Y., 209 -11, 333

Iowa, 415 ;

vineyards in, 335 , 396 , 400 , 402 , 403

Irish, and French wine, 87

Isabella (wine), 185 , 190 , 381 , 421

Isabella, sparkling, 165

Italian Swiss Colony, Calif., 306 , 316 , 327 -29, 335 , 336 , 358 , 359 , 362 , 370

Italian Vineyard Company, Calif., 362 , 370

Italians: in Alabama, 412 ;

in Arkansas, 404 -6;

in California, 104 , 311 , 327 -31, 337 -38;

in New Jersey, 385 ;

in New York, 376 ;

in Tennessee, 227 ;

in Texas, 408

Italy, 162 ;

Haraszthy visits, 276 ;

Mazzei brings vines and workers from, 78 -80;

oidium in, 171 ;

ordinary wine of, 80 ;

proposals to import workers from, 152 , 153 ;

Turnbull recruits from, 60 ;

vines from, 78 , 79 , 91 , 276 ;

vines from recommended for Virginia, 75 , 76

Ives Seedling (wine), 381 , 396 , 414


540

J

Jackson, Andrew, 129

Jackson, Charles T., 220

Jacot, August, 399

Jacquemin, Georges, 353

Jaeger, Hermann, 393 , 394 , 409

James I (king of England), 15 ;

commands instruction in winegrowing for Virginia, 16 -17;

"A Counterblast to Tobacco," 15

James River, Va., 13 , 20 , 101

Jamestown, Va., 7 , 12 -24, 33 , 82 ;

as "boomtown," 19

Japanese, in California, 323 , 335

Jacques, Jean, 194

Jefferson, Thomas, 149 , 218 ;

Adlum sends Catawba to, 142 ;

and Agricultural Society of Albemarle County, 128 ;

Dufour sends wine to, 121 , 127 ;

favors native grape, 128 , 140 ;

first vineyard of, 81 ;

in France, 127 , 129 ;

interest of in wine and winegrowing, 126 -29;

and Legaux, 111 ;

and Mazzei, 79 -81, 82 , 127 ;

Papers of, 127 ;

and Scuppernong, 128 -29;

taste in wine, 127 ;

thinks viticulture not for U.S., 129 ;

vine plantings of, 127 -28, 129 , 141 ;

on wine and temperance, 435

Jeffrey, A. C., 300

Jessop, George H., Judge Lynch: A Tale of the California Vineyards , 368

Jesuits: in Illinois, 118 , 174 ;

in Mexico, 100 , 464 n83;

in Missouri, 185 ;

in Southwest, 233

Johnson, Sir Nathaniel, vineyard of in South Carolina, 37 , 93

Johnson, Robert, 13 , 14 ;

Nova Britannia , 93

Johnson, Gov. Robert, 55 , 95

Johnson, S. W., Rural Economy , 92 , 114

Johnston, Gov. Gabriel, 61 -62

Jones, Hugh, Present State of Virginia , 65 -67

Jones, R. S., 88

Jones, Commodore Thomas Ap Catesby, 248

Jordan, David Starr, 325

Justi, Charles, 261

K

Kaiser, Father, 332

Kalmia, S.C., 225

Kaltenbach, Basil, 375

Kansas, 179 , 207 ;

viticulture and winegrowing in, 397 -400, 402 , 403

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 399

Kansas City, Mo., 392 , 396

Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 399

Kansas State Horticultural Society, 399 , 400 ;

The Grape in Kansas , 400 , 401

Kansas State Temperance Union, 397

Kaolin, S.C., 225

Kaskaskia, Ill., 118 , 174

Kaw River, 398

Kayser, Alexander, 177

Kearney, Gen. Stephen Watts, 250

Keats, John, 466 n50

Kecoughton, Va., French vine pressers settled at, 15 , 16

Kehl, Peter, 483 n7

Keller, Matthew, and winegrowing in Los Angeles, 250 -51, 252 , 255

Kelley, J.J., 390

Kelley's Island, Ohio, 174 , 380 -81

Kelley's Island Wine Company, Ohio, 380 , 381

Kellog, Florentine, 259

Kentucky, 114 , 116 , 146 , 148 ;

Dufour's vineyards in, 118 -21;

other vineyards in, 122 -23, 165 , 166 , 226 ;

production in 1860, 229

Kentucky River, 119 , 121

Kentucky Vineyard Society (Dufour), 118 , 119 , 121 , 190

Keokuk, Iowa, 396

Kern County, Calif., 317

Keuka Lake, N.Y., 195 , 196 , 197 , 199 , 374 -75

Kewen, Col. Edward, 299

Keyes, Gen. Erasmus D., 331

King, Charles, sends vines and wines to Georgia, 43 -44

Kings County, Calif., 317

Kingsburg, Calif., 329

Kipling, Rudyard:

on Buckley, 326 ;

on Economy, Pa., 133

Knauth, Gordon, 265

Knobview, Mo., 406

Knox, William, 59

Knoxville, Tenn., 227

Knust, Charles, 339

Koch, Louis, 397

Kocherthal, Joshua yon, 103

Koenig, William, 290

Koerner, Gustave, 185

Kohler, Charles, 104 , 252 , 315 , 328 , 337 ;

and early commerce in California wine, 254 -58

Kohler & Frohling, 263 , 297 , 306 ;

and Anaheim, 285 , 289 ;

and California wine, 254 -58

Korbel Brothers, 365

Korn, F. A., 290

Kosher wine, 477 n38;

