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Index

A

Abbott, Grace, 100 -101, 107 , 292 n79;

on immigrants, 303 n64;

and Sheppard-Towner Act, 110

Abortifacients, 274 n106, 274 n111;

availability of, 9 -10, 14 ;

commercial, 43 -44;

dangers of, 42 , 43 ;

government regulation of, 10 ;

herbal, 9 , 43 , 44 ;

of midwives, 75 ;

paste, 156 -57, 314 n118

popular knowledge of, 26 ;

use by African American women, 43 ;

use by midwives, 75 ;

use by physician-abortionists, 72

Abortion: advertisements for, 70 , 88 -89, 225 , 262 n13, 280 n74;

availability of, 60 -61, 70 , 76 , 193 , 246 , 251 -52, 339 n2;

backlashes against, 15 , 165 , 190 , 248 , 252 ;

as birth control, 20 , 141 ;

case studies of, 17 , 268 n15, 325 n15;

censorship of, 140 , 172 , 309 n45, 319 n62;

in Chicago, 46 -59, 71 -78, 97 -98, 106 , 246 , 266 n3, 339 n2;

Christian tradition on, 7 ;

in colonial era, 8 -9, 42 ;

under common law, 8 , 14 , 263 n22;

complications following, 138 , 307 n27;

of defective fetus, 203 , 204 , 327 n38;

definition of legality in, 5 , 61 , 182 ;

on demand, 234 , 254 ;

demographics of, 23 , 242 , fig. 3, fig. 6;

dissemination of knowledge about, 70 ;

in early nineteenth century, 10 , 263 n32;

in early twentieth century, 14 -15, 22 ;

effect of criminalization on, 2 ;

for eugenic reasons, 64 , 203 -4, 279 n59;

family support for, 27 ;

female discourse on, 21 , 23 -24, 44 , 229 -30;

feminist critique of, 226 ;

feminist networks for, 223 , 224 , 233 , 242 ;

in fiction, 141 , 309 n45;

financial responsibility for, 31 ;

of first pregnancies, 135 ;

frequency of, 23 , 134 -36, 265 n49, 284 n110;

home remedies for, 43 , 44 , 209 , 274 n106;

as human right, 254 ;

as infanticide, 13 , 85 , 248 ;

insurance for, 134 , 251 , 340 n20;

location of, 68 , 74 , 75 , 199 , 282 n83;

marriage following, 303 n58;

media coverage of, 7 , 216 ;

medical discourse on, 7 -8, 24 -25, 61 -63, 67 , 164 ;

methods of, 72 -73, 157 , 263 n26;

motives for, 32 -33;

parental consent in, 249 , 252 , 255 , 341 n25;

patient records in, 148 -49, 161 -62;

physicians' fees for, 47 , 76 , 96 , 154 , 197 , 282 n86;

physicians' support for, 1 , 132 , 139 , 181 , 220 ;

politicization of, 250 ;

popular support for, 6 -7, 21 -22, 44 -45, 81 , 116 ;

in postwar era, 164 , 190 -94, 214 -19, 317 n22;

private policing of, 250 , 340 n14;

public debate on, 104 -9, 139 -40, 217 ;

public education on, 36 ;

safety of, 76 -79, 148 , 157 , 193 , 214 , 246 -47, 329 n62 (see also Maternal mortality; Septic infection);

as social need, 185 , 204 ;

"speak-outs" on, 229 -30, 333 n40;

spontaneous, 284 n110, 293 n86;

standard medical procedures in, 151 , 312 n88;

state surveillance of, 163 , 173 , 249 ;

trimester system in, 239 -40, 244 , 252 ;

Victorian view of, 292 n78;

waiting periods for, 252 ,

Continued on next page.


368

Continued from previous page.

341n 25;

women's demand for, 1 ,147 , 159 , 249 , 254 , 290 n54

Abortion, fatal, 76 -79;

among African Americans, 211 -12, 222 , 232 ;

categories of, 284 n110, 293 n86;

frequency of, 139 , 265 n49;

as impetus for reform, 222 ;

investigation of, 114 , 118 ;

media coverage of, 102 , 114 -15;

in New York City, fig. 5, fig. 6 ;

peritonitis in, 35 , 300 n24;

in postwar era, 211 -12, fig. 5 ;

reductions in, 162 ;

self-induced, 43 , 102 , 117 , 147 , 274 n111, 293 n86, 299 n19;

vital statistics in, 329 n59. See also Dying declarations; Inquests, coroners'; Maternal mortality.

Abortion, illegal: arrests for, 109 , 116 , 117 , 120 , 129 , 164 , 298 n8;

convictions for, 55 , 70 -71, 118 , 291 n62, 301 n33;

court records on, 255 ;

in exchange for sex, 199 ;

imitation of miscarriage, 72 ;

secrecy in, 21 , 45 , 48 , 151 , 193 , 196 -98;

"underground railroad" for, 233 , 242 . See also Abortion clinics; Abortionists; Midwives; Physician-Abortionists

Abortion, instrumental, 42 , 43 , 72 ;

in early nineteenth century, 10 ;

by midwives, 75 ;

by physicians, 76 , 78 -79, 282 n89

Abortion, legal, 259 n1;

in Alaska and Hawaii, 241 ;

benefits of, 246 ;

under common law, 8 ;

definition of, 182 ;

demographics of, 242 , 339 n7;

effect on maternal mortality, 339 n4;

effect on public health, 246 -47;

equal access to, 244 -45, 249 , 338 n111;

following Doe v. Scott , 241 ;

in New York, 225 , 241 -42, 247 ;

opposition to, 248 -54;

for poor women, 236 , 246 ;

popular support for, 252 -53;

restrictions on, 251 ;

safety of, 285 n116;

social movement for, 140 -41;

support of black women for, 342 n34;

for unmarried women, 221 . See also Abortion rights movement; Therapeutic abortion

Abortion, self-induced, 27 , 42 -44, 78 , 132 , 137 -38, 281 n78;

dangers of, 76 -77, 209 -11;

fatalities in, 43 , 102 , 117 , 147 , 274 n111, 293 n86, 299 n19;

home remedies for, 43 , 44 , 209 , 274 n106;

by married women, 312 n89;

by poor women, 119 , 137 -38;

in postwar era, 208 -9;

by unmarried women, 312 n89;

women's knowledge of, 26 -27. See also Abortifacients

Abortion, therapeutic. See Therapeutic abortion

Abortion clinics, 10 ;

in Baltimore, 158 ;

bombing of, 248 ;

of Depression era, 133 , 149 -67;

fees of, 150 , 157 ;

feminist, 224 -26;

harassment at, 253 ;

raids on, 160 -61, 164 , 167 , 181 , 243 , 316 n16, 316 n19, 318 n41;

referrals to, 151 , 153 , 158 , 232 -33, 241 , 242 ;

following Roe v. Wade , 246 .See also Gabler-Martin abortion clinic; "Jane"; Keemer, Dr. Edgar Bass; Timanus, Dr. George Loutrell

Abortionists: access to antibiotics, 210 ;

arrest of, 126 , 164 , 169 ;

black women's use of, 326 n18;

of Chicago, 47 , 281 n76, 313 n113;

in Chicago Times exposé, 69 -70;

conviction of, 55 , 70 -71, 118 ;

cover-ups by, 130 , 304 .n69;

in early nineteenth century, 10 ;

fatality rates of, 77 ;

feminists' regulation of, 224 ;

foreign, 224 ;

kickbacks to physicians, 67 ;

media coverage of, 125 ;

nonphysician, 310 n70;

of postwar era, 197 ;

prosecution of, 87 -90, 113 -31, 298 n7, 317 n29;

raids on, 164 , 249 ;

under Roe v. Wade , 252 ;

sexual harassment by, 199 , 200 , 225 ;

skill of, 78 -79;

trials of, 107 , 153 , 154 , 155 , 160 , 169 -70;

unqualified, 199 -200, 209 . See also Midwives; Physician-abortionists

Abortion law: changing patterns in, 14 -18;

class action suits in, 235 ;

constitutional challenges to, 218 , 234 -40, 317 n33;

discrimination in, 244 -45;

ecumenical resistance to, 241 ;

effect on abortion safety, 116 ;

enforcement by state, 1 , 81 , 107 , 114 -31, 299 n17;

exceptions to, 5 ;

of Illinois, 61 , 107 , 235 -40, 261 n13, 265 n45;

implementation of, 3 ;

legal challenges to, 181 -92;

model, 143 , 220 -21, 222 ;

nongovernmental enforcement of, 3 , 81 -82;

physicians' challenges to, 15 ;

political resistance to, 241 ;

public policy on, 112 ;

repeal of, 5 , 223 -24, 233 ;

of states, 64 , 252 , 261 n13, 265 n45;

test cases in, 181 , 189 , 190 , 191 , 237 , 335 n67, 336 n70;

unconstitutionality of, 244 ;

vagueness of, 61 , 148 , 238 , 241 . See also Doe v. Scott; Roe v. Wade


369

Abortion law reform, 140 , 141 -42, 216 , 217 , 219 -20;

in England, 189 -90;

feminists on, 331 n21;

Taussig's proposals for, 142 -44. See also Abortion rights movement

Abortion Law Reform Association (ALRA), 140 , 220

Abortion patients: arrest of, 165 , 171 , 243 , 319 n55;

blackmail of physicians, 123 ;

blindfolding of, 198 , 200 , 243 ;

civil rights of, 226 ;

complications of, 138 , 307 n27;

counseling for, 252 ;

delays in seeking treatment, 119 , 299 n19;

follow-up care for, 71 , 120 -21, 154 , 157 -58;

of Gabler-Martin clinic, 151 -52, 310 n71;

in hospitals, 138 -39;

interrogation of, 114 -15, 118 , 126 -29, 131 , 161 , 168 , 191 -92, 249 , 296 n1;

midwives' identification with, 73 -74;

physical examination of, 168 , 169 ;

police custody of, 47 , 168 -69, 249 ;

prosecution of, 340 n15;

as prostitutes, 199 ;

public identification of, 115 , 124 -26, 167 -68, 192 ;

sexual harassment of, 199 , 200 , 225 ;

sexual histories of, 200 ;

testimony in abortion raid cases, 164 -66, 168 , 170 -71;

before therapeutic abortion committees, 321 n79;

in Timanus trial, 183 -87;

women's support of, 27 , 29 -31. See also Dying declarations; Inquests, coroners'

Abortion rights movement, 15 , 216 ;

African American women in, 253 ;

feminists in, 222 -34;

groups comprising, 243 -44;

nonelites in, 223 ;

organizations in, 232 -33;

professionals' role in, 217 , 218 -22, 223 , 233 , 239 , 244 ;

psychiatrists in, 218 , 223 ;

religious opposition to, 221 ;

right to choose in, 232 ;

students in, 225 , 233 ;

white women in, 228 . See also Abortion, legal; Abortion law reform; Reproductive rights

Abstinence, 36 , 38

Academy of Medicine (New York), 139 , 140

Adams, Anne, 184 -86, 188

Addams, Jane, 95

Adoption, 52 -53, 195 , 199

Advertising, of abortion, 70 , 262 n13;

in prosecution of abortion, 100 , 280 n74;

suppression of, 88 -89

Affiliated Hospitals of the State University of New York at Buffalo, 202

African Americans: in Chicago, 17 , 282 n93, 300 n21;

illegitimacy among, 136 , 137 ;

nationalist, 231 , 232 , 334 n50;

physicians, 82 -83, 120 , 156 , 286 n10;

population control programs for, 231 , 232 ;

support for birth control, 231 , 232 . See also Women, African American

Age: as factor in abortion, 307 n23, 312 n96;

of Gabler-Martin patients, 152 ;

of present-day abortion patients, 152

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 249 , 340 n13

Aiken, Dr. John W., 69 , 280 n72

Akron, Ohio, 164

Alaska, 241

Alcohol abuse, 59 , 250

Alexander, Susan. See Grossman, Susan

American Birth Control League, 132 , 133

American Civil Liberties Union, 235 , 237 , 240

American Law Institute (ALI), 220 , 222 ;

model law proposal, 221 , 233 , 234 , 239

American Medical Association: abortionists in, 55 , 72 ;

in antiabortion campaigns, 57 , 80 , 82 -83, 89 ;

in birth control movement, 134 ;

