previous sub-section
next sub-section

Chapter 1 An Open Secret

1. Dr. A. S. Warner's office was at 3236 West Polk Street. Inquest on Frances Collins, May 7, 1920, case no. 161-5-20, Medical Records Department, Cook County Medical Examiner's Office, Chicago, Illinois. [BACK]

1. Dr. A. S. Warner's office was at 3236 West Polk Street. Inquest on Frances Collins, May 7, 1920, case no. 161-5-20, Medical Records Department, Cook County Medical Examiner's Office, Chicago, Illinois.

2. Ibid. [BACK]

3. I have identified In women in the Chicago area who had abortions between 1880 and 1930. Most were white and working class. Of 73 for whom there is information available on their marital status, the majority were married (45, or 63 percent). This is not based on a random sample and cannot be universalized. Other historians have also noted the importance of abortion to working-class women. Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: Birth Control in America , rev. and updated (1976; reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1990), 144; James C. Mohr, Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), 243. [BACK]

4. For examples of the use of silence as a metaphor for the history of abortion, see Patricia Miller, The Worst of Times (New York: Harper Collins, 1993), 6-7; Kristin Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 40. On the liberatory aspects of speaking, see bell hooks, Talking Back: thinking feminist, thinking black (Boston, Mass.: South End Press, 1989), 10-18; Adrienne Rich, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose, 1966-1978 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979). For a recent collection showing the fruitfulness of this theoretical conceptualization, Elaine Hedge and Shelley Fisher Fishkin, eds., Listening to Silences: New Essays in Feminist Criticism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994). [BACK]

5. The focus on the past as silencing and speaking as liberatory overdraws the oppressiveness of the past, the transformations of the late 1960s, and the freedoms of the present. My critique of this silencing trope is similar to the critique made recently by queer theorists of the tendency in lesbian-gay history to present a history of progress from marginalization or invisibility to coming out. See Henry Abelove, "The Queering of Lesbian/Gay History," Radical History Review 62 (spring 1995): 44-57; Lisa Duggan, "'Becoming Visible: The Legacy of Stonewall,' New York Public Library, June 18-September 24, 1994," Radical History Review 62 (spring 1995): 193. The entire spring issue of Radical History Review is titled "The Queer Issue: New Visions of America's Lesbian and Gay Past." [BACK]

6. The bonds of womanhood" was Sarah Grimké's phrase and is the title

of Nancy F. Cott's book, The Bonds of Womanhood: "Woman's Sphere" in New England, 1780-1835 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 1. See also Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, "Female World of Love and Ritual: Relations between Women in Nineteenth-Century America," Signs 1 (1975): 1-29; Judith Walzer Leavitt, Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750 to 1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 4-7. For a debate and critiques of this idea see Nancy Cote, Marl Jo Buhle, Temma Kaplan, Gerda Lerner, and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, "Politics and Culture in Women's History: A Symposium," Fetal-nice Studies 6: 1 (1980): 26-62; Denise Riley, " Am I That Name?" Feminism and the Category of ''Women" in History (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988). I do not suggest that the biological experiences of being female create "natural" bonds among all women, overcoming social differences by race, class, age, and so on, but these shared female experiences helped define womanhood and could, at moments, create sympathies across social boundaries. [BACK]

7. The coroner's physician discovered during the autopsy that she had had an ectopic pregnancy, which her physicians, not surprisingly, had not discerned. The preeminent obstetrician Joseph B. DeLee reported that it was rare for a physician to diagnose ectopic pregnancy. The ectopic pregnancy was a contributing factor in Collins's death, but all of Collins's efforts were directed at aborting her pregnancy and that is what I concentrate on here. Edward H. Hutton, "Doctor's Statement Blank," Inquest on Collins; Joseph B. DeLee, The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics, 2d ed., rev. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1916), 399. [BACK]