first in California, 291

Kossuth, Louis, 271

Kotzebue, Otto yon, New Voyage round the World , 258

Kramer, J. C., 420

Kroeger, Henry, 290

Kron, M., 224

Krug, Charles, 104 , 273 , 306 , 316 , 342 , 367

L

La Bocage, 321

La Garde, Elias, 15

La Loma (wine), 360


541

La Questa Vineyard, Calif., 342

Labarriere, Isador, 399

Lachman, Henry, 356 , 360

Lachman & Jacobi, 301 , 320

Lachrima Christi, 76

Lafayette, Marquis de, 477 n49

Lagomarsino, Bartholomew, 331

Lakanal, Joseph, 136

Lake County, Calif., 317

Lake Erie and Missouri River Wine Company, N.Y., 333

Lake Erie Cellars, N.Y., 376

Lake Keuka Wine Company, N.Y., 376

Lake Shore Grape and Wine Growers' Association, Ohio, 377

Lake View Wine Farm, Ohio, 378

Lake Vineyard, Pasadena, 294 , 295 , 296 , 298 , 299 , 301

Lake Vineyard (wine), 300

Lambert, Ala., 412

Lancaster County, Pa., 135

Lancaster County, Va., 22

Landis, Charles, 384 -85

Landsberger, Isidor, 282

Langenburger, A., 266 , 290

Langendoerfer, August, 392

Langsdorff, Georg, 243

Laredo, Tex., 408

Lassen, Peter, 259 , 322

Lateinische Bauern (Latin Peasants), 175 , 185

Latitude, fallacy of argument from, 23 -24, 43 , 100

Laughlin, John, 337

Laughlin, Richard, 245

Laurel Hill Vineyard and Winery, Calif., 316 , 340

Laurens, Caroline Olivia, 151

Laurens, Henry, 56 , 57 , 59 , 99 ;

quarrels with St. Pierre, 96

Laurens, Henry, Jr., 151

Laurens County, Ga., 153

Lavoisier, Antoine, 353

Laws Divine, Moral, and Material (Va.), 15

Lawson, John, 101 ;

on difficulties of winegrowing in America, 38 ;

and grapes in North Carolina, 60 -61, 64 ;

A New Voyage to Carolina , 37

Lawton, Mich., 389

Leacock, John:

vineyard of, 88 -89;

plans for public vineyard, 89

Leavenworth, Kans., 207 , 396

Lee, William, sends vines to Legaux, 112 , 113

Leese, Jacob, 259

Lefranc, Charles, 104 , 261 , 265 , 316 , 331 , 347

Legaux, Peter (Pierre), 115 , 117 , 155 , 203 ;

and "Cape" grape, 110 , 113 , 119 -20;

journal of, 111 -14;

and Pennsylvania Vine Company, 107 -14;

supplies vines in new republic, 114 ;

wine produced by, 109 -10, 112 , 113

Leghorn, 80

Lehn, Charles, 339

Lehn Winery, Calif., 316

Lemoore, Calif., 329

Lenk, Carl, 379

Lenk, Peter, 385

Lenoir (wine), 266

Leuchs, Johann Karl, Wines and Their Varieties , 277

Lewelling, Seth, 421

Lewis, Meriwether, and William Clark, 398

Lewiston, Idaho, 422

Lexington, Ky., 118 , 119

Liebig, Justus von, 25

Liechtenstein, 397

Lima, Peru, 241

Lincoln, Neb., 409

Linnaean Botanic Garden, 188 , 192

Linnaeus, Carolus, 5 , 43 , 115 , 453 n10

Live Oak Vineyard, Calif., 316

Livermore, Horatio, 327

Livermore, Robert, 320

Livermore Valley, Calif., 320 -21

Livezey, Thomas, sends wine to Franklin, 87

Lockhart, Josiah, 149 , 155

Lodi, Calif., 325

Loehnig, Frederick, 392

Logan, William, 245

London, 77 , 87 , 96 , 368 ;

California must sold in, 306 ;

California wine in, 305 ;

Catawba sold in, 162 ;

1887 Exhibition in, 349 ;

Great Exhibition of 1851 in, 162 , 168

Long Beach, Calif., 432

Long Island:

grape-growing monopoly on, 31 ;

vineyards on, 187 -92

Long Island City Star , 187

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, on Catawba, 162

Longworth, Nicholas, 148 , 169 , 175 , 179 , 197 , 200 , 228 , 258 , 297 ;

on Adlum's wine, 145 ;

buys wine from Missouri, 177 , 186 ;

develops national market, 168 ;

establishes winegrowing in Cincinnati, 156 -68;

importance of, 172 ;

obtains Catawba cuttings, 146 ;

rejects Norton grape, 177 ;

seeks new varieties, 157 ;

and vines from Loubat, 187 ;

writings of, 160 , 219

Longworth cup, 168

Longworth's Wine House, 161 , 172

Lonz, Peter, 379

Looking-Glass Vineyard, Ill., 397

Lorenz, Carl August, 290

Los Angeles, Calif., 296 , 304 , 370 ;

decline of as


542

Los Angeles (continued )

winegrowing region, 310 -11;

development of winegrowing in, 243 -58;

winemaking methods in, 253 , 255 -56

Los Angeles County, Calif., 284 , 310 , 311 , 326

Los Angeles River, 244 , 286

Los Angeles Star , 279 , 367

Los Angeles Vineyard, Calif., 251

Los Angeles Vineyard Society, 286 , 291

Los Angeles Vintage Company, 251

Los Guilicos Ranch, 337

Lottery:

for Leacock's public vineyard, 88 , 89 ;

for Legaux's Vine Company, 113

Loubat, Alphonse:

American Vine-Dresser's Guide , 187 , 188 ;

sends vines to Longworth, 187 ;

vineyard of in Brooklyn, 187 , 192

Louis XIV, 100 , 102

Louis XVI, 136

Louis XVIII, 135

Louis Philippe, 248

Louisiana, 83 ;

vineyards in, 226

Louisville, Ky., 165 ;

exhibition, 349

Lowe, James, 265

Lucca, 79

Lugo, Antonio, 245 , 252

M

McCall, Gen. Thomas, 153 -54, 190

McDonnald, James C. W., 153 , 224

McGrew, Dr. John, xvii

McIntyre, Capt. H. W., 324 , 325

Mackay, Alexander, 383

Mackay, Charles, on Catawba, 162 -63, 164

McKay, Edward, 198

McKee, Irving, xvi

McMahon, Bernard:

American Gardener's Calendar , 113 ;

on hybrid grapes, 205 ;

removes Legaux, 113

Madeira (island), 25 , 43 , 60 , 99 , 119 ;

oidium in, 171 ;

vines of sent to Georgia, 43 ;

to South Carolina, 99

Madeira (wine), 33 , 46 , 157 ;

drunk in colonies, 31 , 58 ;

in South Carolina, 57 , 59 , 95 , 152 ;

tax on, 86

Madeira" (native), 250

Madera, Calif., 329

Madison, Pres. James, 123 , 129 , 142 , 146 , 149 , 218 , 465 n23

Madrone Vineyard, Calif., 326

Magget, and land grant in South Carolina, 150

Mahoney, Ron, xvii

Mahony, Thomas, 251

Maine, 29 , 146 ;

Vaughan's vineyard in, 114 -15

Maine Law, 431

Malaga (province), 20 ;

vines from, 113 , 277

Malaga (wine), 19 ;

resemblance of California mission wine to, 243

Malmsey, 187

Malter, George, 320

Malvoisie (Calif.), 257

Manakin Town, Va., 101

Marble Front Wine House, Ill., 397

Marc , for wine making, 382

Marengo, 136

Marietta, Ohio, wine made at, 116 , 156

Marlboro, N.Y., 207

Marsh, Dr. John, 259

Marshall, Humphry, Arbustrum Americanum , 445

Marshall, James, 261

Martin, Dr., 333

Martini, Louis M., 331

Martin's Ferry, Ohio, 173

Maryland, 114 ;

early vineyards in, 33 , 83 -85

Maryland Society for Promoting the Culture of the Vine, 147

Mason, George, 69

Massachusetts, 41 , 87 , 200 , 426 ;

early grape trials in, 29 -31;

Huguenots in, 30 , 101 , 102 ;

native grapes in, 30

Massachusetts Bay Colony, wine made in 1630, 29

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 212 , 217 , 281

Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance, 428

Massey, R. W., 399

Masson, Joseph, 197 , 198

Masson, Jules, 197 , 198

Masson, Victor, 197

Mastro-Valerio, Alessandro, 412

Mataro (wine), 329

Mattei, Andrew, 331

Maverick, Samuel, 151

Maxfield, Hiram, 198 , 375

Maxfield Winery, N.Y., 375

Mazzei, Philip, 104 , 111 , 127 , 329 ;

Memoirs , 80 ;

and Pennsylvania wine, 87 ;

winegrowing project of in Virginia, 77 -81, 82

Mease, Dr. James:

essay of on vine culture, 115 ;

"Natural History of Vines," 115

Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco, Industrial Exhibition at, 363 , 365

Médoc, France, 109

Meek, William, 421

Meissner, Gustave Edward, 186

Meissner's Island, Mo., 186

"Memorial on . . . Vineyards in . . . South Carolina," 150 , 464 n67

Mendel, Gregor, 120

Mendocino County, Calif., 317

Menise, or Monise (wine), 274

Menissier, Francis, 156 -57

Mennonites, 102


543

Menzies, Archibald, 59

Mererod family, 125

Méthode champenoise , employed by Longworth, 161

Methyl anthranilate, 6 , 447

Métis , defined, 204

Metternich, Prince, 274

Metz, France, 109

Mexican War, 249

Mexico, 44 , 100 , 237 , 242 , 409 ;

export to, 300 ;

workers from, 298 , 311

Meyer Winery, Calif., 316

Miami County, Kans., 399

Michaelson, L., 339

Michaelson Winery, Calif., 316

Michaux, François André, visits Legaux, 119

Michel, Louis, 101 , 103

Michigan, 379 ;

viticulture in, 382

Michigan, Lake, 382

Middle Bass Island, Ohio, 167 , 380

Midwinter Exposition, San Francisco, 349

Migliavacca, G., 331

Mildew, downy (Plasmopara viticola ), 25 , 186 , 392

Mildew, powdery (Uncinula necator ), 373 , 377 ;

creates opportunity for Americans, 225 , 261 ;

in Europe, 25 , 171 ;

in Kentucky, 119 ;

in Missouri, 177 , 186 ;

in New York, 187 , 190 ;

in Ohio, 169 -71, 379

Mill, John Stuart, On Liberty , 431

Millar, Robert, 44

Millardet, Alexis, 391

Miller, George, 375

Miller, Joseph, 379

Miller, Philip:

sends vines to Georgia, 43 ;

asked to write treatise on viticulture for colonies, 89

Miller, Samuel, 390

Mills, John, 73

Milton, John, 426

Minnesota, 7 , 420

Minnesota, University of, 420

Minnesota Grape Growers' Association, 420

Minorca, Turnbull recruits workers from, 60

Mission (wine), 234 , 241 ;

in Los Angeles, 246 ;

from Mission days, in Warsaw, 243

Mission San Jose, 351

Mississippi, 420 ;

vineyards in, 226

Mississippi Handelszeitung , 179

Mississippi River, 83 , 118 , 135 , 156 , 174 , 185 ;