Bureau of Investigation, 89 ;

in Chicago Times exposé, 60 -61;

cooperation with state, 4 , 89 ;

headquarters of, 57 ;

Historical Health Fraud Collection (HHFC), 255 , 256 ;

obstetricians in, 90 ;

opposition to abortion, 10 ;

Section on Obstetrics and Gynecology, 82 , 264 n6. See also Journal of the American Medical Association

American Public Health Association, 234

Amniocentesis, 204

Andrews, J. L., 274 n106

Antiabortion campaigns, 11 -14, 286 n8;

activists in, 11 , 340 n14;

antifeminism of, 11 , 76 ;

cultural aspects of, 80 -81, 85 ;

end of, 111 -12;

at local level, 81 ;

physicians in, 81 , 89 -90;

as purity campaigns, 85 ;

quickening in, 83 , 85 ;

rape in, 340 n19;

after Roe v. Wade , 248 -52;

against single women, 249 ;

specialists in, 15 ;

strategy. of, 81 ;

targeting of women, 81 , 83 -85;

and women's movements, 14

Antibiotics, 162 , 210 , 246

Anticommunism, 315 n12;

post-World War I red scare, 142 ;

and repression of abortion, 163 -64, 172 -73, 180 , 181 , 319 n60


370

Anti-midwife antiabortion campaign, 90 -109;

Johnson case in, 101 -2, 105 , 106 , 107 -8, 126 ;

physicians in, 290 n53;

private interest groups in, 91 . See also Midwives

Anti-Semitism, 320 n65

Antiseptic technique, 27 , 79 , 246 , 269 n28;

in control of maternal mortality, 339 n5

Arizona, 336 n70

Arkansas, 241 ;

abortion reform in, 331 n15

Aseptic technique, 79 , 339 n5

Ashland Boulevard Hospital (Chicago), 72

Asians: as abortion patients, 207 ;

hostility toward, 11

Association to Repeal Abortion Laws (ARAL), 332 n23

Attorneys: Catholic, 221 ;

challenges to abortion law, 218 , 234 -38, 244 , 245 , 335 n67;

courtroom tactics of, 182 , 322 nn87, 88;

defense of poor women, 336 n72

Auerbach, Dr. Julius, 124

Austria, legalized abortion in, 140

Autonomy: female, 190 , 215 , 253 ;

of patients, 247 ;

of physicians, 15

B

Baby farms, 298 n8

"Back-alley butchers," 133 , 304 n4

Bacon, Dr. Charles Sumner, 23 , 82 , 90 , 267 n9;

on midwives, 94 , 95 , 96 ;

and Sheppard-Towner Act, 111

Baker, Dr. S. Josephine, 295 n112

Ballard, Martha, 31

Baltimore: abortion clinics in, 158 ;

midwives of, 281 n81. See also Johns Hopkins University; Timanus, Dr. George Loutrell

Bar associations, in abortion rights movement, 222

Barrett, James R, 292 n76

Bastardy. See Illegitimacy

Bellevue Hospital (New York), 136

Belous, Dr. Leon, 233 , 235 , 236 , 337 n81

Benn, Wilhelmina, 73 , 74

Bérubé, Michael, 204

Bill of Rights, 166 , 317 n33

Birth control, 26 , 41 , 42 , 196 ;

abortion as, 36 -37, 141 ;

availability of, 117 , 134 , 196 , 229 ;

class as factor in, 40 -41;

economic reasons for, 35 -36;

effectiveness of, 229 ;

as genocide, 232 ;

insurance for, 341 n20;

legalization of, 134 , 323 n111;

physicians' dispensing of, 134 , 139 , 296 n115;

popular support for, 111 ;

public debate on, 6 -7;

racism in, 231 ;

religious publications on, 262 n17. See also names of individual methods

Birth control clinics, 111 ;

of Chicago, 37 ;

of Depression era, 306 n19;

opposition to, 296 n115;

working-class women in, 23

Birth control movement, 6 -7, 220 ;

AMA in, 134 ;

criticism of medical profession, 111 ;

English, 140 , 142 ;

on family size, 273 n94;

perspective on abortion, 36 -42, 141 , 142 , 143 , 272 n76, 309 n48;

professionals in, 142 ;

and "race suicide," 104 ;

response of organized religion to, 6 -7, 262 n18;

test cases in, 189 , 323 n111. See also Planned Parenthood

Birth Control Review , 37 , 41 . See also Sanger, Margaret

Birth rate: nineteenth-century, 11 ;

rise in, 163

"Black genocide," 231 , 232

Black Panther Party, 334 -50

Blinn, Dr. Odelia, 57 -58, 59

Blood transfusions, 162 , 339 n5

Bolter, Dr. Sidney, 203

Booth, Heather, 224 , 332 n26

Borst, Charlotte, 283 n97

Boston, 10 , 11 , 333 n35

Bourne, Dr. Aleck, 175 , 176 ;

challenge to abortion law, 182 , 189 -90, 220

Breastfeeding, mandatory, 28 , 270 n39

Brickman, Jane Pacht, 288 n42, 295 n111

Brookes, Barbara, 27

Brooks, Sara, 137 -48

Brown, Elaine, 334 -n50

Brown v. Board of Education , 189

Brumberg, Joan Jacobs, 27 , 297 n3

Buettner, Dr. Adolph, 129

C

Calderone, Dr. Mary Steichen, 219

California: abortion reform in, 233 , 331 n15;

maternal mortality rates in, 246 ;

Supreme Court, 235 . See also Los Angeles; San Francisco; Society for Humane Abortion

California Hospital (Los Angeles), 178

Carantzalis, Jennie, 74 , 75 -76

Carter, Dr. Patricia A., 179 , 180

Catherwood, Dr. Albert E., 174

Catheters, 274 n106, 274 n111;

sale of, 44 ;

use by midwives, 75 ;

use by physician-abortionists, 72


371

Catholic Church: censorship of abortion information, 319 n62;

on early abortion, 8 ;

on ensoulment, 7 ;

hospitals of, 321 n84, 339 n1;

medical opposition to abortion views of, 62 -63;

opposition to birth control, 222 , 330 n13;

pro-choice sentiment in, 233 , 234 , 341 n28;

on reproductive rights, 7 , 180 -81, 248 ;

on therapeutic abortion, 62 -63

Catholics: abortion rates of, 23 , 137 , 242 , 306 n22, 307 n23;

acceptance of abortion, 7 ;

in ALI, 221 -22;

of Chicago, 50 ;

hostility toward, and antiabortion campaign, 11 ;

Jesuits, 63

Cattell, Dr. Henry W., 296 n115

C.D. McCormick Library of Special Collections (Northwestern University), 256

Censorship, 140 , 172 , 233 , 309 n45, 319 n62

Cesarean section, 66 -67, 145 ;

forced, 250

Chaffee, Dr. John B., 46 -47, 48 , 50 , 51 , 52

Chamberlain, Dr. George M., 53

Charity Hospital (New Orleans), 134

Chauncey, George, 316 n14

Chicago: abortion clinics in, 149 -55, 246 ;

abortion hospitals in, 71 -72;

abortion in, 16 -17, 46 -59, 71 -78, 266 n3;

antimidwife antiabortion campaign in, 91 , 92 -101;

Ashland Boulevard Hospital, 72 ;

Bar Association, 222 ;

birth control clinics in, 37 ;

Board of Health, 88 ;

City Health Department, 94 ;

Clergy Consultation Service on Problem Pregnancies, 241 ;

discourse on women in, 109 ;

frequency of abortion in, 23 ;

health-care system of, 48 ;

as medical center, 57 ;

Medico-Legal Society, 55 ;

Michael Reese Hospital, 240 ;

Michigan Boulevard Sanitarium, 72 ;

newspapers of, 49 ;

Public Library, 256 ;

racial composition of population, 17 , 282 n93, 300 n21;

Visiting Nurse Association, 95 ;

Woman's Aid, 105 ;

Woman's City Club, 105 ;

Women's Liberation Union, 225 , 232 , 339 n2;

women's organizations, 105 -6, 107 , 225 , 232 , 294 n93, 339 n2. See also Cook County coroner; Cook County Hospital; "Jane"; Midwives, of Chicago; Physicians, of Chicago

Chicago City Council, 295 n107;

in antiabortion debate, 106 -7, 108 -9;

regulation of midwives, 98

Chicago Examiner , 109 , 125

Chicago Herald , 106

Chicago Lying-In Hospital: self-induced abortion patients in, 209 ;

therapeutic abortion in, 174 , 208

Chicago Medical Society, 106 , 107 , 117 ;

in Chicago Times exposé, 55 , 56 ;

Committee on Midwives, 95 -97, 100 , 101 ;

Criminal Abortion Committee, 82 , 83 , 84 , 88 -90, 104 ;

physician-abortionists in, 72 ;

on therapeutic abortion, 62 -63

Chicago Midwives' Association, 98

Chicago Times abortion expose, 46 -48, 40 -61, 102 , 274 n2, plates 1, 3, and 4;

abortionists in, 69 -70, 86 ;

American Medical Association in, 60 -61;

on availability of abortion, 70 ;

defense of immigrants, 50 ;

depiction of women, 58 -59;

effect on arrests, 298 n8;

letters to, 55 , 277 n32;

midwives in, 52 -53;

physicians in, 54 -57, 67 , 276 n29

Chicago Tribune: on abortion raid cases, 167 ;

in antiabortion debate, 123 ;

"Quack Department," 106

Chicago Vice Commission, 99 ;

on midwives, 75 , 292 n77

Childbearing: of affluent women, 208 ;

attendants during, 285 n116;

history of, 265 n49;

at home, 68 ;

in hospitals, 275 n5;

as medical event, 94 , 95 ;

middle-class women's views on, 38 , 40 ;

mortality rates in, 39 , 77 , 162 , 285 n116;

physicians' fees in, 312 n101;

planned, 230 ;

postponement of, 194 , 312 n96;

refusal of male physicians in, 73 , 283 n96;

social pressure for, 163 ;

state enforcement of, 340 n13

Child rearing: responsibility for, 194 -95;

by unmarried mothers, 29

Children's Bureau, 77 ;

maternal mortality study of, 138 -39, 140 , 307 n31;

on pernicious vomiting, 279 n56

Chiropractors, abortions by, 304 n7

Chisolm, Congresswoman Shirley, 232

Chlevinski, Hattie, 75

Cincinnati, 61 , 134 -35, 306 n19

Cities: abortion in, 17 , 60 -61, 69 ;

danger to women in, 125 , 293 n84;

fears of, 92 , 125 ;

sex reform movements in, 92

Citizen's Committee for Humane Abortion Laws, 331 n18. See also Society for Humane Abortion


372

Civil rights, 323 n111;

abortion as, 44 ;

in abortion raid cases, 166 ;

and legalized abortion, 247 -48

Civil Rights Act, 237

Civil rights movement, 189 ;

and abortion reform movements, 217 , 224 .

