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Packwood, Sen. Robert, 231

Pall Mall Gazette , 49 , 50

Papanek, Samuel, 165 , 317 nn23, 24.

Parental notification or consent requirements, 249 , 252 , 253 , 341 n25

Paris, infanticide in, 50 , 51

Parkes, Dr. Charles H., 122 , 124

Parsons, Jody, 237 , 332 n26

Parsons, Rev. E. Spencer, 241 , 242 , 338 n98

Paternity cases, 129 -30

Patients, 9 ;

decision-making of, 65 -67, 223 , 224 , 247 ;

influence on politics, 217 ;

state surveillance of, 247 -48, 249 . See also Abortion patients; Physician-patient relationship

Patients' rights, 247 -48, 250 -51

Pearse, Dr. Harry A., 176

Pelvis, contracted, 66 , 145 , 278n55, 279 n64

Pemmer, Elizabeth, 52 -53

Penicillin, 162 , 339 n5

Pennsylvania, 319 n55

People ex rel. Hanrahan v. White , 242 -43

People v. Belous , 235 , 236 , 337 n81

People v. Martin , 153 , 154 , 155 , 160 , 312 n90, 314 n1;

press coverage of, 311 n85;

referring physicians in, 166 , 317 n30;

suicides in, 167 ;

testimony in, 317 n23;

verdict in, 317 n33. See also Martin, Ada; Gabler-Martin abortion clinic

Peritonitis, 35 , 300 n24

Petchesky, Rosalind, 153 , 194 , 204 .

Peyser, Dr. Edward, 314 n113

Pharmaceutical colleges, 57

Pharmacies: condoms in, 134 ;

sale of abortifacients, 44

Pharmacists, 100 , 291 n69

Philadelphia, 10 ;

abortion in, 61 , 134 -35;

abortion indictments in, 298 n7, 299 n16;

abortion investigations in, 119 , 287 n29;

County Medical Society, 88

Philbrick, Dr. Inez, 61

Physician-abortionists, 50 , 313 n113;

African American, 156 ;

assassination of, 248 ;

caricature of, 86 , plate 4;

case studies of, 133 ;

Chicago Medical Society's control of, 95 ;

in Chicago Times exposé, 54 -57, 276 n29;

of Depression era, 148 ;

expulsion from medical societies, 87 , 120 , 323 n105;

expulsion from profession, 81 , 97 , 110 , 120 ;

following Roe v. Wade , 246 ;

hospitals of, 71 -72;

in medical societies, 61 , 72 ;

methods of, 72 -73;

motives of, 158 -59;

prosecution of, 181 -92;

as prostitutes, 85 ;

raids on, 181 , 233 ;

referrals to, 46 , 54 , 67 , 148 -50, 158 , 311 n79;

role in reproductive rights, 47 , 48 ;

safety records of, 77 -79, 284 .n111;

sex of, 76 ;

as specialists, 147 , 159 ;

training for, 147 -48, 252 ;

use of abortifacients, 72 ;

women among, 73 . See also Abortionists; Gabler, Dr. Josephine; Keemer, Dr. Edgar Bass; Midwives; Timanus, Dr. George Loutrell

Physician-patient relationship, 4 , 67 -68, 254 , 260 n7;

antiabortion counseling in, 83 -84;

communication in, 48 , 67 -69, 176 , 178 , 201 ;

confidentiality in, 124 -25, 302 n43;

denial of patient autonomy, 208 , 215 , 220 , 234 ;

distrust in, 64 , 179 , 190 , 248 ;

effect of abortion laws on, 131 , 226 ;

equality in, 247 ;

freedom of speech in, 238 ;

negotiation in, 62 , 244 ;

patients' views ignored in, 208 , 252 ;

women's power in, 67 . See also Patients

Physicians: alliances with midwives, 96 ;

antiabortion, 83 -84., 89 -90, 109 ;

arrest of, 120 , 171 , 236 , 336 n70;

attitude toward inquests, 121 ;

challenges to abortion laws, 15 ;

collection of dying declarations, 119 -20, 122 , 123 -24, 126 ;

cooperation in inquests, 120 -25, 131 ;

cooperation with state, 88 , 288 n32, 302 n43;

cover-up of abortion, 304 n69;

dispensing of contraceptives, 134 , 139 , 296 n115;

in Doe v. Scott , 238 -39;