viticulture along, 396

Mississippi Territory, 136

Mississippi Valley Grape Growers' Association, 390

Missouri, 136 , 149 , 182 , 195 , 222 , 375 , 404 ;

aids France against phylloxera, 392 -94;

after Civil War, 390 -94, 406 ;

development of winegrowing in Hermann, 174 -79;

in St. Louis, 185 -86;

difficulty of winegrowing in, 186 , 403 ;

grape breeding in, 182

Missouri (battleship), 392

Missouri, University of, 395

Missouri River, 165 , 174 , 175 , 400 , 402

Missouri Valley, Germans in, 174 ;

as grape growing region, 396

Missouri Wine Company, St. Louis, 185 -86

Mistelle , 129 , 241

Mittelberger, Gottlieb, Journey to Pennsylvania , 85

Mobile, Ala., 136 , 138 , 412

Modjeska, Helena, 290

Monroe, Pres. James, 129 , 149 , 218 ;

imports vines from France, 128

Monroe, Mich., 382

Montana, 419

Monterey, Calif., 244 , 245 , 246 , 248 , 258

Monterey County, Calif., 317

Montgomery, Sir Robert, and plan of Azilia, 37 -38

Monticello, Va., 79 , 128 ;

vines planted at, 111 , 127 -28, 129

Monticello Wine Company, Va., 413 -14

Montjoy. See Spring Mill, Pa.

Montpelier, S.C. (Maverick's estate), 151

Mont Rouge, Calif., 321

Montepulciano (wine), 127

Moore, Francis, 45

Moore, Jacob, 207 -8

Moore, Rensselaer, 333

Moore's Diamond (wine), 208

Moran, John, 252

Moravians, 62 , 102

Mordaunt, John, 50

Morel, Eugene, 415

Morgan, Col. George, vineyard of, 114 , 116

Morganza, Pa., 114

Morison, Samuel Eliot, 11 , 30

Mormons, 420

Morrison, Mo., 175

Moselle, 163

Mosher, Dr. Stephen, 165

Mottier, John, 165

Moultrie, Fla., 412

Mound Vineyard (wine), 300

Mount Pleasant Vineyard, Mo., 410

Mount Vineyard and Winery, Calif., 339

Muench, Friedrich, 104 , 181 , 392 , 410 ;

"Anleitung zum Weinbau in Nordamerika," 179 ;

Schoolfor American Grape Culture , 179 -80, 222

Munson, Thomas Volney, 408 , 409 -10, 411 , 445 ;

Foundations of American Grape Culture , 410 , 445 , 446


544

Munson, T. V., and Son, 409

Munson Memorial Vineyard, 410

Muscadine. See Grapes, American species: V. rotundifolia

Muscatel, or Muskadell (wine), 19 , 187

Muscatel (Calif.), 257 , 291

Muskegon, Mich., 382

Myles, Dr. H. R., 296

N

Nadeau, Remi, 326

Naegle, John, 420

Nagasawa, Kanaye, 335

Napa County, Calif., 259 , 261 , 265 , 345 , 351 , 354 , 415 ;

first wine shipped from, 262 ;

phylloxera destruction in, 345

Naples, Italy, 76

Naples, N.Y., 198 , 375

Napoleon, 135 , 137 , 138

Nashua Valley, Mass., 30

Nation, Carrie A., 397

National Prohibition Act (Volstead Act), 435 , 436 , 437

National Prohibition Party, 433

National vineyard. See Public vineyard

Natoma Land and Water Company, Calif., 327

Natoma Vineyard, Calif., 327

Naud Winery, Calif., 316

Nauvoo, Ill., 217 , 396 , 397 , 402

Nebraska, wines and vines in, 400 , 402

New Bern, N.C., 103

New Bordeaux, S.C., 57 ;

winegrowing in, 95 -100

New Braunfels, Tex., 407

New England: wild grapes in, 31 ;

wine from, 486 n45

New England Farmer , 221

New Found Salem Wine, 333

New Hampshire, 420

New Harmony, Ind., 288 ;

sold to Owen, 134 ;

winegrowing at, 131 -33

New Jersey, 87 , 148 ;

"champagne" from, 383 -84;

cider in, 31 ;

colonial vineyards in, 89 -93, 114 ;

invention of grape juice in, 384 -88;

Swedes in, 31 ;

wild grapes in, 33 ;

winegrowing in, 383 -84

New Mexico (Spanish), 219 ;

and El Paso wine ("Pass wine"), 219 , 235 -36, 349 ;

winegrowing in, 233 -34, 236 -37, 407 , 408

New Mexico (U.S.), 234 -35, 237

New Netherland, vineyards in, 31

New Orleans, 136 , 138 , 328

New Paltz, N.Y., 102

New Rochelle, N.Y., 102

New Switzerland, Ind., 121 , 122

New Switzerland, Mo., 393

New York (state), 147 , 182 , 217 , 222 , 229 , 379 , 415 ;

Chautauqua region of, 187 , 200 -202, 376 ;

contribution of to winegrowing, 200 ;

Finger Lakes region of, 145 , 187 , 194 -200, 202 , 374 -76;

first commercial winery in, 194 ;

growth of industry in, 374 -77;

Hudson Valley region of, 187 -94, 374 ;

New York City region of, 187 -92;

production in, 229 , 376 , 494 n1;

table grapes in, 215 , 375 , 376 , 377 ;

vineyards in, 114 ;

vinifera in, 377

New York City, 119 , 254 ;