Clark, Dr. James A., 107

Class: in Chicago, 50 ;

and choice of abortionist, 76 ;

in criminalization of abortion, 11 , 13 , 15 ;

differences among women, 16 , 267 n6;

as factor in abortion, 16 , 58 , 135 -38, 152 , 193 , 205 , 213 -14, 240 , 245 , 251 ;

in Kinsey study, 306 n19;

in maternal mortality, 211 ;

and present-day antiabortion movement, 249

Clergy, Protestant: abortion referral services of, 232 -33, 241 , 242 ;

in Chicago Times exposé, 50

Clergy Consultation Service on Problem Pregnancies (Chicago), 241

Cleveland, 207

Clothing, as marker of medical care, 151 , 199 , 226 , plate 3, plate 4

Cochrane, Elizabeth, 49

College women, 194 , 196 -97, 324 n2;

in Kinsey study, 306 n19, 306 n21;

in loco parentis rules for, 194 , 195 ;

therapeutic abortions for, 202

Colonial era: conception in, 8 -9;

midwife Martha Ballard, 31

Colorado, 116 , 141 , 331 n15, 336 n70

Commoner, Barry, 333 n42

Common law: abortion under, 8 , 14 , 88 , 263 n22;

dying declarations in, 118 ;

quickening in, 13

Comstock law, 13 ;

contraceptives in, 134 ;

raids under, 298 n8

Conception: as beginning of life, 110 ;

in colonial era, 8 -9;

during Depression, 135 . See also Quickening

Condoms, 41 , 134 , 196

Connecticut, 336 n70

Consciousness-raising groups, 228

Contraception. See Birth control

Contracted pelvis, 66 ,145, 278 n55, 279 n64

Cook County coroner: on dying declarations, 124 ;

inquests into abortion, 22 , 31 , 45 , 113 -31, 256 , 273 n85, 293 n86, 299 n18, fig. 1;

records of maternal mortality, 76 , 78 . See also Inquests, coroners'

Cook County Criminal Court, 298 n7

Cook County Hospital: abortion patients in, 43 , 209 , 240 , fig. 4;

after Doe v. Scott , 240 ;

legal abortion in, 246 , 253 ;

low-income patients in, 253 ;

septic abortion ward of, 138 , 239 , 307 n29

Cook County Medical Examiner's Office, 256

Coroners, corruption of, 300 n20. See also Inquests, coroners'

Corruption, police, 155 , 167 , 300 n20

Cosgrove, Dr. Samuel A., 179 , 180

Courts: appeal of abortion convictions in, 301 n34;

control over family law, 297 n3;

history of, 261 n11;

juvenile, 303 n67;

lawyers in, 182 ;

male atmosphere of, 161 , 165 ;

records of abortion, 17 ;

reflection of popular morality, 6 ;

scrutiny of police action, 299 n17;

testimony in, 182 . See also Illinois Supreme Court; Inquests, coroners'; Juries; U.S. Supreme Court

Craniotomies, 66

Crime, organized: connection with abortion, 167 , 318 n40;

FBI's investigation of, 318 n39

Criminal abortion law. See Abortion law

Criminal trials, records of abortion in, 17

Crowell, F. Elisabeth, 99 ;

report on midwives, 90 , 291 n62

Culbertson, Dr. Carey, 87

Curettes, 72 , 282 n89;

plate 2;

as treatment for miscarriage, 285 n113;

use by midwives, 75 ;

use by physicians, 75 , 78 , 79 . See also Dilation and curettage

Cushing, Dr. G. M., 124

D

Danforth, Dr. David N., 238 , 239

Davis, Martha F., 336 n72

D.C. General Hospital, 210

Death certificates, falsification of, 97 , 130 , 104 n70, 329 n59

Delaware, abortion reform in, 331 n15

DeLee, Dr. Joseph B., 64 , 267 n7

Depression, Great: abortion activism during, 336 n77;

abortion during, 14 , 132 -47, 298 n7;

fertility rate in, 162 ;

legalized abortion movement during, 141 ;

liberalizing trends of, 173 ;

physician-abortionists during, 148


373

Detroit: Harper Hospital, 174 ;

raids in, 319 n47;

therapeutic abortion committees in, 174 ;

women's liberation groups in, 333 n35. See also Florence Crittendon Hospital; Keemer, Dr. Edgar Bass

Diaphragms, 41 , 196

Dilation and curettage (D & C), 72 , 78 , 156 , 225 . See also Curettes

Discourse: of antiabortionists, 248 ;

feminist, 262 n21;

radicalization of, 223 ;

on reproductive rights, 223 , 254 ;

on sex, 102

Discourse, female: on abortion, 21 , 23 -24, 44 , 229 -30;

on reproductive rights, 44

Discourse, medical: on abortion, 7 -8, 24 -25, 61 -63, 67 , 164

Disease: societal definition of, 278 n53;

in therapeutic abortion, 278 n55

Divorce, 104 , 261 n8;

in abortion decisions, 184

Dixon-Jones, Dr. Mary, 69

Doe v. Bolton , 244 , 245 , 252

Doe v. Scott , 235 -40, 335 n66;

appeals on, 240 ;

attorneys in, 336 n80;

filing of, 335 n67;

judges in, 239 ;

overturn of, 242 -43;

plaintiffs in, 238 -39. See also Test cases

Domesticity., of McCarthy era, 315 n10

Dorsett, Dr. Walter B., 64 , 82 , 90

Double standards, sexual, 12 , 28 ;

as factor in abortion, 59 ;

feminists on, 230 ;

in prosecution of abortion, 115 ;

in therapeutic abortion committees, 200

Douches, 26 , 41 , 42 , 103

Drugstores. See Pharmacies

Dubin, Leonard, 221

Due process rights, 247 , 317 n33

Duff, Dr. J. Milton, 82

Duffy, Capt. Thomas, 160 , 161 , 167

Dye, Nancy Schrom, 295 n112

Dying declarations: coercion in, 301 n34;

collection by hospitals, 121 ;

collection by physicians, 119 -20, 122 , 123 -24, 126 ;

in common law, 118 ;

contents of, 126 ;

destruction of, 124 ;

Illinois Supreme Court on, 116 , 297 n6;

legal status of, 298 n14, 300 n32;

marital status m, 128 ;

models of, 122 , 301 n31;

use in court, 297 n6. See also Inquests, coroners'

E

Eastman, Dr. Nicholson J., 321 n82

Ebony , 197 -98, 231 , 325 n14

Eclectics (physicians), 73 , 282 n92

Education, in abortion decisions, 195 , 306 n19, 306 n21

Edwards, Dr. E. W., 45 , 47 , 52 , 54

Ehrlich, Paul R, 333 n42

Emerson, Flossie, 300 n21

England: Abortion Law Reform Association, 140 , 220 ;

birth control movement, 140 , 142 ;

Bourne case in, 175 , 176 , 220 ;

legalized abortion in, 140 -41, 189 -90, 236 , 308 n42;

London, as abortion center, 61 ;

maternal mortality in, 339 n5;

Pall Mall Gazette (London), 49 , 50 ;

and sex trade, 50

Etheridge, Dr. James H., 55 , 56

Ethnicity: in Chicago Times expose, 50 ;

and choice of abortionist, 76 ;

in differences among women, 16 ;

as factor in abortion, 135 , 193 ;

in therapeutic abortion, 205 , 207 , 327 n42

Eugenics: in abortion decisions, 64 , 203 -4, 279 n59;

and sterilization, 328 n50

Europe, legalized abortion in, 140 -41, 142 , 308 n44. Set also England; Soviet Union

Evidence: in coroners' inquests, 115 , 127 ;

illegal, 166 , 317 n33

Exclusionary rule (evidence), 317 n33

F

Families: in abortion investigations, 125 , 126 -28, 302 nn48, 49;

contraceptive use in, 40 -41;

role of medical practice in, 68 ;

size of, 58 , 273 n94;

state intervention in, 115 ;

support for abortion within, 27 . See also Fathers; Mothers

Families, working-class: birth control for, 36 ;

effect of abortion on, 39 -40, 144 .

Family planning: by working-class women, 35 -36, 230 . See also Birth control

Fatherhood, as expectation, 115 , 129

Fathers: attitude toward daughter's abortions, 28 , 108 ;

newspaper warnings to, 125 ;

physicians as father figures, 59 -60, 84 , 234 ;

power over daughters, 237 , 248 ;

state as, 115

Federal Bureau of Investigation, 318 n39

Fee for service, 49


374

Fees, abortion: of clinics, 150 ;

compared to childbirth, 74 , 154 , 313 n101, 315 n106;

at Gabler-Martin clinic, 154 -55, 197 , 311 n82, 313 nn107, 108;

at Keemer clinic, 157 ;

of midwives, 74 , 96 , 283 n98 negotiation of, 154 -55, 225 ;

physicians', 47 , 76 , 96 , 154 , 196 , 197 , 282 n86;

in postwar era, 197 , 325 n11;

at Timanus clinic, 158

Feminine mystique, 163 , 315 n10

Feminists: abortion activism of, 217 -18, 223 -34, 238 , 252 ;

on abortion law reform, 331 n21;

in abortion rights movement, 222 -34;

African American, 207 , 232 , 334 n50;

and birth control movement, 141 ;

English, 220 ;

on medical profession, 3 , 260 n6;

and poor people's movements, 236 ;

second-wave, 227 , 228 -29;

smear campaigns against, 172 ;

tactics of, 229 ;

"third-world," 228 , 232

Feminists, nineteenth-century, 12 ;

on birth control, 36 ;

views on abortion, 32 -33, 35 , 36 , 76 , 278 n44;

views on medicine, 260 n6. See also Women's movements

Fetus: defects of, 203 , 204 , 221 , 240 , 327 n383

images of, 84 -85, 287 n18;

medical opinion on, 60 , 80 ;

primacy over woman, 250 ;

viability of, 245 , 248

Fibroids, in therapeutic abortion, 326 n27

Fields, Dr. Charles, 238 , 239

Findley, Dr. Palmer, 109 , 110

Finkbine, Sherri, 203

Fish, Dr. E. F., 67

Fitzbutler, Dr. Henry, 269 n38

Florence Crittendon Hospital (Detroit), 174 -75, 176 , 177 ;

sterilization at, 329 n54

Folk remedies, for abortion. See Abortifacients; Abortion, self-induced

Foucault, Michel, 5 , 7 , 262 n21

Frank, Dr. Jacob, 56

Frank, Dr. Louis, 124

Freedmen's Hospital (Washington, D.C.), 147

Freedom, sexual, 220 ;

feminists on, 16 , 217 , 229 ;

in nineteenth century, 32 ;

in sex reform drives, 92 . See also Sexuality

Friedan, Betty, 315 n10

Friedman, Lawrence, 167 , 317 n33, 318 n39

Friendship, women's, 27 , 29 -31, 45

Fritzsche, Sybille, 235 -38, 239 , 335 nn66, 67, 336 n69;

on Cook County attorney, 242 ;

on religious opposition, 338 n98

Furniss, Dr. Henry, 123

G

Gabler, Dr. Josephine, 148 , 149 -50, 159 , 311 n74;

education of, 310 n72

Gabler-Martin abortion clinic, 149 , 196 ;

age of patients, 152 ;

bribes by, 155 ;

business records of, 166 ;

fees at, 154 -55, 197 , 311 n82, 313 nn107, 108;

length of pregnancy at, 153 -54., 313 n103

patients of, 151 -53, 312 n90, 313 n99;

post-abortion care at, 154 ;

procedures of, 151 -52, 311 n86;

race of patients, 153 ;

referrals to, 150 , 166 , 322 n98;

secrecy in, 151 . See also Martin, Ada; People v. Martin

Gallagher, John A., 126

Garrow, David, 336 n72

Garvin, Dr. Charles H., 135

Gayle, R. Finley, 279 n56

Gay men, 163 , 228 , 248 ;

marginalization of, 266 n5;

toleration of, 316 n14

Gebhard, Paul H., 135

Gender: and anti-midwife campaign, 94 ;

as bond between women, 21 , 93 , 96 , 266 n6;

in criminalization of abortion, 11 , 115 ;

effect of World War 11 on, 163 ;

and expectations of men, 31 , 115 , 128 , 129 ;

and expectations of women, 163 , 194 ;

female desire for female attendants, 57 , 76 ;

and honor, 167 -68;

in hospital structure, 213 -15;

and male physicians, 68 ;

moral differences in, 12 , 58 -59;

and punishment, 5 , 115 , 131 , 171

General practitioners: abortions by, 67 , 79 ;

choice of, 280 n66;

in history of abortion, 4 ;

regulation of, 178 ;

use of curette, 285 n113

Georgia, 244 , 331 n15, 336 n70

Germany, 140

Germ theory, 269 n28. See also Antiseptic technique; Aseptic technique

Gleitsman, Dr. Emil, 32

Glenn, Dr. George A., 141

Goldman, Emma, 36 , 229

Goodman, Dr. Jerome E., 186 , 187

Gordon, Linda, 163 , 309 n48, 340 n13, 341 n27

Grand juries: in abortion cases, 118 , 119 ,

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375

Continued from previous page.