Eclectic, 73 , 282 n92;

economic concerns of, 67 , 85 -86;

elite, 53 , 54 -55;

enforcement of abortion laws, 3 , 115 ;

exemption from abortion debate, 100 , 105 , 108 ;

fear of prosecution, 122 -24, 174 ., 175 ;

fees for abortion, 47 , 76 , 96 , 154 , 197 , 282 n86;

frequency of abortions by, 70 -71;

hygienic practices of, 79 , 265 n46;

influence of private sphere on, 4 ;

interrogation of abortion patients, 296 n1;

kickbacks from abortionists,

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67 ;

legal protection for, 174 -76;

loss of license, 120 , 172 , 300 n25;

observation of abortion complications, 146 -47, 210 , 217 , 222 , 239 ;

obstetrical training of, 92 , 97 , 101 , 292 n70, 293 n81;

post-abortion treatment by, 120 -21;

prosecution of, 233 ;

public-health work of, 295 n112;

on quickening, 12 ;

radical, 132 , 139 , 146 , 173 , 217 ;

reasons for performing abortion, 67 -68;

red-baiting of, 180 , 321 n84;

referrals by, 148 -50, 171 , 233 , 311 n79;

reformers among, 217 ;

refusal of treatment, 122 -23;

review committees of, 223 ;

rights to privacy. and to practice, 238 , 244 ;

rural, 69 , 280 n69;

safety records of, 91 , 284 n111;

self-regulation of, 3 ;

state regulation of, 116 ;

struggles with hospitals, 190 , 324 n115;

support for abortion, 1 , 15 , 132 , 139 , 181 , 220 ;

sympathy with midwives, 107 , 290 n52;

testimony in abortion trials, 186 -87, 188 ;

and therapeutic abortion committees, 178 -79, 190 -91, 218 ;

threats of prosecution, 120 -21, 171 -72;

training of midwives, 101 . See also Irregulars; Medical profession; Regulars

Physicians, African American, 82 -83, 156 , 286 n10;

female, 300 n21;

prosecution of, 120

Physicians, of Chicago: abortionists among, 53 , 70 , 72 , 313 n113;

in Chicago Times exposé, 54 -57, 67 , 276 n29;

cooperation with Board of Health, 88 ;

Regulars among, 55 , 56 , 276 n29

Physicians, female, 149 , 264 n37;

on abortion, 57 -58;

abortions performed by, 73 , 76 ;

African American, 300 n21;

hostility to, 11 -12;

public-health work of, 96 , 291 n60, 295 n112

Physicians, nineteenth-century, 10 -11;

autonomy of, 15 ;

ignorance of contraceptives, 41 ;

opposition to abortion, 13 , 82 ;

referrals by, 46 , 54 , 67 , 148 -50;

use of placebos, 26 ;

on women's attitudes, 25

Pierce, Mrs. (nurse), 46 -47, 48

Pill (contraceptive), 229

Planned Parenthood, 173 ;

advocacy. of birth control, 220 ;

conference on abortion (1955), 219 -20, 221 ;

and population control, 230 -31;

referral service of, 241 ;

welfare work of, 253

Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 251 , 252

Police: arrests in abortion cases, 109 , 116 , 117 , 120 , 129 , 164 , 298 n8;

corruption, 155 , 167 , 300 n20;

custody of abortion patients, 168 -69, 249 ;

interrogation of abortion patients, 114 , 118 , 126 , 249 ;

raids on abortion clinics, 160 -62, 164 -68, 170 -71, 181 , 243 , 249 , 316 nn16, 19, 318 n41;

self-protection in abortion cases, 126 ;