California wine in, 256 -57, 291 , 300 , 304 , 325 , 326 , 328 , 334 , 355 ;

and Ohio wine, 378 ;

and Virginia wine, 414

New York Exhibition, 165

New York Horticultural Society, 217

New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, 200 , 369 -70, 377

New York Times , 439

New Zealand, American grapes in, 447

Newark, N.J., 157 ;

and cider, 383 -84

Newburgh, N.Y., 103 , 207 , 209

Newfoundland, site of Vinland, 3

Newlands, Sen. F. G., 303

Newmark, Harris, Sixty Years in Southern California , 251 253

Newport, Ky., 123

Nicaragua, Haraszthy in, 283 -84

Niebaum, Gustave, 324 , 326 , 331 , 367

Noah, 190 , 426

Nobbett, Joseph, 112

Noel (early grower), 155

Nordhoff, Charles, 133

Norfolk, Va., 416 , 419

North Carolina, 8 , 9 , 148 , 228 , 376 , 413 , 415 ;

early winegrowing fails to develop in, 34 -35;

experiments in, 61 ;

leads nation in wine production in 1840, 223 ;

legislature grants land for viticulture in, 150 ;

Scuppernong wine in, 128 -29, 149 -50, 223 ;

Verrazzano's description of, 11 ;

wild grapes in, 12 , 33 , 60 -61;

winegrowing in after Civil War, 415 -19.

See also Carolina

North Carolina State Board of Agriculture, 150

North Carolina State Horticultural Society, 416

North Carolina Vine Dresser and Horticultural Model Practical School, 223

North Dakota, 419

North East, Pa., 389

Northwest Territory, 121

Norton, Dr. D. N., 82 , 149 , 177

Norton (wine), from Illinois, 185 ;

from Iowa, 396 ;

from Missouri, 186 , 390 ;

from New Jersey, 384 ;

from North Carolina, 416 ;

from Virginia, 414

Nott, Eliphalet, and Bible wines, 387 , 388 n52

Nouveau Medoc Winery, Calif., 316


545

Nova Scotia, 95

Nunez family, of Georgia, 48 , 49

Nuttall, Prof. Thomas, 205

O

Oak Glen Vineyards, 396

Oeker, Paul, 305

Oglethorpe, Gen. James, 41 , 44 , 153 ;

and De Lyon, 48 ;

optimistic about winegrowing, 46 ;

receives Georgia wine, 50 , 53

O'Gorman, Thomas, 87

Ohio, 114 , 146 , 177 , 185 , 195 , 197 , 200 , 222 , 374 , 375 ;

Catawba in, 143 -44;

French make wine in, 116 ;

Lake Erie region of, 172 -74, 377 -81;

leads nation in winegrowing in 1859-60, 165 , 229 ;

"Rhineland of America," 156 , 158 , 168 , 172 ;

wine industry in, 156 -72, 377 -81.

See also Cincinnati; Erie, Lake, region; Longworth, Nicholas

Ohio Grape Growers Association, 377

Ohio Pomological Society, 217

Ohio River, 130 , 133 , 135 , 141 , 143 -45, 161 , 165 , 174 , 177 ;

Dufour attracted to, 121 ;

native vines on, 116 ;

vineyards on, 27 , 156 , 172 , 420

Ohio State Horticultural Society, 37 -78

Ohio Wine Company, 173

Oidium. See Mildew, powdery

Oil. See Wine, silk, and oil

Oklahoma, 219 ;

winegrowing in, 409 -10

Oklahoma City, Okla., 410

Oldmixon, John, History of the British Empire in America , 38

Oliphant, Laurence, 333

Olives, 41 , 95 , 136 , 137 .

See also Wine, silk, and oil

Olivina Vineyard, Calif., 321 , 326

Ontiveros, Juan, 286

Orange, Calif., 292

Orange County, Calif., 311 , 315

Orange County, N.Y., wine from, 221

Orange Hill, S.C. (St. Pierre's estate), 100

Orangeburg, S.C., 55 , 99 ;

vineyards, 225

Oranges (crop), 293 , 310 , 307 , 311

Ord, Edward, map of Los Angeles, 247

Ordish, George, 393

Oregon, 369 , 420 -22

Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, 422

Oregon State Fair, 421

Oriental Exclusion Act, 329

Orlando, Fla., 411

Orleans (district, France), 98

Orleans Hill Vineyard, Calif., 265 , 356

Our Lady of New Clairvaux, 325

Overland Monthly , 315

Owen, Robert, 134 , 327

P

Pacific Glass Works, 258

Pacific Wine and Spirit Review , 368

Pacific Winery, Calif., 356

Paige & Co., 486 n45

Pailliase, Eustache, 112

Palatines (German), 102 , 103 -4

Palmdale Winery, Calif., 316

Palmyra wine, 151

Palo Alto Ranch, 324

Pamlico, N.C., 168

Panama Canal, 369

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 369

Paris, expositions: American wine at, 349 , 377 , 384 , 412 , 414 , 485 n47;

wine of, 80 , 116

Parkinson, John, Theatricum Botanicum , 443 , 445

Parmentier, André, 192 , 227 ;

"Essay on the Cultivation of the Vine," 192

Parmentier family, 227

Parris Island, S.C. See Santa Elena Island, S.C.