298 n10, 299 n15;

physicians before, 219 . See also Juries

Greenleaf, Simon, 298 n14

Griswold v. Connecticut , 237 , 323 n111;

privacy in, 336 n77

Groh, Mary, 74

Grossberg, Michael, 297 n3

Grossman, Susan, 235 -38, 239 , 335 nn66, 67

Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, 335 n63

Guttmacher, Dr. Alan F., 179 , 180 , 224 ;

reform efforts of, 222 , 233 -34;

and therapeutic abortion, 201 , 219 , 233

Gynecologists: in antiabortion campaigns, 82 ;

sterilizations by, 208 ;

support of ALA model law, 234 ;

on therapeutic abortion committees, 175

Gynecology, morality of, 264 n38

H

Habermas, Jürgen, 260 n4

Hackett, James P., 168

Hagenow, Dr. Lucy, 77 , 284 n108

Haisler, Catherine, 75

Hall, Dr. Robert E., 205 , 207 , 328 n51

Hamilton, Dr. Alice, 96

Hamilton, Dr. Virginia Clay, 136

Hanrahan, Edward V., 240 , 242 -43, 338 n98

Hansen, Marie, 29

Hardin, Garrett, 333 n42

Harlem Hospital, 135

Harper Hospital (Detroit), 174

Hartmann, Susan, 163

Hawaii, legalization of abortion in, 241

Hawkins, H. H., 116

Health care: of early twentieth century, 48 , 110 -11;

effect of legal abortion on, 246 -47;

federally funded, 251 ,

feminist-oriented, 223 , 225 -26;

government regulation of, 190 ;

inequalities in, 273 , 329 n61;

and maternal mortality, 213 -14;

as partnership, 247 ;

state surveillance of, 249 . See also Hospitals; Public health

Heart disease, in therapeutic abortion, 326 n27

Hedger, Dr. Caroline, 96 , 111 , 291 n61

Hellman, Dr. Louis M., 173

Herbs, abortifacient, 9 , 43 , 44

Herbst, Josephine, 309 n45

Hesseltine, Dr. H. Close, 174 , 176

Heterosexual relations: abortion in, 18 ;

danger in, 102 ;

dating norms in, 31 -33, 277 n50;

female experience of, 271 n59;

feminist assumptions on, 32 -33, 271 n59;

power dynamics in, 37 -38;

regulation of, 115 , 296 n2;

social construction of, 228 . See also Freedom, sexual; Husbands; Lovers, male; Sexuality

Hoffman, Charles G., 98

Hoffman, Peter, 107 , 298 n10;

on maternity homes, 105

Holmes, Dr. Rudolph W.: in antiabortion campaigns, 84 , 88 , 89 -90;

on birth control, 296 n115;

and midwife regulation, 96 , 292 n79;

on newspapers, 70 ;

report to Chicago Medical Society, 88 ;

on therapeutic abortion, 176

Homeopaths: abortions provided by, 72 ;

as Regulars, 282 n92;

regulation of, 10 ;

views on abortion, 55 , 263 n32

Home remedies, for abortion. See Abortifacients; Abortion, self-induced

Homosexuality. See Gay men; Lesbians

Hospitals: for abortion, 71 -72;

abortion patients in, 138 -39, 146 ;

abortions performed in, 3 , 69 , 98 , 173 , 307 n28, 339 n1;

accreditation of, 191 ;

African American, 28 , 269 n38;

births in, 275 n5;

Catholic, 321 n84, 339 n1;

cooperation with state, 4 , 121 , 123 -24, 162 , 173 -74, 190 , 226 , 303 n52;

fees of, 313 n106;

government pressure on, 180 -81;

municipal, 207 , 214 , 307 n38;

national standards for, 191 ;

private, 214 , 328 n44;

struggles with physicians, 190 , 324 n115;

therapeutic abortion in, 161 -62, 179 -80, 329 n62;

women physicians in, 11 . See also Septic abortion wards; Therapeutic abortion committees; names of individual hospitals

Howe, Dr. E. D., 311 n76

Hull-House, 96 , 100 ;

investigation of bastardy, 130

Hume, Dr. E. E., 83

Husbands: aid in abortion, 34 -35, 272 n64;

and contraception, 38 ;

control over wives, 35 , 41 , 59 , 237 ;

in coroners' inquests, 129 ;

indictment of, 303 n65;

notification requirements for, 252

Hyde, Henry, 242 , 248


376

Hyperemesis gravidarum, 63 -64, 201 , 279 n56

I

Illegitimacy: in ALI model law, 221 ;

comparison by race, 136 , 137 ;

prosecution in, 129 -30;

stigma of, 27 -28

Illinois: abortion law reform in, 235 -40;

abortion laws of, 61 , 107 , 261 n13, 265 n45;

Bar Association, 222 ;

Medical Practice Act, 107 , 116 ;

State Medical Society, 72 ;

state's attorney, 242 -43, 317 n28;

therapeutic abortion in, 13 . See also Chicago; Cook County; "Jane"

Illinois Board of Health: in antiabortion debate, 106 ;

Chicago Times on, 50 ;

physicians' cooperation with, 88 ;

regulation of midwives, 97 , 98

Illinois Supreme Court: abortion rulings of, 61 , 244 ;

appeals to, 255 -56;

on dying declarations, 116 , 297 n6;

overturn of People v. Martin , 166 ;

in Stanko case, 170 , 171 ;

on therapeutic abortion, 242 -43. See also Doe v. Scott

Immigrants: abortions for, 68 ;

in antiabortion campaigns, 13 ;

to Chicago, 17 ;

in Chicago Times , 50 ;

in coroners' inquests, 119 ;

and criminalization of abortion, 11 ;

midwives among, 73 , 81 , 91 -92, 147 ;

neighborhoods of, 31 , 270 n48;

physicians among, 139 ;

preferences in childbearing, 73 , 283 nn96-97;

sense of community among, 31 ;

use of midwives, 73 , 76

Immigrants' Protection League, 100

Incest, abortion following, 220 -21, 251

Indiana, 149

Infant health, national policy on, 110 , 111

Infanticide: abortion as, 13 , 85 ;

in Chicago Times exposé, 50 -51

Infant mortality, 250 ;

African American, 213

Inquests, coroners', 22 , 31 , 45 , 114 , 256 , 299 n18;

evidence in, 115 , 127 ;

husbands in, 129 ;

interrogation in, 126 -29, 131 , 182 ;

legal purpose of, 119 ;

physicians' cooperation in, 120 -25, 131 ;

specialists' testimony in, 88 ;

unmarried men in, 115 , 128 -30;

unmarried women in, 128 -30. See also Cook County coroner; Dying declarations

Insurance: for abortion, 134 , 340 n20;

national health, 172 , 295 n111

Iowa, 61 , 336 n70

Irregulars (medical providers), 11 , 48 ;

of Chicago, 57 , 276 n29, 282 n92;

practice of abortion, 263 n32

J

"Jane" (abortion provider), 223 , 224 -27, 240 , 242 ;

founders of, 237 ;

origins of, 224 , 332 n26;

political support for, 243 -44;

raid on, 243

Japan, 224

Jarrett, Dr. Elizabeth, 94

Jay, Dr. Milton, 53

Jewish law on abortion, 7

Jewish women, 23 , 37 , 137 , 173 , 306 n22, 307 n23;

reproductive rights of, 7

Joffe, Carole, 304 -n4

Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore), 158 , 179 -80, 187 , 218 , 321 n82

Johnson, Dr. Joseph Taber, 25 , 80 , 82

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH), 191

Journalism: investigative, 47 , 48 -49;

sensational, 318 n38

Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA): abortion debate in, 67 , 140 ;

anti-midwife campaign in, 97 ;

Bourne case in, 175 ;

on Chicago Times exposé, 57 , 60 ;

on dying declarations, 122 ;

Leunbach method in, 157 ;

on maternity homes, 28 ;

on therapeutic abortion, 64 , 65 -66, 146 . See also American Medical Association

Juries: acquittal of abortionists, 6 ;

coroners', 118 , 119 , 299 n15. See also Grand Juries; Inquests, coroners'

K

Kahn, Dr. Maurice, 113 , 120 , 122

Kansas, 331 n15

Keemer, Dr. Edgar Bass: abortion clinic of, 156 -58;

autobiography of, 323 n107;

convictions of, 244 ;

education of, 156 ;

fees of, 157 ;

in NARAL, 232 , 243 , 324 n114;

post-abortion care by, 157 -58;

raids on, 181 , 243 ;

in Socialist Workers Party, 189 ;

trial of, 182 , 188 -89, 322 n89;

wife of, 156 , 314 n117

Kennedy, Florynce, 232

Kentucky, 336 n70;

Louisville National Medical College, 28 , 269 n38

Kessler-Harris, Alice, 325 n3

Khamis, Dr. Joseph A., 313 n113

Kinnally, Nate, 168

Kinsey, Dr. Alfred, 193

Kinsey Institute for Sex Research, 305 n11;

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377

Continued from previous page.

study of abortion, 135 , 136 , 154 , 305 n15, 306 n19, 306 n21, 313 n99

Klinetop, Dr. Charles, 72

Knights of Columbus, 319 n62

Kobrin, Francis E., 295 n112

Kruse, Dr. Henry, 124 , 303 n52

Kuder, Josephine, 150 ;

arrest of, 160 ;

trial of, 154 , 155 , 160

Kummer, Jerome M., 222

Kunzel, Regina, 29

L

Lader, Lawrence, 322 n86

Lane, Roger, 199 n16

Latina women: as feminists, 232 ;

and sterilization abuse, 232 . See also Mexicans; Puerto Ricans

Law, American: ambiguity in, 262 n15;

history of, 261 n10

The Law against Abortion (Robinson), 139

Leavitt, Judith Walzer, 38 , 280 n69

Leavy, Zad, 222

Left, political: on "the woman question," 228 ;

women's movements and, 142 , 309 n48. See also Socialist movements

Legal Aid, 236

Lesbians, 163 , 228 , 248 , 249 ;

marginalization of, 266 n5

Le Sueur, Meridel, 309 n45

Leunbach's Paste, 156 -57, 314 n118

Lewis, Dr. Denslow, 69

Lidz, Dr. Theodore, 180 , 103 , 327 n34

Life expectancy, 213 , 329 n59

Litoff, Judy Barrett, 290 n53, 290 n56, 295 n112

Livingston, Dr. Margaret, 280 n74

Living wills, 247

Lobdell, Dr. Effie L., 105

London. See England

Long, Dr. John Hermon, 186 -87

Los Angeles, 164 ;

California Hospital, 178 ;