8. As cited in Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 493 n 23. [BACK]

9. For the estimate by Dr. C. S. Bacon, see "Chicago Medical Society. Regular Meeting, Held Nov. 23, 1904," JAMA 43 (December 17, 1904): 1889; quote from J. Henry Barbat, "Criminal Abortion," California State Journal of Medicine 9 (February 1911): 69. [BACK]

10. Marie E. Kopp, Birth Control in Practice: Analysis often Thousand Case Histories of the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau (1933; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1972), 124; Katharine Bement Davis, Factors in the Sex Life of Twenty-Two Hundred Women (1929; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1972), xi-xiii, 20, 21; Gilbert Van Tassel Hamilton, A Research in Marriage (New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1929), 134, 133. [BACK]

11. U.S. Department of Labor, Children's Bureau, Maternal Mortality in Fifteen States , Bureau Publication No. 223 (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1934), 108, 112-113; Calvin Schmid, Social Saga of Two Cities: An Ecological and Statistical Study of Social Trends in Minneapolis and St. Paul (Minneapolis: Minneapolis Council of Social Agencies, 1937), 410-411. I am grateful to Elizabeth Lockwood for sharing the Schmid study with me. Isabella V. Granger, "Birth Control in Harlem," Birth Control Review (hereafter cited as BCR ) 22 (May 1938): 92; J. W. Walker in Val Do Turner, "Fertility of Women," Journal of the National Medical Association (hereafter cited as JNMA ) 5 (October-December 1913): 250; Caroline Hadley Robinson, Seventy Birth Control Clinics: A Survey and Analysis Including the General Effects of Control on Size and Quality of Population (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1930), 66-67. [BACK]

12. Regine K. Stix, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," The Milbank Memorial

Fund Quarterly 13 (October 1935): 351-352. For examples of Catholic women in Chicago who had abortions, see Inquest on Frauciszka Gawlik, February 19, 1916, case no. 27-3-1916, Medical Records Department; Inquest on Mary Colbert, March 25, 1933, case no. 7-4-1933, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

13. Frederick J. Taussig, Abortion, Spontaneous and Induced: Medical and Social Aspects (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1936), 26. [BACK]

14. James Foster Scott, "Criminal Abortion," AJO 33 (January 1896): 80; Schmid, Social Saga of Two Cities , 410; Jerome E. Bates and Edward S. Zawadzki, Criminal Abortion: A Study in Medical Sociology (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1964), 44-45. Newspapers can be misleading. After examining abortion coverage in the New York Times and abortion case histories in the medical literature, James Mohr concluded that after 1880 abortion became the practice of unwed women. Mohr, Abortion in America , 240-244. [BACK]

15. Press and court interest in unmarried women and men are discussed further in later chapters of this volume. [BACK]

16. Mary A. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion—Its Evils and Its Sad Consequences," Woman's Medical Journal (hereafter cited as WMJ ) 3 (August 1894): 34; Dr. J. R. Gardner in Inquest on Ellen Matson, November 19, 1917, case 330-11-1917, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

17. Marie Hansen in Inquest on Mary Schwartz, May 21, 1934, case no. 340-5-1934, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

18. "Prevention or Abortion, Which?" BCR 7 (May 1923): 127. [BACK]

19. Dr. B. Liber, "As a Doctor Sees It," BCR 2 (February-March 1918): 10; "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" BCR 7 ( July 1923): 182. A midwife used this phrase in 1888, "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 2. [BACK]

20. Frank Mau in Inquest on Catherine Mau, March 12, 1928, case 390-3-1928, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

21. Clara Taylor, "Observations of a Nurse," BCR 2 (June 1918), 13; see also Mary A. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion—Its Evils and Its Sad Consequences" continued, WMJ 3 (September 1894): 62, 63. [BACK]