Pasadena, Calif., 326 , 432

Paso Robles, Calif., 351

Pass wine. See New Mexico (Spanish)

Pasteur, Louis, 353 , 354 , 388 ;

Etudes sur le vin251

Pasteurization, 354 , 365 , 367 , 388

Pastorius, Francis, 33 , 101 , 103

Patents, plant, 210

Paxaret (Pajarete), 240

Payeras, Father, 241

Peach brandy, 429

Pecos, Tex., 408

Peekskill, N.Y., 209 , 210

Pelanconi Winery, Calif., 481 n88

Pellier, Pierre, 104 , 316 , 347 ;

imports vines, 263

Pellison, Jacob, 101

Penn, Thomas, 85

Penn, William, 85 , 93 , 103 , 107 ;

on fox grape, 443 , 446 ;

hopes to make wine, 31 -32;

imports vinifera vines, 33 , 84 ;

A Letter from William Penn , 102 ;

vineyard of, 33 , 101 -2, 119

Penn Yan, N.Y., 376 , 416

Pennsylvania, 87 , 148 , 200 , 374 , 379 ;

Alexander grape discovered in, 85 ;

Legaux's work in, 107 -14;

Livezey's wine, 87 -88;

winegrowing before Revolution, 88 -89;

in 19th century, 383 .

See also Legaux, Peter; Penn, William; Rapp, George

Pennsylvania Vine Company, 107 -114, 115 , 120 , 147 , 427 ;

as model for Dufour, 118

Percevall, Andrew, 35

Permanent International Viticultural Commission, 369

Petri, Angelo, 331

Peyser, Jefferson, 450


546

Phenylethyl alcohol, 7

Philadelphia, 86 , 154 , 175 , 254 , 304 , 376 ;

Alexander grape in, 84 -85;

Bartram's Gardens in, 88 ;

Centennial Exhibition in, 384 , 402 ;

first vineyard in, 33 ;

French officers in, 135 , 137 ;

and Pennsylvania Vine Company, 109 ;

winemaking in, in 1760s, 88

Philadelphia Daily Advertiser , 109

Philadelphia Settlement Society, 175

Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, 216

Philbin, John, 252

Phylloxera vastatrix , 9 -10, 119 , 186 , 377 ;

in California, 311 , 328 , 343 -45, 346 , 395 ;

described, 27 , 28 ;

in France, 305 , 392 -93;

not main cause of early failures, 27 -28;

and Missouri experts, 392 -94;

stimulates development in California, 303 , 311 , 342 .

See also Resistant rootstocks

Picchetti, Vincent, 331

Pierce, Newton, 292

Pierce's Disease, 27 , 119 , 186 , 296 ;

in Anaheim, 292 -94;

in San Gabriel Valley, 306 -7, 311

Pietists (German), 102 , 103 , 175 , 335

Pilgrims, 6 ;

and first Thanksgiving, 29

Pinot (wine), 329

Pinot Blanc (wine), 329

Piquette , from Concord, 382

Piscataqua River, 29

Pittsburgh, Pa., 119 , 133 , 156

Pitz, Peter, 400

Piuma, Giovanni, 331

Planchon, Jules-Emile, 390 , 447 ;

describes winemaking in Ohio, 360 -302;

in North Carolina, 415

Pleasant Valley, N.Y., 196 , 197 , 217

Pleasant Valley Wine Company, N.Y., 197 , 198 , 199 , 376 ;

"Great Western," 198 , 217

Pleasants, Robert, 77

Pledge (temperance), 429 -30

Plymouth, N.C., 149

Plymouth Bay, Mass., 29

Poeschel, Michael, 176 , 177 , 179 , 181

Poeschel and Scherer, 177 -78, 392

Poeschel Winery, Mo., 176

Point de Peau, Mich., 382

Polk County, Tenn., 227

Pomona, Calif., 292

Ponce de Leon Wine Company, Fla., 412

Pond, Abel, 112

Pond, Samuel, 205

"Port": California, 257 , 291 , 297 ;

Los Angeles, 249 , 250 , 254 , 257 , 304 -5, 308 , 309

Port Royal, S.C., 52

Portland Wine Cellars, N.Y., 376

Portugal, 171 ;

vines from, 47 , 77 , 78 ;

wines from, taxed, 86 .

See also Madeira (island)

Post Winery, Ark., 404

Postel, Karl, on Vevay, 123

Potomac River, 33 , 69 , 141

Poule, David, 15

Pound, Maurice, 69

Powers, Hiram, Greek Slave , 162

Prentiss, J. W., 196 -97

Presses, wine, 365 , 366 , 378 , 414

Prestele, Gottlieb, 498 n125

Prestele, Joseph, 498 n125

Prestele, William Henry, 498 n125

Prevost, Louis, 263

Price, Gen. Sterling, 178

Prince, William, Sr., 190

Prince, William Robert, 155 , 192 , 281 ;

and grape breeding, 205 ;

introduces Isabella, 148 , 203 ;

makes grape collection, 188 -89;

provides grapes for Fay, 200 ;

Treatise on the Vine, 189 -91, 205 , 221

Prince family, 188 -89

Printz, Col. John, 31

Progress, The , 389

Prohibition, general sentiment for, 325 , 329 , 376 , 377 , 389 , 403

Prohibition, local: in Alabama, 412 ;

in Kansas, 397 , 399 , 400 ;

in North Carolina, 416 ;

in Virginia, 415 , 416

Prohibition, national: effects of on knowledge of history, 218 ;

effect of on wine industry, 436 -41;

enacted, 425 ;

history of, 425 -34;

impact of on eastern viticulture, 390 ;

provisions of, 434 -46;

worst consequences of, 441

Propagating Garden, U.S., 220

Provost, M., 209

Prudhomme, Victor, 245

Pruning methods, 75 ;

in California, 347

Public (national) vineyard: proposed by Adlum, 146 , 147 ;

by Antill, 92 ;

by Leacock, 89 , 92 ;

realized by Patent Office, 220

Pumps, 378 ;

must, 366

Purry, Jean Pierre, Proposals , 95

Purrysburgh, S.C., 52 , 95 , 104

Q

Quimme, Peter, Signet Book of American Wine , 446

Quincy, Edmund, receives vines from Franklin, 86 -87

Quincy, Josiah, 59

R

Rafinesque, Constantine, 154 -55;