County Hospital, 210

Lotz, Dr. George, 87

Loudon, Irvine, 284 n111, 339 n5

Louisiana, 336 n70

Louisville National Medical College, 28 , 269 n38

Lovers, male: as aid in abortion, 31 , 270 n50;

arrest of, 129 ;

conviction of, 129 , 303 n64;

in coroners' inquests, 128 -30, 303 n58, 303 nn61, 62

Loyola Medical School, 319 n45, 337 n80

Lucas, Roy, 335 n67

Luker, Kristin, 311 n77

M

MacKenzie, Dr. Robert A., 178 -79

Maginnis, Patricia, 223 , 224 , 331 n18

Male-dominated spaces, 126 , 127 , 161 , 165 , 194 , 229

Mandy, Dr. Arthur J., 218

Mann, Sophie, 75

Marbury, William, 221

Margaret Hague Maternity Hospital (New Jersey), 179 , 180

Marquette University School of Medicine, 63

Marriage, 261 n8;

as alternative to abortion, 84 , 115 ,133 ;

in coroners' investigations, 128 ;

enforcement of, 297 n3;

interracial, 237 ;

power relations in, 37 -38, 59 ;

state intervention in, 115 , 129 -31

Martin, Ada, 149 , 151 , 311 n76;

arrest of, 160 ;

conviction of, 166 . See also Gabler-Martin abortion clinic; People v. Martin

Maryland, 331 n15;

Court of Appeals, 188

Massachusetts: Medical Society, 87 , 120 ;

midwives of, 281 n81

Maternal health, national policy on, 110 -11

Maternal mortality, 39 , 77 , 28 nn109, 110, 285 n116;

after legalized abortion, 246 -47;

blame of midwives for, 91 , 95 ;

decline in, 339 n5;

under legal abortion, 339 n4;

public opinion on, 190 -91;

race as factor in, 211 -12, 319 nn60, 61;

resulting from abortion, 43, 138 -39, 140 , 340 n7, fig. 7

Maternity homes, 28 -29, 107 195, 306 n21;

investigation of, 105 -6

May, Elaine Tyler, 163

McCarthyism, 163 , 172 -73, 192 , 315 n12;

anti-Semitism in, 320 n65;

effect on therapeutic abortion, 180 , 192

McGoorty, John P., 104

Medical practice: ambiguities in, 145 -46;

locations of, 48 , 68 ;

monitoring of, 219

Medical practice acts, of Illinois, 107 , 116

Medical profession, 1 ;

on abortion law reform, 143 , 234 ;

admission of women to, 11 -12;

antiabortion policies of, 4 , 48 , 55 -56, 82 ;

business aspects of, 48 -49, 84 -85;

in Chicago Times exposé, 50 ;

claims to moral superiority, 57 , 82 , 85 , 234 , 277 n39;

class identity of, 208 ;

competition in, 67 ;

conservatism of, 172 ;

control of reproductive rights, 3 , 208 , 214 ;

cooperation with

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378

Continued from previous page.

state, 3 , 81 , 88 -90, 115 -16 120 -25, 131 , 226 , 249 , 260 n5;

disagreement within, 4 ., 5 , 48 , 64 , 247 ;

discourse on abortion, 7 -8, 24 -25, 61 -63, 67 , 164 ;

eighteenth-century, 9 ;

elimination of abortionists from, 81 ;

exemption from abortion debate, 100 , 105 , 108 ;

feminists on, 3 , 260 n6;

and national health insurance, 172 , 295 n111;

power in, 324 n115;

rejection of male authority in, 226 ;

self-regulation of, 88 , 97 ;

social authority of, 13 -14;

state control of, n, 116 ;

support of abortion reform, 216 , 234 , 244

Medical schools: in antiabortion campaigns, 87 , 90 ;

Catholic, 337 n80;

of Chicago, 57 ;

cooperation with state, 4 ;

women in, 4 .

Medical societies: African American, 234 ;

physician-abortionists in, 61 , 72 , 81See also American Medical Association; Chicago Medical Society; National Medical Association

Medical students: abortion training for, 252 ;

acceptance of abortion, 143 ;

in Chicago Times exposé, 55 -56;

obstetrical training of, 92 , 97 , 101 , 292 n70, 293 n81

Medico-Legal Society (Chicago), 55

Men: and alcohol abuse, 59 ;

control over women, 35 , 44 , 257 , 245 , 253 ;

as legislators, 13 ;

penalties for abortion, 115 ;

sexual domination of women, 12 . See also Gay men; Gender; Heterosexual relations; Husbands; Lovers, male; Male-dominated spaces

Menstruation: 19 , 38 ;

restoration of, 8 -9, 13 , 20 , 24 , 51 ;

government surveillance of, 126 , 127 , 128 , 250

Mental illness, therapeutic abortion for, 183 , 184 , 187 , 201 -3, 207 , 241 , 326 n26, 327 n36

Mercereau, Dr. C. W., 71

Mexicans: hostility toward, 11 ;

use of abortion, 136

Mexico, 224 , 253

Meyerowitz, Joanne, 32 , 270 n,41

Michael Reese Hospital (Chicago), 240

Michigan Boulevard Sanitarium (Chicago), 72

Midwifery schools, 57 , 101 ;

proposed, 107

Midwives: abortion charges against, 288 n42;

abortions provided by, 70 -71, 74 -75, 96 , 281 nn76, 81;

African American, 73 , 137 -48;

alliances with physicians, 96 , 290 n53;

arrangement of adoption, 52 -53;

blackmailing of, 98 ;

boarding of abortion patients, 74 -75;

check-ups by, 74 , 283 n100;

clientele of, 76 ;

convictions of, 291 n62;

disappearance of, 111 , 147 , 281 n80, 296 n117;

of early nineteenth century, 10 ;

fees of, 74 , 96 , 283 n985 feminist historians of, 91 ;

frequency of abortions by, 71 ;

history of, 288 n42, 290 n53;

identification with patients, 73 -74, 76 ;

immigrant, 75 , 81 , 91 -92, 147 ;

licensing of, 93 ;

location of practice, 48 ;

mistreatment by officials, 98 -99;

national distribution of, 283 n105;

of New York, 90 , 96 , 281 n81, 291 n62;

obstetric practices of, 95 ;

organizations of, 98 , 292 n76;

physicians' defense of, 96 , 290 n53;

prosecution of, 88 ;

public debate on, 104 -5;

refusal of abortion, 52 -53, 276 n21;

regulation of, 94 -95, 97 , 107 , 109 , 290 n56, 292 n79;

safety records of, 77 -79, 91 , 95 -96, 100 , 284 n111;

surveillance of, 98 -100;

techniques of, 75 -76;

training of, 57 , 100 -101, 107 . See also Antimidwife antiabortion campaign

Midwives, of Chicago, 47 , 281 nn76, 81;

Anti-Graft Association, 98 ;

campaign against, 92 -101;

clients of, 73 ;

regulation of, 97 -98;

self-defense of, 98 -99;

in Times exposé, 52 -53;

in vice investigation, 99

Miller, Dr. G.-P., 122 -23

Miller, Dr. Truman W., 25

Miller, Patricia, 326 n18

Millstone, Dr. Henry James, 149 , 311 n76

Milwaukee, 78

Minneapolis, 78 , 154

Miscarriage: abortion disguised as, 72 ;

coroners' investigation of, 270 n61, 273 n85;

fatal, 284 n110, 293 n86;

mortality in, 77 , 102 , 117 ;

surveillance of, 250 ;

suspicion of, 123

Mississippi, 241

Missouri, 336 n70

Mitchell, Dr. Justin L., 29 , 72 , 313 n113

Mohr, James C., 10 , 268 n15, 286 n8

Monmouth Memorial Hospital (New Jersey), 178 , 320 n76


379

Montana, 253

Morality: gender differences in, 12 , 58 -59;

physicians' superiority in, 57 , 82 , 234 , 277 n39;

women's superiority in, 12 , 264 n39

Morality, popular: acceptance of abortion, 6 -7, 21 -22, 44 -45, 81 , 112 , 116 , 244 .

Moriarity, Daniel, 155 , 313 n111

Mortality. See Infant morality; Maternal mortality

Motherhood: as expectation, 163 , 195 ;

immigrant, 91 ;

and pregnancy, 273 n86;

"voluntary," 12 , 229 , 264 n39

Mothers: and children, 39 -40;

and housework, 40 ;

support for unmarried daughters, 27 -28;

threats to life of, 251 , 341 n21;

use of abortion, 38 , 273 n85

Mothers, unmarried: charities for, 28 -29;

child rearing by, 29 ;

male responsibility for, 297 n3;

mothers' support for daughters, 27 -28;

New Right on, 196 ;

psychiatrists' views on, 331 n20;

sterilization of, 207 . See also Women, unmarried

Mt. Sinai Hospital, 179 , 180

N

NARAL. See National Abortion Rights Action League; National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws

National Abortion Rights Action League (1973-1993), 325 n15

National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws (1969-1973), 232 , 243 , 324 n114.

National Committee on Maternal Health, 142 , 143 , 309 n50

National Council of Jewish Women, 173

National health insurance, 172 , 295 n111

National Medical Association, 83

National Organization for Women (NOW), 227 -28;

UAW women in, 332 -n33;

welfare work of, 253

National Welfare Rights Organization, 228

Nelson, Bessie E., 188

New Hampshire, 336 n70

New Jersey, 178 , 179 , 319 n55, 336 n70

New Journalism, 47 , 49

Newmayer, Babetta, 74 .

New Mexico, 331 n15

New Orleans: Charity Hospital, 134 ;

Parish Medical Society, 301 n31

New Right, 196 , 229 ;

attacks on abortion rights, 248 -49, 253

Newspapers: abortion advertisements in, 70 , 88 -89, 225 , 226 , 262 n13, 280 n74.;

abortion raids in, 167 , 192 ;

African American, 135 ;

anti-midwife antiabortion campaign in, 92 , 108 , 109 ;

coverage of abortion, 7 , 23 , 25 , 49 , 104 -6, 114 -15, 121 , 125 , 130 , 132 -33, 185 , 216 , 268 n15, 298 n8;

Johnson case in, 102 , 104 , 105 , 125 ,

messages to doctors, 172 ;

messages to men, 130 ;

messages to women, 102 , 108 , 125 , 130 , 168 :,

use of illustrations, 50 -51;

use by prosecutors, 168 , 172 . See also Chicago Times

New York, 10 ;

abortion use in, 134 -35, 306 n19;

abortion investigations in, 119 , 136 , 287 n29;

abortion raids in, 164 , 316 n16, 316 n19;

Bellevue Hospital, 136 ;

Harlem Hospital, 135 ;

legal abortion in, 225 , 241 -42, 247 , 339 n4;

maternal mortality in, 139 , 211 , 213 , fig. 5, fig. 6;

midwives of, 90 , 96 , 281 n81, 290 n56, 291 n62;

public health in, 295 n112;

Sloane Hospital, 205 , 207 ;

speak-outs in, 333 n40;

therapeutic abortion in, 204 ., 205 , fig. 2, fig. 3;

women's liberation groups in, 333 n35

New York Academy of Medicine, 139 , 140

New York County Medical Society, 291 n61

New York Public Library, 140

New York Times , 134 , 268 n15;

Bourne case in, 175

New York World , 49

North Carolina, 246 , 331 n15, 336 n70

Nurses, 68 , 185 , 253 , 322 n98

O

Oakley, Ernest F., 123

Obstetricians: in AMA, 90 ;

in antiabortion campaigns, 82 ;

campaign against midwives, 90 -94, 108 ;

influence on public policy, 105 ;

professional identity of, 295 n112;

regulation of general practitioners, 178 ;

regulation of midwives, 94 -95, 109 ;

support of ALI model law, 234 ;

and therapeutic abortion committees, 173 , 175 . See also Gynecologists; Midwives

Obstetrics: medical training in, 92 , 97 , 101 , 292 n70, 293 n81;

morality of, 11 -12, 264 nn37, 38

O'Callaghan, Rev. Peter J., 62 -63

O'Connor, Sgt. William E., 113 , 126

Ohio, 336 n70

Oregon, abortion reform in, 331 n15


380

Orphans, 39 ;

orphanages, 132

Ott, Dr. Harold A., 176

Our Bodies, Ourselves (Boston Women's Health Collective), 226

P

Packwood, Sen. Robert, 231

Pall Mall Gazette , 49 , 50

Papanek, Samuel, 165 , 317 nn23, 24.