22. "Two Pertinent Remarks," Chicago Times , December 30, 1888, p. 4; A.B.C., "Does Public Opinion in the United States Sanction Abortion?" Medical Critic and Guide 23 (1920): 71. I suspect that "A.B.C." was William J. Robinson, an advocate of birth control and early advocate for legalized abortion. He was the editor of the Medical Critic and Guide and wrote most of its articles. Entry for William J. Robinson in The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Being the History of the United States , vol. 35 (New York: James T. White and Co., 1949), 546; Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 170-176. [BACK]

23. Joseph Taber Johnson, "Abortion and its Effects," AJO 33 (January 1896): 86-97, quotation on 91. See also Scott, "Criminal Abortion," 72-86. [BACK]

24. E. S. McKee, "Abortion," AJO 24 (October 1891): 1333. [BACK]

25. Henry O. Marcy in J. H. Carstens, "Education as a Factor in the Prevention of Criminal Abortion and Illegitimacy," JAMA 47 (December 8, 1906): 1890; John G. Clark in Edward A. Schumann, "The Economic Aspects of Abortion," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (hereafter cited as A JOG ) 7 (April 1924): 485. [BACK]

26. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 36; Susan E. Cayleff, "Self-

Help and the Patent Medicine Business," in Women, Health, and Medicine in America: A Historical Handbook , edited by Rima D. Apple (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990), 311-336; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , chap. 4. On self-medication in the early twentieth century, see Ronald L. Numbers, Almost Persuaded: American Physicians and Compulsory Health Insurance, 1912-1920 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 2-3. [BACK]

27. Denslow Lewis, "Facts Regarding Criminal Abortion," JAMA 35 (October 13, 1900): 944. [BACK]

28. Anne Burnet, "Abortion as the Exciting Cause of Insanity, WMJ 9 (November 1899): 400. On the germ theory and antiseptic procedure, see Charles E. Rosenberg, The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (New York: Basic Books, 1987), 137-150; Gert H. Brieger, "American Surgery and the Germ Theory of Disease," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 40 (March-April 1966): 135-145. [BACK]

29. Barbara Brookes, Abortion in England, 1900-1967 (London: Croom Helm, 1988), 23, 37; quotation in "Hard Facts," BCR 4 (June 1920): 16. Regine Stix found that one illegal abortion (of 686) was performed by a neighbor, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," 360 n. 14. [BACK]

30. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion" (September 1894), 60-61. [BACK]

31. Inquest on Matson. Matson's aunt remarked that she and Matson's mother had advised against an abortion. Whether this remark was true or a comment made to avoid trouble with the authorities, neither aunt nor mother abandoned her. [BACK]

32. Inquest on Colbert. [BACK]

33. Joan Jacobs Brumberg, "'Ruined Girls': Changing Community Responses to Illegitimacy in Upstate New York, 1890-1920," Journal of Social History 18 (winter 1984): 247-272, quotation on 248. [BACK]

34. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion" (August 1894), 36. [BACK]

35. Inquest on Ester Reed, June 9, 1914, case no. 73771, Medical Records Department. Although Emma Alby denied having done anything "wrong," her parents were convinced she was pregnant and took her to a physician for an abortion. Inquest on Emma Alby, September 11, 1915, case no. 141-10-1915, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

36. Inquest on Gawlik; Brumberg, "'Ruined Girls,'" 248-249, 250, 258; John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 187, 259. On neighborhood policing of unmarried women's sexual behavior, Joanne Meyerowitz, "Sexual Geography and Gender Economy: The Furnished Room Districts of Chicago, 1890-1930," Gender and History 2 (autumn 1990): 277. [BACK]

37. "Queries and Minor Notes. Maternities for the Unmarried," JAMA 43 (July 2, 1904): 42. [BACK]

38. Dr. Henry Fitzbutler founded the Louisville National Medical College. This is from the recollections of his grandson. Case 14, "Research Projects, The Negro Family in the U.S., Documents on Higher Class Families in Chicago," folder 13, box 131-81, E. Franklin Frazier Papers, used with the permission of the Manuscript Division, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington D.C. On black hospitals, see Vanessa Northington Gamble,