American Manual of Grape Vines , 154 ;

Medical Flora , 154

Raisin River, Mich., 382


547

Raisins, 315 , 318

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 11 , 12 , 33

Raleigh, N.C., 416

Ralston, William J., 283 , 321

Ramirez (Calif. commissioner), 484 n23

Rancho Jurupa, Calif., 251 , 252

Randolph, John, 70

Rapp, George, 134 , 135 ;

and Harmonist colony, Pennsylvania, 130 -31;

and Indiana, 131 ;

returns to Pennsylvania, 133

Rappahannock River, 22 , 70 , 71

Rappel, Capt. Gabriel, 32 , 101

Rappites, 175 , 335 , 403

Raritan Landing, N.J., 89

Ravenel, Henry William, 224 -25

Ravenswood, Calif., 321 , 326

Reading, Pa., 134 , 383

Redcliffe, S.C., 225

Redmond, D., 224

Redwood, 316 , 363 , 365

Rehfuss, Dr. Louis, 165 , 166

Reid, Hugo, 250 , 294

Reierson, Oscar, 413

Reisenger, Andrew, 197

Reiser, Theodore, 290

Renault, L. N., 384

Renault Winery, N.J., 385

Repeal of Prohibition (21St Amendment), 439

Requena, Manuel, 246

Resistant rootstocks: experiments with, by Dufour, 125 ;

in California, 345 , 346 , 395 ;

in France, 344 ;

grafting vinifera to, 28 ;

grafting proposed by William Byrd, 67 ;

by Riley, 392 ;

supplied from Missouri, 393 -94;

from Nebraska, 402

Resor, William, 165

Revocation of Edict of Nantes, and Huguenots, 100

Revolution, American, 60 , 77 ;

ends Alexander's vineyard, 93 ;

Bolling's, 77 ;

Leacock's, 89 ;

St. Pierre's, 100 ;

ends Royal Society of Arts program, 93 ;

Mazzei in, 79 , 80

Reynolds, Gov. John, 45

Rheims, France, 161 , 163

Rheims, N.Y., 197

Rheinberger (of Nauvoo), 397

Rheinpfalz, 103

Rhine, 121 , 163 , 274

Rhineland of America. See Ohio

Rhode Island: Charter of, 30 -31;

Huguenots in, 30 -31, 101 , 102

Rhone, rivalled by Ohio, 121

Richards, Paul, 31

Richland, Mo., 217

Richmond, Va., 64 , 77 , 101

Ricketts, James H., 207

Ridgeway, N.C., 415

Riesling (wine): in California, 257 , 291 , 329 , 360 ;

in Oregon, 422

Riley, Charles V., 392

Rinck (of Purrysburgh), 52

Rio de los Putos Rancho, Calif., 259

Rio Grande River, 219 , 234 , 236 , 237 , 408

Rising Sun Vineyard, Calif., 250 , 251

Riverside, Calif., 251 , 252 , 292 , 315 , 370

Rixford, E. H., Wine Press and the Cellar , 343

Roanoke, Va., 67

Roanoke Colony, 12

Roanoke Island, N.C., 12

Robertson, Dr. Felix, 478 n86

Robidoux, Louis, 252

Robinson, Alfred, Life in California , 239 , 241

Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Duc de la, 109 , 110

Rogers, Edward Staniford, 217 , 333 ;

grapes produced by, 206 -7

Rommel, Jacob, 177 , 397 ;

and grape breeding, 182 , 207

Root, Waverley, Food , 444 , 446

Rosati, Mo., 406

Rose, L.J., 282 , 307 , 311 , 320 , 322 , 324 , 330 , 342

Rossati, Guido, 313

Rossi, Pietro, 328 , 329 , 358

Rousserie, Frances de, 37

Rowland, John, 250

Royal Society of Arts, London, 216 ;

awards medals, 70 , 92 , 96 ;

bounty to Sherb for wine, 99 ;

corresponds with Carter, 70 ;

with Antill, 91 ;

prize competitions for colonial vineyards, 89 -93;

for colonial wine, 69 , 89 ;

for vineyard of native vines, 93 ;

recommends native grape, 93 , 115 ;

sends vines, 57 ;

urged to publish guide to viticulture, 92

Rufus, Ernst, 339

Rum, 157 ;

in colonies, 31 , 41 , 54 , 426 , 429 ;

"Demon Rum," 386 , 425 . 435

Rural Californian , 368

Rural New Yorker , 221

Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 111 , 426 -27, 435 ;

"Inquiry into the Effects of Spirituous Liquors," 426

Rush, Thomas, 381

Ruskin, John, 327

Russian River, Calif., 335

Ryckman, Garrett, 412

S

Saalman, Charles, 384

Saccharometer, 181

Sack. See Sherry

Sacramental wine. See Altar wine

Sacramento County, Calif., 258 , 327

Sage, Heinrich, 134


548

Sainsevain, Jean-Louis, 197 , 248 , 253 -54

Sainsevain, Pierre, 197 , 248 , 253 -54

Sainsevain Brothers, 253 , 297 ;

wine of, 257

St. Augustine, Fla., 36 , 50 , 59 , 412

St. Catharine's, Ontario, 389

St. Genevieve, Mo., 174

St. George, Utah, 420

St. George Vineyard, Calif., 318 , 320

St. Helena, Calif., 259 , 354

St. James, Mo., 406

St. James Winery, Mo., 410

St. Joseph, Mo., 396

St. Louis, Mo., 118 , 154 , 174 , 175 , 176 , 182 , 183 , 185 , 217 , 257 , 390 -91, 396 ;

and California wine, 297 ;

winemaking in, 185 -86;