Parental notification or consent requirements, 249 , 252 , 253 , 341 n25

Paris, infanticide in, 50 , 51

Parkes, Dr. Charles H., 122 , 124

Parsons, Jody, 237 , 332 n26

Parsons, Rev. E. Spencer, 241 , 242 , 338 n98

Paternity cases, 129 -30

Patients, 9 ;

decision-making of, 65 -67, 223 , 224 , 247 ;

influence on politics, 217 ;

state surveillance of, 247 -48, 249 . See also Abortion patients; Physician-patient relationship

Patients' rights, 247 -48, 250 -51

Pearse, Dr. Harry A., 176

Pelvis, contracted, 66 , 145 , 278n55, 279 n64

Pemmer, Elizabeth, 52 -53

Penicillin, 162 , 339 n5

Pennsylvania, 319 n55

People ex rel. Hanrahan v. White , 242 -43

People v. Belous , 235 , 236 , 337 n81

People v. Martin , 153 , 154 , 155 , 160 , 312 n90, 314 n1;

press coverage of, 311 n85;

referring physicians in, 166 , 317 n30;

suicides in, 167 ;

testimony in, 317 n23;

verdict in, 317 n33. See also Martin, Ada; Gabler-Martin abortion clinic

Peritonitis, 35 , 300 n24

Petchesky, Rosalind, 153 , 194 , 204 .

Peyser, Dr. Edward, 314 n113

Pharmaceutical colleges, 57

Pharmacies: condoms in, 134 ;

sale of abortifacients, 44

Pharmacists, 100 , 291 n69

Philadelphia, 10 ;

abortion in, 61 , 134 -35;

abortion indictments in, 298 n7, 299 n16;

abortion investigations in, 119 , 287 n29;

County Medical Society, 88

Philbrick, Dr. Inez, 61

Physician-abortionists, 50 , 313 n113;

African American, 156 ;

assassination of, 248 ;

caricature of, 86 , plate 4;

case studies of, 133 ;

Chicago Medical Society's control of, 95 ;

in Chicago Times exposé, 54 -57, 276 n29;

of Depression era, 148 ;

expulsion from medical societies, 87 , 120 , 323 n105;

expulsion from profession, 81 , 97 , 110 , 120 ;

following Roe v. Wade , 246 ;

hospitals of, 71 -72;

in medical societies, 61 , 72 ;

methods of, 72 -73;

motives of, 158 -59;

prosecution of, 181 -92;

as prostitutes, 85 ;

raids on, 181 , 233 ;

referrals to, 46 , 54 , 67 , 148 -50, 158 , 311 n79;

role in reproductive rights, 47 , 48 ;

safety records of, 77 -79, 284 .n111;

sex of, 76 ;

as specialists, 147 , 159 ;

training for, 147 -48, 252 ;

use of abortifacients, 72 ;

women among, 73 . See also Abortionists; Gabler, Dr. Josephine; Keemer, Dr. Edgar Bass; Midwives; Timanus, Dr. George Loutrell

Physician-patient relationship, 4 , 67 -68, 254 , 260 n7;

antiabortion counseling in, 83 -84;

communication in, 48 , 67 -69, 176 , 178 , 201 ;

confidentiality in, 124 -25, 302 n43;

denial of patient autonomy, 208 , 215 , 220 , 234 ;

distrust in, 64 , 179 , 190 , 248 ;

effect of abortion laws on, 131 , 226 ;

equality in, 247 ;

freedom of speech in, 238 ;

negotiation in, 62 , 244 ;

patients' views ignored in, 208 , 252 ;

women's power in, 67 . See also Patients

Physicians: alliances with midwives, 96 ;

antiabortion, 83 -84., 89 -90, 109 ;

arrest of, 120 , 171 , 236 , 336 n70;

attitude toward inquests, 121 ;

challenges to abortion laws, 15 ;

collection of dying declarations, 119 -20, 122 , 123 -24, 126 ;

cooperation in inquests, 120 -25, 131 ;

cooperation with state, 88 , 288 n32, 302 n43;

cover-up of abortion, 304 n69;

dispensing of contraceptives, 134 , 139 , 296 n115;

in Doe v. Scott , 238 -39;

Eclectic, 73 , 282 n92;

economic concerns of, 67 , 85 -86;

elite, 53 , 54 -55;

enforcement of abortion laws, 3 , 115 ;

exemption from abortion debate, 100 , 105 , 108 ;

fear of prosecution, 122 -24, 174 ., 175 ;

fees for abortion, 47 , 76 , 96 , 154 , 197 , 282 n86;

frequency of abortions by, 70 -71;

hygienic practices of, 79 , 265 n46;

influence of private sphere on, 4 ;

interrogation of abortion patients, 296 n1;

kickbacks from abortionists,

Continued on next page.


381

Continued from previous page.

67 ;

legal protection for, 174 -76;

loss of license, 120 , 172 , 300 n25;

observation of abortion complications, 146 -47, 210 , 217 , 222 , 239 ;

obstetrical training of, 92 , 97 , 101 , 292 n70, 293 n81;

post-abortion treatment by, 120 -21;

prosecution of, 233 ;

public-health work of, 295 n112;

on quickening, 12 ;

radical, 132 , 139 , 146 , 173 , 217 ;

reasons for performing abortion, 67 -68;

red-baiting of, 180 , 321 n84;

referrals by, 148 -50, 171 , 233 , 311 n79;

reformers among, 217 ;

refusal of treatment, 122 -23;

review committees of, 223 ;

rights to privacy. and to practice, 238 , 244 ;

rural, 69 , 280 n69;

safety records of, 91 , 284 n111;

self-regulation of, 3 ;

state regulation of, 116 ;

struggles with hospitals, 190 , 324 n115;

support for abortion, 1 , 15 , 132 , 139 , 181 , 220 ;

sympathy with midwives, 107 , 290 n52;

testimony in abortion trials, 186 -87, 188 ;

and therapeutic abortion committees, 178 -79, 190 -91, 218 ;

threats of prosecution, 120 -21, 171 -72;

training of midwives, 101 . See also Irregulars; Medical profession; Regulars

Physicians, African American, 82 -83, 156 , 286 n10;

female, 300 n21;

prosecution of, 120

Physicians, of Chicago: abortionists among, 53 , 70 , 72 , 313 n113;

in Chicago Times exposé, 54 -57, 67 , 276 n29;

cooperation with Board of Health, 88 ;

Regulars among, 55 , 56 , 276 n29

Physicians, female, 149 , 264 n37;

on abortion, 57 -58;

abortions performed by, 73 , 76 ;

African American, 300 n21;

hostility to, 11 -12;

public-health work of, 96 , 291 n60, 295 n112

Physicians, nineteenth-century, 10 -11;

autonomy of, 15 ;

ignorance of contraceptives, 41 ;

opposition to abortion, 13 , 82 ;

referrals by, 46 , 54 , 67 , 148 -50;

use of placebos, 26 ;

on women's attitudes, 25

Pierce, Mrs. (nurse), 46 -47, 48

Pill (contraceptive), 229

Planned Parenthood, 173 ;

advocacy. of birth control, 220 ;

conference on abortion (1955), 219 -20, 221 ;

and population control, 230 -31;

referral service of, 241 ;

welfare work of, 253

Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 251 , 252

Police: arrests in abortion cases, 109 , 116 , 117 , 120 , 129 , 164 , 298 n8;

corruption, 155 , 167 , 300 n20;

custody of abortion patients, 168 -69, 249 ;

interrogation of abortion patients, 114 , 118 , 126 , 249 ;

raids on abortion clinics, 160 -62, 164 -68, 170 -71, 181 , 243 , 249 , 316 nn16, 19, 318 n41;

self-protection in abortion cases, 126 ;

as voyeur, plate 6

Political movements, and abortion rights, 14 ., 15 , 180 , 228

Poor people's movements, 236 , 336 n72

Population control, 230 ;

as political repression, 333 n42;

for poor women, 231 ;

support for legal abortion, 231 , 233

Pornography, 270 n59

Portland, Ore., 138 , 164

Powell, Roberta, 153

Pregnancy: in common law, 8 ;

dangerous, 41 ;

as developmental process, 60 ;

ectopic, 266 n7;

fear of, 38 -39, 40 ;

first, 135 , 305 n13;

history of, 265 n49;

medical advances in, 144 -45, 162 ;

medical profession's control of, 12 , 83 -84;

as menstrual problem, 8 -9, 23 ;

and motherhood, 273 n86;

as punishment for sex, 249 , 340 n19;

of students, 195 ;

toxemia of, 326 n27;

tuberculosis during, 143 -44, 145 , 146 ;

women's friendship in, 30 -31;

in the workplace, 194

Privacy: in birth control, 336 n77;

in medical treatment, 49 , 124 -25, 238 , 302 n43;

in reproductive rights, 254 ;

state intervention in, 131 ;

in Supreme and Federal Court decisions, 237 , 239 , 244 ;

violation of bodily integrity, 168 -71

Private sphere: abortion in, 21 ;

in antiabortion debate, 106 ;

influence on physicians, 4 , 67 -68;

nineteenth-century, 2 ;

and public debate, 2 -3, 229 -30;

reproductive rights in, 254

Professional abortionist. See Physician-abortionists

Progressive Era, 289 n43;

abortion in, 81 , 102 , 110 ;

sexual discourse in, 102 ;

social movements in, 81 , 91

Pronatalism, 163 , 195

Prosecutors: in abortion fatalities, 116 -18;

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Continued from previous page.

in abortion raid cases, 164 ., 165187 ;

investigation of physicians, 173

Prostitution, 59 , 264 n39;

campaigns against, 12 , 92 ;

as metaphor, 85 ;

related to abortion, 99 -100, 292 n78

Protestants: abortion practices of, 50 , 137 , 306 n22;

attitude toward abortion, 6 -7;

birth rate of, 11

Protest movements, 228

Przybyszewski, Linda, 336 n77

Psychiatrists: in abortion rights movement, 218 , 223 , 234 , 335 n63;

on sexual deviance, 331 n20

Public discussion, of abortion, 142 , 172 -73, 219 , 229 , 230 , 233 . See also Speak-outs

Public health, 295 n111;

effect of legal abortion on, 246 -47;

in midwife debate, 295 n112;

reformers in, 138 . See also Health care

Public-health officers, 106 , 248 ;

on access to abortion, 338 n111;

on maternal mortality, 214 ;

in Planned Parenthood conference, 219 ;

reformers among, 217

Public opinion: acceptance of abortion, 6 -7, 21 -22, 44 -45, 81 , 112 , 234 , 252 -53, 321 n84, 341 n28;

formation of, 2 ;

on maternal mortality, 190 -91

Public policy, 1 ;

in enforcement of abortion laws, 112 ;

exclusion of women, 107 ;

implementation of, 3 , 16 ;

on maternal health, 110 -11;

medical societies' role in, 106 ;

on midwives, 101 ;

obstetricians' influence on, 105 ;

on reproduction, 81 , 110 , 214 , 218 , 244

Public sphere: abortion discourse in, 141 , 229 -30;

antiabortion debate in, 106 , 217 ;

debate in, 2 , 3 ;

nineteenth-century, 2 ;

reproductive rights in, 254 ;

scholarship on, 260 n4.