Making a Place for Ourselves: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). [BACK]

39. Brumberg, "'Ruined Girls'," 260; Elizabeth Karsen Lockwood, "The Fallen Woman, the Maternity Home, and the State: A Study of Maternal Health Care for Single Parturients, 1870-1930" (master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1987); Regina G. Kunzel, Fallen Women, Problem Girls: Unmarried Mothers and the Professionalization of Social Work, 1890-1945 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993). By 1904, mandatory breastfeeding was an "established policy" among Illinois charitable maternities for the unwed, "Maternities for the Unmarried,'' 42. [BACK]

40. Kunzel, Fallen Women, Problem Girls , 68-69, 81. [BACK]

41. Women's wages were based on the (false) assumption that women did not support themselves or their families because they had husbands or fathers who supported them. This discussion is drawn from Joanne Meyerowitz's excellent survey of women's wages in the early twentieth century, Women Adrift: Independent Wage Earners in Chicago, 1880-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 33-38. See also Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 230, 258, 262-263. [BACK]

42. Linda Gordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence, Boston, 1880-1960 (New York: Viking Penguin, 1988), 92-95, 98, 107-109, 112-113. [BACK]

43. Inquest on Collins. See also Inquest on Mary Baxter Moorhead, November 29, 1926, case no. 371-11-1926, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

44. Inquest on Mary Schwartz. [BACK]

45. Inquest on Mau. See also Inquest on Rosie Kawera, June 15, 1916, case no. 152-5-1916, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

46. The second visit is recorded in the Transcript of People v. Anna Heissler , 338 Ill. 56 (1930), Case Files, vault no. 44783, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901, Illinois State Archives, Springfield, Illinois. [BACK]

47. Inquest on Collins; Inquest on Emily Projahn, October 10, 1916, case no. 26-12-1916, Medical Records Department; Inquest on Elsie Golcher, February 15, 1932, case no. 225-2-32, Medical Records Department; Inquest on Carolina Petrovitis, March 21, 1916, case no. 234-3-1916, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

48. Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812 (New York: Knopf, 1990). On women in immigrant neighborhoods, see Elizabeth Ewen, Immigrant Women in the Land of Dollars: Life and Culture on the Lower East Side, 1890-1925 (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1985). [BACK]

49. Ellen Ross notes a sense of "community obligation" among poor London mothers who automatically helped each other with child care. Ellen Ross, Love and Toil: Motherhood in Outcast London, 1870-1918 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 134-135; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , 87-108, 202-203, 208. [BACK]

50. In eleven cases found through coroner's records, boyfriends helped their unmarried lovers obtain abortions. For example, Inquest on Anna Johnson, May 27, 1915, case no. 77790, Medical Records Department; Inquest on

Mary Nowakowski, April 4, 1935, case no. 8o-5-1935, Medical Records Department; Inquest on Mary L. Kissell, August 3, 1937, case no. 300-8-1937, Medical Records Department; Dorothy Dunbar Bromley and Florence Haxton Britten, Youth and Sex: A Study of 1300 College Students (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1938), 262. On dating, see Meyerowitz, Women Adrift , 101-106; Kathy Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), 54-55, 108-110. [BACK]

51. Inquests on Matson, Colbert, Nowakowski, Kissell. [BACK]

52. Charley Morehouse in Inquest on Matson. [BACK]

53. See, for example, Statement of Patrick O'Connell in 1907 Inquest on Nellie Walsh included in Transcript of People v. Beuttner , 233 Ill. 272 (1908), Case Files, vault no. 30876, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901. [BACK]

54. John Harris in Inquest on Anna Marie Dimford, September 30, 1915, case no. 75-11-1915, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

55. Testimony of Fred Corderay in Inquest on Alma Heidenway, August 21, 1918, case no. 232-8-1918, Medical Records Department. He denied having a sexual relationship with Heidenway. [BACK]