World's Fair in, 389 , 422

St. Louis Academy of Science, 183

St. Louis Vine and Fruit Growers Association, 474 n113

St. Mary's River, Ga., vineyard on, 54

St. Mary's River, Md., 33

St. Pierre, Louis de Mesnil de:

Art of Planting and Cultivating the Vine , 97 , 123 , 153 ;

Great Utility of establishing the Culture of Vines , 96 ;

imports vines and vine dressers, 96 , 98 , 99 ;

proposals for winegrowing, 96 -98;

settles at New Bordeaux, 95 ;

vineyard of, 99 , 100

St. Simon's Island, Ga., 45 , 46

St. Stanislaus Seminary, 185

Salem (wine), 206

Salem, Mass., grape breeding in, 206

Salinas Valley, Calif., 267

Salzburgers, 102 , 104

San Antonio (ship), 238

San Antonio, Tex., 407

San Bernardino, Calif., 252 , 292 , 304

San Bernardino County, Calif., 266

San Diego, Calif., 244 ;

Haraszthy in, 272

San Diego County, Calif., 311 , 312 -13, 315

San Diego Exposition, 370

San Francisco, Calif., 244 , 248 , 252 , 254 , 266 , 285 , 291 , 297 ;

during Prohibition, 439 ;

exhibition of California wine in, 349 ;

experimental cellar in, 345 ;

wine merchants in, 356 , 359

San Francisco earthquake, 357 , 360 , 369

San Francisco Merchant , 368

San Gabriel River, Calif., 296

San Gabriel Valley, Calif., winegrowing in, 294 -309

San Gabriel Wine Company, Calif., 301 -9

San Joaquin County, Calif., 261 , 265

San Jose, Calif., 244 , 263 , 265 , 354

San Luis Obispo County, Calif., 316

San Luis Vineyard, Fla., 412

San Marino, Calif. (Shorb estate), 301 , 302 , 308

San Pedro, Calif., 244 , 246 , 248

Sance, Baron de, 22

Sandusky, Ohio, 186 , 200 ;

as center of Lake Erie winegrowing, 172 , 378

Sandys, George, 20 , 21

Sangaree, 126

Santa Ana, Calif., 292

Santa Ana River, Calif., 286 , 288

Santa Ana Valley, Calif., 286 , 292

Santa Anita Rancho, Calif., 294 , 311

Santa Anita Vineyard, Calif., 311

Santa Barbara, Calif., 244 , 248

Santa Barbara County, Calif., 266 , 311

Santa Clara, Calif., 258 , 265

Santa Clara County, Calif., 259 , 261 , 266 ;

French nurserymen in, 263 -65;

plantings in, 262

Santa Cruz, Calif., 244

Santa Cruz Island, Calif., 311 -12

Santa Cruz Island Company, 314

Santa Elena Island, S.C., first grapes in U.S. planted on, 11 , 59 , 233

Santa Fe Trail, 219 , 234

Santa Rosa, Calif., 334 , 335 , 354

Santa Rosa Planing Mill, 363

Saunders, William, 220

Sauvignon Blanc (wine), 329

Savannah, Ga., 46 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 95 ;

grapes in, 46 , 47 , 52 ;

Trustees' Garden in, 41 -45, 54 ;

wine from, 50 , 51 , 153

Savannah River, 42 , 54 , 95 , 100 , 104 , 150

Saxe-Weimar, Karl Bernhard, Duke of, on Harmonists, 133

Sbarboro, Andrea, 327 , 328 , 329 , 331 , 358 , 370 , 502 n41

Scandinavian Colony, Calif., 318

Schell, Abraham, 484 n23

Scherer, John, 178

Schleicher, Robert, 422

Schloss Johannisberg, 274

Schneiter, Fred, 397

Schnittger, Charles, 339

Schoenstein & Klein, 365

Schoepf, Johann David, Travels in the Confederation , 55 , 60 , 88 , 92

Scholl, Mr. and Mrs. (of Maryland), 142

Schoonmaker, Frank, Encyclopedia of Wine , 447

Schoonmaker, Frank, and Tom Marvel, American Wines , 38 -39

Schram, Jacob, 331

Schroeder, Dr. H., 397

Schumann, C. A., 168

Schus, H., 392

Schuster, Jacob, and Son, 384

Schuylkill River, 33 , 85 , 101 , 108 , 119

Scioto Company, 116

Scribner, F. Lamson, 486 n26


549

Scuppernong (wine): as cordial, 129 , 241 ;

in North Carolina, 128 -29, 149 -50, 168 , 223 , 415 -19

Sears, Franklin, 259

Seibel, Louis, 394

Selma, Calif., 329

Seneca Lake, N.Y., 199 , 375 , 376

Serra, Fray Junipero, and first vines planted in California, 238

Seward, William Henry, 276

Sharpe, Gov. Horatio, 83 ;

on Tasker's wine, 85

Shaw brothers, 265

Shenandoah Valley, Va., 69 , 79

Sherb, Christopher, 99

Sherry, 19 , 33 , 152 ;

Jefferson favors, 127

"Sherry," California, 250 , 251 , 257 , 291 , 297 , 308 , 360

Shipley, A. R., 421

Shorb, J. De Barth, 311 , 330 , 335 , 420 ;

career of as San Gabriel Valley winegrower, 298 -309

Shorb, Mrs. J. De Barth, 298 , 308

Siebenthal family, 125

Sienkiewicz, Henryk, 290

Sigourney, Lydia, 30

Silk, 160 ;

in Georgia, 41 , 50 , 104 ;

in Kansas, 402 ;

in South Carolina, 95 , 96 , 99 , 104 ;

in Virginia, 73 .

See also Wine, silk, and oil