Puerto Ricans: abortion rates of, 327 n42, fig. 6;

fatal abortions among, 222 , 232 , 329 n60;

therapeutic abortion for, 205

Punishment, 5 , 114 -15, 131 ;

pregnancy as, 249 , 340 n19;

for unmarried women, 221 , 249 . See also Abortion, illegal

Q

Quay, Eugene, 221

Queer Theory, 226 n5

Quickening: abortion after, 8 ;

in antiabortion campaigns, 83 , 85 ;

colonial concept of, 8 , 9 ;

in common law, 13 ;

in nineteenth-century law, 10 ;

nine-teenth-century perception of, 25 , 51 , 80 ;

persistence of belief in, 109 -10;

Storer on, 12 -13

R

Race: in criminalization of abortion, 11 , 15 ;

differences among women, 16 ;

as factor in abortion, 16 , 135 -38, 193 , 213 -14, 252 , fig. 6;

in infant mortality, 213 , 329 n61;

in Keemer trial, 188 ;

in maternal mortality, 211 , 213 , 232 , 329 nn60, 61 fig. 6 ;

and therapeutic abortion, 205 , 206 , fig. 3;

and welfare, 249 . See also African Americans; Puerto Ricans; Whites

"Race suicide," 92 , 102 , 104

Racism, 11 , 208 , 213 ;

Raids: on abortion clinics, 160 -62, 164 -68, 181 , 243 , 249 , 316 n16, 316 n19;

newspaper coverage of, 192 ;

testimony on, 164 -66, 168 , 170 -71;

use of force in, 167 , 318 n41

Rape: abortion following, 33 -34, 65 , 175 , 199 , 221 , 251 , 340 n19;

in hypothetical abortion requests, 240 ;

marital, 59 ;

pregnancy following, 64 ;

statutory, 92 , 304 -n67;

of unmarried women, 33 , 270 n61

Reed, Dr. Charles B., 82 , 83

Reformers: in anti-midwife campaign, 96 ;

on maternal health, 111 ;

medical, 217 ;

in public health, 138 ;

views on abortion, 99 - 100

Regulars (physicians), 10 -11, 48 , 263 n32;

abortions performed by, 72 , 282 n92;

in Chicago Times exposé, 55 , 56 , 276 n29;

consolidation of, 282 n92

"Relief babies," 134

Religion, organized: in abortion rights movement, 221 , 244 ;

fundamentalism in, 248 ;

leadership in abortion issues, 13 ;

response to birth control movement, 6 -7, 262 n18;

teaching on abortion, 6 , 7 , 262 nn17, 18, 19

Religious belief, and abortion rates, 23 , 137 , 242

Reproduction: centrality to society, 266 n50;

economic factors in, 133 ;

medical profession's control over policy, 3 , 208 , 214 ;

public policy on, 110 , 214 ;

shame in regulation of, 5 , 28 , 125 , 126 -28, 171 , 200

Reproductive rights, 18 , 204 , 253 -54;

af-

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383

Continued from previous page.

ter Roe v. Wade , 245 ;

under ALI model law, 221 ;

in backlash against abortion, 252 ;

birth control movement in, 111 ;

Catholic Church on, 7 ,180 -81, 248 ;

in challenges to abortion law, 237 ;

in Chicago abortion trade, 48 ;

choice in, 133 ;

in coroners' inquests, 45 ;

in Doe v. Scott , 239 -40;

feminist interest in, 190 , 224 ;

history of, 6 , 7 , 8 ;

Jewish tradition of, 7 ;

mass movements for, 217 ;

in McCarthy era, 1643 nineteenth-century, 229 ;

and patients' rights, 247 -48, 251 ;

and population control programs, 231 ;

in postwar era, 194 ;

in private sphere, 254 ;

in public policy, 110 ;

public support for, 321 n84;

resentment against, 102 , 104 ;

of teenagers, 248 , 253 ;

in therapeutic abortion, 66 , 67 , 146 , 279 n64;

of unmarried women, 108 ;

without physician's approval, 220 ;

women's discourse on, 44 ;

and women's goals, 195

Restell, Madam, 10

Right to decide. See Reproductive rights

Right to die, 247

Ripczynski, Veronica, 75

Robinson, Dr. 'William J., The Law against Abortion , 139 ;

as "A.B.C.," 45 , 268 n22

Rockefeller, Nelson, 234

Roe v. Wade , 198 , 244 , 245 ;

attacks on, 249 , 251 ;

coalitions supporting, 248 ;

right to privacy in, 244 .

Rolick, Marie, 98 -99

Romania, 250

Rongetti, Dr. Amante, 72 , 128

Rongy, Dr. A.-J., Abortion: Legal or Illegal , 139 -40;

on fatal abortion, 146 -47

Root, Dr. Eliza H., 92 -93

Rosen, Dr. Harold, 328 n47

Rosner, Dr. Marvin, 240

Ross, Ellen, 38 , 270 n49

Royston, Dr. G. D., 43

Rubella, 203 , 240

Rural areas, abortion in, 17 , 43 , 69

Ryan, Mary P., 163 , 315 n10

Ryder, Dr. George H., 181

S

Saint Louis, Mo., 61

San Francisco, 61 , 89 , 226

Sanger, Margaret, 36 , 141 , 229 ;

letters to, 37 , 38 , 40 , 41 , 132

Schmid, Calvin, 274 n111

Schoenian, Mme. M., 52 , 73

Scholtes, Mrs., 74 .

Schrecker, Ellen, 319 n60

Schultz-Knighten, Dr. Anna B., 300 nn21-22

Scott, Joan Wallach, 262 n2l

Search and seizure, illegal, 166 , 248

Septic abortion wards, 138 , 210 , 214 , 239 , 307 n29;

closure of, 246 ;

reopening of, 249

Septic infection: among poor women, 134 ;

fatal, 147 , 242 , 300 n24;

in legal abortion, 284 n110;

physician-induced, 79 , 265 n46, 285 n113;

women's knowledge of, 27

"The Service" (abortion provider). See "Jane"

Settlement houses, 107

Sexism: in abortion system, 194 ;

of men, 228 , 231 , 232 , 334 n50;

in present-day antiabortion movement, 249

Sex trade, British, 50

Sexual harassment, by abortionists, 199 , 200 , 225

Sexual immorality: in abortion raid cases, 167 ;

in anti-midwife campaign, 92 ;

male, 59

Sexuality: history of, 297 n2;

social history of, 7 , 8 ;

Victorian view of, 292 n78. See also Freedom, sexual; Heterosexual relations

Sexuality, female: autonomy in, 253 ;

in birth control movement, 36 , 229 ;

as dangerous to women, 108 ;

feminist thought on, 270 n59;

maternity in, 163 ;

reformers' views on, 100 ;

regulation of, 3 , 269 n36;

in second wave feminism, 228 -29;

social concern over, 91 , 92 , 108 ;

as threat, 102 , 109

Sexuality, male: immorality in, 59 ;

regulation of, 115 , 296 n2

Sexual norms: in abortion reform movements, 221 ;

in antiabortion campaigns, 12 ;

deviation from, 163 ;

psychiatrists' views on, 331 n20;

state regulation of, 115 , 130 -31;

violation of, 5

Shame, 36 , 125 , 126 -28, 230 ;

in regulation of reproductive behavior, 5 , 28 , 36 , 171 , 200 , 230

Shaver, Clarence, 104

Shaver, Dr. Eva, 101 , 105 ;

newspaper coverage of, 104 ;

office of, plate 5;

trial of, 107


384

Shelton, Dr. William E., 313 n113

Sheppard-Towner Act, 81 , 110 , 172 ;

abolition of, 111 ;

and attacks on midwifery, 291 n111

Shorter, Edward, 284 n111

Silence: in McCarthy era, 192 ;

as metaphor for subordination, 20 , 21 , 266 nn4, 5

Silva, Dr., 56

Simon, Kate, 68

Slaves, abortifacients of, 9

Slippery elm, 45 , 44 , 274 nn106, 111

Sloane Hospital (New York), 205 , 207

Socialist movements: and birth control, 141 ;

and legal abortion, 142 , 218 , 233 . See also Left, political

Socialized medicine, 172

Society for Humane Abortion (SHA, California), 223 , 224 , 227 ;

male support of, 331 n22;

newsletter of, 257 ;

underground arm of, 224

South, midwives in, 296 n117

South Carolina, 331 n15

South Dakota, 336 n70

Soviet Union, 139 , 140 , 141 , 172 , 180 , 285 n114, 308 n42

"Speaking," liberatory aspects of, 20 , 21 , 266 nn4, 5

Speak-outs, 20 , 229 -30, 333 n40

Specialists, 285 n1;

antiabortion campaigns of, 15 ;

in coroners' inquests, 88 ;

in history of abortion, 4 ;

physician-abortionists as, 147 , 159 , 310 n66;

on use of curette, 285 n113. See also Gynecologists; Obstetricians

Speculums, 75

Spencer, Dr. Robert Douglas, 310 n70

Springer, Dr., 300 n21

Squier, Dr. Raymond, 322 n85

Stackable, Dr. W. H., 104 , 105

Stahl, Dr. Frank A., 42

Stanko, Helen, 168 ;

trials of, 169 -70, 171 , 318 n44.

Stanley, Dr., 56

State: cooperation of hospitals with, 4 , 121 , 123 -24, 162 , 173 -74, 190 , 226 , 303 n52;

enforcement of abortion law, 1 , 81 , 107 , 114 -31, 299 n17;

enforcement of childbearing, 340 n13;

intervention in marriage, 115 , 129 -31;

medical profession's cooperation with, 3 , 81 , 88 -90, 115 -16, 120 -25, 131 , 226 , 249 , 260 n5;

surveillance of abortion, 163 , 173 , 249 ;

surveillance of health care, 249

States: abortion laws of, 64 , 252 , 261 n13, 265 n45;

abortion reform in, 331 n15;

test cases in, 335 n67, 336 n70

State v. Martin , 166

Stead, W. T., 49 -50

Sterilization, 320 n66;

coercive, 207 , 208 , 232 , 324 n116, 333 n42;

for eugenic reasons, 328 n50;

of low-income patients, 207 , 231 ;

medical grounds for, 329 n54;

during therapeutic abortion, 328 n51;

therapeutic abortion committees' oversight of, 177

Stevens, Rosemary, 313 n106

Stevenson, Dr. Sarah Hackett, 58 , 290 n52;

in anti-midwife campaign, 93 -94

Stix, Dr. Regine K., 23

Storer, Dr. Horatio R, 20 , 82 ;

on quickening, 11 -12

Storer, Dr. Humphreys, 82

Stowe, Dr. Herbert M., 96 , 291 n61

Students, in abortion rights movement, 225 . See also Medical students

Styskal, Cecilia, 75

Suicide: in People v. Martin , 167 ;

"race," 102 , 104 .;

in therapeutic abortion decisions, 201 -2, 241 ;

of unmarried women, 185

Sulfonamides, 319 n5

Supreme Court. See U.S. Supreme Court

Sweden, 224

Switzerland, 140 , 308 n42

T

Tampa, Fla., 198

Taussig, Dr. Frederick J.: on frequency of abortion, 23 , 134 , 139 ;

on infection, 285 n113;

organization of lectures, 84 ;

reform proposals of, 142 -44, 145 , 179 ;

on tuberculosis, 146

Teachers, 158

Technology, medical, 247 ;

and liberalization of abortion, 216

Teenagers: abortions by, 312 n96;

reproductive rights of, 248 , 253

Temperance movements, 12 , 264 n39

Test cases: in abortion law, 181 , 189 , 190 , 191 , 237 , 335 n67, 336 n70;

in birth control movement, 189 , 323 n111. See also Doe v. Scott

Texas, 336 n70

Thalidomide, 203


385

Therapeutic abortion: under ALI model law, 233 ;

Catholic Church on, 7 ;

during Depression, 14 -35 for economic reasons, 146 , 181 ;

effect of McCarthy-ism on, 180 ;

effect of police raids on, 161 -62;

in England, 141 ;

ethnicity in, 207 , 327 n42;

for eugenic reasons, 64 -65, 203 -4;

in exchange for sterilization, 208 ;

fatalities in, 284 n110;

following Doe v. Scott , 240 ;

frequency of, 328 n47;

in hospitals, 161 -62;

hypothetical cases in, 240 -41, 337 n90;

before Illinois Supreme Court, 242 -43;

lack of standards for, 218 ;