56. Testimony of Edward Dettman and Annie Cullinan in Inquest on Colbert. [BACK]

57. Meyerowitz, Women Adrift , 118-123. [BACK]

58. For example, see Joan M. Jensen, "The Death of Rosa: Sexuality in Rural America," Agricultural History 67 (fall 1993): 1-12; I am grateful to Daniel Schneider for showing me this article. See also Catharine MacKinnon, "The Male Ideology of Privacy: A Feminist Perspective on the Right to Abortion," Radical America 17 (July-August 1983): 23-35 and the responses by Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, "Abortion as 'Violence against Women': A Feminist Critique," Radical America 18 (March-June 1984): 64-68; Carole Joffe, ''Comments on MacKinnon," Radical America 18 (March-June 1984): 68-69. [BACK]

59. How to assess the female experience of heterosexuality has been a source of crucial debate among feminists. The role of pornography in women's oppression and legal measures to repress it have been especially controversial. See the proposed antipornography ordinance in Andrea Dworkin and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Pornography and Civil Rights: A New Day for Women's Equality (n.p., 1988 ) . For analyses of feminist thought on sexual pleasure and danger today and in the nineteenth century, see Carole S. Vance, ed. Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality (Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984); Ellen Carol DuBois and Linda Gordon, "Seeking Ecstasy on the Battlefield: Danger and Pleasure in Nineteenth-Century Feminist Sexual Thought," Feminist Studies 9 (spring 1983): 7-25. [BACK]

60. Edward A. Balloch, "Criminal Abortion," AJO 45 (February 1902): 238. [BACK]

61. Although Hoffmann may have miscarried, her abortion and death were investigated by the coroner as a criminal abortion. Inquest on Milda Hoffmann, May 29, 1916, case no., 342-5-1916, Medical Records Department. On the rape of young, unmarried women, see Mary E. Odem, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995). [BACK]

62. Inquest on Edna M. Lamb, February 19, 1917, case no. 43-3-1917, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

63. Inquest on Petrovitis. [BACK]

64. Ross, Love and Toil , 112-118; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , 95. But husbands did sometimes assist; see the illustration of labor in early Virginia in Leavitt, 105. [BACK]

65. Inquest on Collins; Inquest on Mau. [BACK]

66. Burnet, "Abortion as the Exciting Cause of Insanity," 401. [BACK]

67. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 102-103, 106, 121-122. [BACK]

68. Testimony of Earnest Projahn in Inquest on Projahn. [BACK]

69. Testimony of Earnest Projahn, written statement of Emily Projahn in Inquest on Projahn. [BACK]

70. Testimony of Dr. C.W. Mercereau and Dr. Garford D.E. Haworth in Inquest on Projahn. [BACK]

71. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , chaps. 9, 4, [BACK]

72. For example, John C. Vaughan, "Birth Control Not Abortion," BCR 6 (September 1992): 183; "Birth Control and Abortion," BCR 8 (July 1924): 202; "Ten Good Reasons for Birth Control," BCR 13 (January 1929), no page no. [BACK]

73. "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" (July 1923), 182. [BACK]

74. Rachelle Yarros, "Birth Control Clinics in Chicago," BCR 12 (December 1928): 354-355. I have calculated the percentage from figures provided in the article. [BACK]

75. Kate Simon, Bronx Primitive: Portraits in a Childhood (New York: Harper and Row, 1982), 70. I am grateful to Joyce Follet for bringing Simon's book to my attention. [BACK]

76. The editor further commented, "In the case of many of the opponents of Birth Control this misapprehension is deliberately made . . . to discredit the cause. In other cases it arises out of ignorance." "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" (July 1923), 181. [BACK]