as voyeur, plate 6

Political movements, and abortion rights, 14 ., 15 , 180 , 228

Poor people's movements, 236 , 336 n72

Population control, 230 ;

as political repression, 333 n42;

for poor women, 231 ;

support for legal abortion, 231 , 233

Pornography, 270 n59

Portland, Ore., 138 , 164

Powell, Roberta, 153

Pregnancy: in common law, 8 ;

dangerous, 41 ;

as developmental process, 60 ;

ectopic, 266 n7;

fear of, 38 -39, 40 ;

first, 135 , 305 n13;

history of, 265 n49;

medical advances in, 144 -45, 162 ;

medical profession's control of, 12 , 83 -84;

as menstrual problem, 8 -9, 23 ;

and motherhood, 273 n86;

as punishment for sex, 249 , 340 n19;

of students, 195 ;

toxemia of, 326 n27;

tuberculosis during, 143 -44, 145 , 146 ;

women's friendship in, 30 -31;

in the workplace, 194

Privacy: in birth control, 336 n77;

in medical treatment, 49 , 124 -25, 238 , 302 n43;

in reproductive rights, 254 ;

state intervention in, 131 ;

in Supreme and Federal Court decisions, 237 , 239 , 244 ;

violation of bodily integrity, 168 -71

Private sphere: abortion in, 21 ;

in antiabortion debate, 106 ;

influence on physicians, 4 , 67 -68;

nineteenth-century, 2 ;

and public debate, 2 -3, 229 -30;

reproductive rights in, 254

Professional abortionist. See Physician-abortionists

Progressive Era, 289 n43;

abortion in, 81 , 102 , 110 ;

sexual discourse in, 102 ;

social movements in, 81 , 91

Pronatalism, 163 , 195

Prosecutors: in abortion fatalities, 116 -18;

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in abortion raid cases, 164 ., 165187 ;

investigation of physicians, 173

Prostitution, 59 , 264 n39;

campaigns against, 12 , 92 ;

as metaphor, 85 ;

related to abortion, 99 -100, 292 n78

Protestants: abortion practices of, 50 , 137 , 306 n22;

attitude toward abortion, 6 -7;

birth rate of, 11

Protest movements, 228

Przybyszewski, Linda, 336 n77

Psychiatrists: in abortion rights movement, 218 , 223 , 234 , 335 n63;

on sexual deviance, 331 n20

Public discussion, of abortion, 142 , 172 -73, 219 , 229 , 230 , 233 . See also Speak-outs

Public health, 295 n111;

effect of legal abortion on, 246 -47;

in midwife debate, 295 n112;

reformers in, 138 . See also Health care

Public-health officers, 106 , 248 ;

on access to abortion, 338 n111;

on maternal mortality, 214 ;

in Planned Parenthood conference, 219 ;

reformers among, 217

Public opinion: acceptance of abortion, 6 -7, 21 -22, 44 -45, 81 , 112 , 234 , 252 -53, 321 n84, 341 n28;

formation of, 2 ;

on maternal mortality, 190 -91

Public policy, 1 ;

in enforcement of abortion laws, 112 ;

exclusion of women, 107 ;

implementation of, 3 , 16 ;

on maternal health, 110 -11;

medical societies' role in, 106 ;

on midwives, 101 ;

obstetricians' influence on, 105 ;

on reproduction, 81 , 110 , 214 , 218 , 244

Public sphere: abortion discourse in, 141 , 229 -30;

antiabortion debate in, 106 , 217 ;

debate in, 2 , 3 ;

nineteenth-century, 2 ;

reproductive rights in, 254 ;

scholarship on, 260 n4.

Puerto Ricans: abortion rates of, 327 n42, fig. 6;

fatal abortions among, 222 , 232 , 329 n60;

therapeutic abortion for, 205

Punishment, 5 , 114 -15, 131 ;

pregnancy as, 249 , 340 n19;

for unmarried women, 221 , 249 . See also Abortion, illegal


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