77. These were constant themes. For example, see "Hard Facts," 16; Margaret Sanger, "Why Not Birth Control Clinics in America?" BCR 3 (May 1919): 10; "A Desperate Choice," BCR 9 (March 1925): 78; Margaret Sanger, Motherhood in Bondage (1928; reprint, Elmsford, N.Y.: Maxwell Reprint, 1958), 394-410. A political challenge to the birth control movement's perspective on abortion did not develop as it did in England nor did a movement for legalization. See Brookes, Abortion in England , 79-80, 87; and chapter 5 of this volume. [BACK]

78. "Letters from Women," Letter No. 10, BCR 2 (April 1918): 12; "How Would You Answer This Woman?" BCR 5 (March 1921): 14. [BACK]

79. "Letters from Women," Letter No. 17 and Letter No. 16, BCR 2 (June 1918): 12. [BACK]

80. Ross, Love and Toil , 99; Rima D. Apple, Mothers and Medicine: A Social History of Infant Feeding, 1890-1950 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1987), chap. 6. [BACK]

81. "A Desperate Choice," 78. [BACK]

82. Leavitt, Brought to Bed , chap. 1. [BACK]

83. "Appeals from Mothers," BCR 6 (August 1922): 150. [BACK]

84. "Appeals from Mothers," p. 151. See also "Letters from Women," Letter no. 2, BCR 2 (January 1918): 13. [BACK]

85. The Cook County Coroner's report for 1918-1919 showed that the great majority of women who died due to abortions (some of them miscarriages) were married, over 80 percent, and that over half of the women had children already. Most of the mothers had two children or more. Cook County Coroner, Biennial Report, 1918-1919 , p. 78, Municipal Reference Collection, Chicago Public Library, Chicago, Illinois. [BACK]

86. See Barbara Katz Rothman's insightful discussion of pregnancy and motherhood, Recreating Motherhood: Ideology and Technology in a Patriarchal Society (New York: W.W. Norton, 1989), esp. 106-108. [BACK]

87. For example, "Letters from Women" (January 1918), 13; "Unemployment," BCR 15 (May 1931): 131. [BACK]

88. Louise Kapp Howe, Moments on Maple Avenue: The Reality of Abortion (1984; New York: Warner Books, 1986), 90-91, 117-118, 121-126. [BACK]

89. "But What Can I Do?" BCR 11 (November 1927): 296. [BACK]

90. Testimony of Lt. William P. O'Brien in Inquest on Mau. [BACK]

91. These were not all illegal abortions, Biennial Report, 1918-1919 , 78. [BACK]

92. See the video, Motherless: A Legacy of Loss from Illegal Abortions , produced by Barbara Attic, Janet Goldwater, and Diane Pontius, Filmmakers Library, New York; and interviews with orphans in Miller, The Worst of Times , 39-47, 48-57, 237-241. [BACK]

93. "Letters from Women," Letter no. 14, BCR 2 (May 1918): 12. [BACK]

94. The mother described herself as having "born and raised 6 children." This example illustrates changing norms. Women who grew up in large families themselves adopted the new smaller family norm promoted by the birth control movement. "'Why?'" BCR 2 (December 1918): 6. [BACK]

95. Hard Facts. Jennie K.," BCR 3 (November 1919): 15. [BACK]

96. Inquest on Margaret Winter, November 13, 1916, case no. 274-11-1916, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

97. Simon, Bronx Primitive , 21, 25, 73; Ross, Love and Toil , 148-154. [BACK]

98. "Letters from Women," Letter No. 17, BCR 2 (June 1918): 12. See also "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" (July 1923), 182. [BACK]

99. Stix, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," 357-359; Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth and Abortion (New York: Harper and Brothers and Paul B. Hoeber Medical Books, 1958), 114, 120, 109-110, table 54. [BACK]

100. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , chap. 8; James Reed, From Private Vice to Public Virtue: The Birth Control Movement and American Society Since 1830 (New York: Basic Books, 1978), 45; "A Connecticut Physician's Letter," BCR 5 (September 1921): 15. [BACK]

101. Susan J. Kleinberg, "Technology and Women's Work: The Lives of Working Class Women in Pittsburgh, 1870-1900," Labor History 17 (winter 1976): 58-72. [BACK]

102. "Letters from Women," Letter no. 1 (January 1918): 13; Ross, Love and Toil , 98-99; on wife-beating in America, Gordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives , 250-288. [BACK]

103. "Letters from Women," Letter no. 1 BCR 2 (January 1918), 13. [BACK]

104. "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" (July 1923), 182; "Prevention or Abortion, Which?" (May 1923), 127. See also "'A Damnably Cruel Dilemma,'" BCR 3 (July 1919): 17. [BACK]

105. Frank A. Stahl, "Some Expressions of Abortive Attempts at Instrumental Abortion," JAMA 31 (December 31, 1898): 1560-1561. [BACK]

106. Maximilian Herzog, "The Pathology of Criminal Abortion," JAMA 34 (May 26, 1900): 1310-1311; J.E. Lackner, "Serological Findings in 100 Cases, Bacteriological Findings in 50 Cases, and a Resume of 679 Cases of Abortion at the Michael Reese Hospital," Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics 20 (1915): 537; Lewis, "Facts Regarding Criminal Abortion," 945. J. L. Andrews reported the use of knitting needles, rubber catheters, and slippery elm to induce abortions, in "The Greatly Increased Frequency of the Occurrence of Abortion, as Shown by Reports from Memphis Physicians: An Essay on the Causes for the Same," Transactions of the Medical Society of Tennessee 72 (1905): 126-127. In 1928 a Cook County Hospital physician reported from patient histories that women used "catheters . . . orange sticks, hairpins, cotton ball, a substance called slippery elm.'' Dr. Gertrude Engbring in Transcript of People v. Heissler (1930); George Erety Shoemaker, "Septicemia from Self-Induced Abortion," AJO 35 (June 1897): 637; "Tetanus Follows Attempt to Abort with Chicken Feather," JAMA 84 (February 7, 1925): 470. [BACK]

107. G.D. Royston, "A Statistical Study of the Causes of Abortion," AJOG 76 (October 1917): 571-572, quotation on 573. [BACK]

108. Royston, "Statistical Study," 572-573; Dr. Gertrude Engbring in Transcript of People v. Heissler (1930). [BACK]

109. Bessie Louise Pierce, The Rise of a Modern City , vol. 3. of A History of Chicago (New York: Knopf, 1957), 188. [BACK]

110. John S. Hailer, American Medicine in Transition, 1840-1910 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), 267-270. [BACK]

111. Addison Niles, "Criminal Abortion," Transactions of the Twenty-First Anniversary Meeting of the Illinois State Medical Society (Chicago: Fergus Printing, 1872), 100; Calvin Schmid reported on 109 abortion deaths in Minneapolis between 1927 and 1936 and found that the catheter was used in 29 cases, slippery elm in 18, in Social Saga of Two Cities , 411. "Propaganda for Reform. Chichester's Diamond Brand Pills," JAMA 56 (May 27, 1911): 1591. [BACK]

112. Dr. Frederick D. Newbarr, Detroit, to Editor, July 21, 1920, Abortifacient File, Historical Health Fraud Collection of the AMA (hereafter cited as HHFC), AMA, Chicago, Illinois. See B. E. Ellis, M.D., Indianapolis, to JAMA , November 10, 1923, Abortifacient File, HHFC. [BACK]

113. Ling's office was at 1909 Archer Avenue in Chicago. Letter to AMA from Chicago, August 22, 1922, Abortifacient File, HHFC. [BACK]

114. Inquest on Anna P. Fazio, February 14, 1929, case no. 217-2-1929, Medical Records Department. [BACK]

115. Quotations from A.B.C., "Does Public Opinion in the United States Sanction Abortion?," 61, 64. [BACK]

previous sub-section
next sub-section