Leunbach method in, 157 ;

medical consensus on, 5 , 262 n14;

medical discourse on, 67 ;

medical indications for, 63 -64, 143 -46, 176 , 177 , 278 n55, 326 n27;

moral protection for, 176 -77;

of nineteenth century, 13 ;

for poor women, 144 , 205 ;

of postwar era, 173 , 200 -202, 214 ;

psychiatric indications for, 183 , 184 , 187 , 201 -3, 207 , 241 , 326 n26, 327 n36;

by race, 205 , 206fig. 3;

ratio to live births, 179 -80, 321 n82, 328 n44, fig. 2;

reductions in, 191 , 204 , fig. 2, fig. 3;

reform of, 219 -22;

restrictiveness of, 235 ;

for rubella, 203 , 240 ;

safety of, 214 , 329 n62;

social indications for, 62 , 64 -65, 132 , 143 -44, 181 , 203 ;

state statutes on, 64 ;

sterilization during, 328 n51;

in Timanus trial, 186 -88;

women's right to decision in, 66 , 67 , 146 , 279 n64. See also Abortion, legal

Therapeutic abortion committees, 173 -79;

control of physicians, 178 -79, 190 -91, 218 ;

and decline in abortions, 204 ;

dismantling of, 246 ;

following Doe v. Scott , 240 ;

institutionalization of, 214 ;

membership of, 320 n74;

origins of, 174 ;

in postwar era, 214 ;

procedures of, 177 , 178 -79;

psychiatrists' challenges to, 218 ;

review process of, 186 ;

and sterilization, 177 ;

unconstitu-tionality of, 244 ;

women before, 179 , 200 , 321 n79. See also Hospitals

Thiery, Mary E., 53

Thurston, Dr., 56

Timanus, Dr. George Loutrell, 148 , 158 -59;

abandonment by colleagues, 187 , 323 n105;

imprisonment of, 188 ;

on medical profession, 191 ;

professional ethics of, 187 ;

raid on, 181 , 322 n86;

referrals to, 183 , 186

Timanus trial, 323 n112;

court opinion on, 322 n89;

defense in, 187 ;

physicians' testimony in, 186 -87;

prosecution in, 322 n86;

therapeutic abortion in, 186 -88;

transcript of, 183

Time magazine, 172

Towne, Dr. Janet, 168 , 169 , 319 n49

Trade unions, 227 , 233

Tuberculosis, as indication for abortion, 65 , 143 -44, 145 , 146 , 240 , 326 n27

U

Underworld: commercial abortion in, 52 -53, 57 , 99 , 106 , 149 ;

in popular press, 167 ;

sexual, 50

United Auto Workers (UAW), 332 n33

United Charities, 236

United States: abortion statutes in, 10 ;

Constitution, 317 n33;

nature of state in, 3

University of Chicago Settlement House, 291 n61

University of Virginia Hospital, 179

University of Wisconsin in Madison, 196

Unmarried mothers. See Mothers, unmarried

U.S. Children's Bureau. See Children's Bureau

U.S. Supreme Court: abortion cases before, 16 , 216 , 235 , 244 -45, 323 n111;

in Doe v. Scott , 240 ;

on economic discrimination, 244 -45;

on "potential life," 252 ;

on right to privacy, 237 , 244 ;

on search and seizure, 166

Uterine perforation, 79 , plate 2

Uterine sounds, 72 , 282 n89;

use by midwives, 75

V

Vandiver, Almuth, 120 , 123

Vermont, 253

Virginia: abortion reform in, 331 n15;

University of Virginia Hospital, 179

Visiting Nurse Association (Chicago), 95

Void-for-vagueness doctrine, 239

Vomiting, as indication for abortion, 63 -64, 201 , 279 n56

W

Walkowitz, Judith R, 50 , 292 n78

Warner, Dr. A. S., 19 , 266 n1

Washington, D.C.: Freedmen's Hospital,

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Continued from previous page.

147 ;

General Hospital, 210 ;

Obstetrical and Gynecological Society, 80 ;

test cases in, 336 n70;

women's liberation groups in, 333 n35

Washington University Dispensary (St. Louis), 70

Wayman, John, 122

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services , 251 , 252

Weiss, Dr. E. A., 64 .

Welfare, 134 , 249 , 253 , 340 n13;

and access to abortion, 338 n111;

attacks on, 249 feminist influence on, 297 n3;

National Welfare Rights Organization, 228 ;

sterilization of recipients, 231

Wetherhill, Dr. H. G., 82

Wheeler, Shirley, 243

Whites: ethnic groups, 16 ;

legislators, 13 ;

racial fears of, it, 50 ;

reformers, 91 . See also Women, white

Wife beating, 41

Will, Dr. O. B., 120

Windmueller, Dr. Charles R. A., 108 , 295 n106

Winter, Margaret, 39

Wisconsin, 61 , 149

Withdrawal, 41 , 196

Womanhood: "bonds" of, 266 n6;

of midwives, 76

Woman's City Club (Chicago), 105

Women: admission to medical profession, 11 -12;

arrest of, for abortion, 243 ;

attitude toward abortion, 25 -26;

Catholic, 233 , 268 n12;

class divisions among, 94 ;

communist, 172 , 319 n60;

community obligation among, 31 , 270 n49;

demand for abortions, 1 , 147 , 159 , 249 , 254 , 290 n54;

and discourse on abortion, 8 , 21 , 23 -24, 44 , 109 , 220 ;

discrimination against, 228 ;

empowerment of, 226 , 253 ;

in history of crime, 5 , 261 n8;

influence on physicians, 6 ;

Jewish, 7 , 137 , 173 , 306 nn22, 23;

medical lectures for, 84 -85;

moral character of, 58 -59;

moral superiority of, 12 , 264 n39;

non-professional, 222 ;

perceptions of abortion, 23 -24;

property rights of, 261 n8;

Protestant, 10 , 23 , 50 , 137 , 306 n22;

reasons for abortion, 42 ;

silence of, 20 -21, 266 nn4, 5;

status in American society, 245 ;

subordination of, 20 , 21 , 217 ;

targeting in antiabortion campaigns, 81 , 85 -85;

before therapeutic abortion committees, 279 , 200 , 32 n79

in workforce, 163 , 194 , 324 n3;

in World War II, 162 -63;

writers, 141 , 309 n45. See also Abortion patients

Women, affluent: abortion practices of, 53 , 54 , 58 , 69 , 236 ;

childbearing of, 208 ;

choice of physicians, 137 ;

during Depression, 135 ;

investigation of, 119 ;

legalized abortion for, 251 ;

in physician-patient relationship, 67 ;

support of legal abortion, 342 n34

Women, African American, 2 ;

abortion records of, 300 n21;

in abortion rights movement, 232 , 253 ;

in black power movement, 334 n50;

childrearing by, 194 ;

in coroners' inquests, 119 -20;

education levels of, 306 n21;

effect of illegal abortion on, 193 ;

fatal abortions of, 211 -12, 222 , 232 ;

feminists among, 232 ;

at Gabler-Martin clinic, 263 ;

history of, 259 n35

illegitimate births by, 136 , 137 ;

in Kinsey abortion study, 305 n15;

married, 135 -36;

maternity homes for, 28 , 306 n21;

self-induced abortions of, 43 ;

sterilization of, 207 , 208 ;

therapeutic abortion for, 204 -5;

traditional roles of, 163 ;

use of abortionists, 326 n18;

use of black physicians, 286 n10;

use of midwives, 296 n117;

use of Planned Parenthood, 231 . See also African Americans

Women, married: abortion practices of, 11 , 20 , 23 , 58 , 152 -53,277 n42;

in abortion raid cases, 165 ;

abuse of, 41 , 59 , 273 n102;

African American, 135 -36;

childless, 152 ;

discrimination against in workforce, 133 , 162 -63, 194 , 250 ;

during Depression, 135 ;

and "race suicide," 92 , 102 , 104 ;

reasons for abortion, 38 -40, 104 ;

reproductive rights of, 102 , 104 ;

self-induced abortions of, 312 n89;

use of physicians, 73

Women, middle-class: abortion practices of, 11 ;

demand for abortion, 290 n54;

psychiatric symptoms of, 201 ;

reproductive rights of, 13 ;

therapeutic abortions for, 203 , 207 ;

use of contraceptives, 40 -41;

views on childbearing, 58 , 40

Women, poor: in abortion clinics, 306 n19;

abortion funding for, 251 ;

Continued on next page.


387

Continued from previous page.

abortion reform proposals for, 142 ;

activism of, 336 n72;

contraceptives for, 134 ;

during Depression, 134 -35, 241 ;

effect of illegal abortion on, 193 ;

fertility of, 231 ;

forced cesarean sections for, 250 ;

importance of abortion to, 37 , 40 ;

legalized abortion for, 256 , 246 ;

reproductive rights of, 248 ;

self-induced abortion by, 43 , 119 , 137 -48;

sterilization of, 231 ;

therapeutic abortion for, 144 , 205 ;

use of midwives, 76

Women, unmarried: abortion practices of, 23 , 31 -34, 58 , 60 , 69 , 136 , 202 , 268 n15, 327 n32;

in abortion raid cases, 165 ;

African American, 306 n21;

coroners' inquests on, 128 -30;

counseling for, 84 ;

dying declarations of, 126 ;

exposure of sexual activity, 28 , 200 , 269 n36;

independence of, 109 ;

legal abortion for, 221 ;

marriage following abortion, 303 n58;

postponement of marriage, 133 ;

prosecution of, 122 ;

punishment for, 221 , 249 ;

rape of, 33 , 270 n61;

reasons for abortion, 33 -34;

reproductive rights of, 108 ;

self-induced abortion by, 312 n89;

sexual danger for, 102 , 293 n84;

students among, 195 ;

suicide of, 185 ;

testimony in abortion trials, 184 ;

therapeutic abortion for, 202 ;

as victims, 23 , 32 -33, 59 , 92 , 102 , 249 . See also College women; Mothers, unmarried

Women, white: access to therapeutic abortion, 205 , 207 ;

college attendance, 194 ;

in coroners' inquests, 119 ;

fatal abortions of, 211 , 213 , fig. 6;

and feminism, 228 , 236 ;

illegitimate births by, 136 -37;

pressure for marriage and motherhood directed at, 163 ;

as private-paying patients, 205 ;

and self-induced abortions, 137 ;

as ward patients, 207 ;

and welfare, 249

Women, working-class, 2 ;

abortion practices of, 20 , 23 , 27 , 31 , 141 , 152 , 153 -54;

abortions by physicians, 70 -71;

contraception for, 6 , 36 ;

in coroners' inquests, 119 ;

during Depression, 135 ;

of England, 140 ;

family planning by, 230 ;

history of, 259 n3;

reasons for abortion, 33 , 40 ;

in Sanger clinics, 23 ;

sexual freedom for, 92 ;

use of midwives, 73 ;

views on abortion, 6 , 29 -30;

wages of, 29 , 163 , 270 n41

Women's Christian Temperance Union, 297 n3

Women's Ephemera Collection (North-western University), 256

Women's history, 2 , 3 , 259 n1;

poststructural analysis of, 262 n21

Women's liberation, 228 , 333 n35

Women's movements: and antiabortion campaigns, 14 ;

and legalization of abortion, 15 -16;

move from left, 142 , 309 n48;

nineteenth-century, H, 12 , 264 n39;

public-health work of, 96 , 291 n60. See also Feminists

Women's National Abortion Action Coalition (WONAAC), 232 , 257

Women's suffrage, 237

Woof, Dr. Joseph T., 19 -20

World War II: abortion during, 162 -63, 325 n8;

effect on gender identity, 141 , 163 , 309 n45

Wynn, Dr. Ralph M., 238

Z

Zuspan, Dr. Frederick P., 238


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1. On the legal status of abortion, see James C. Mohr, Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy, 1800-1900 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978); Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: Birth Control in America , rev. and updated (1976; reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1990), 49-61, 402-416; Michael Grossberg, Governing the Hearth: Law and the Family in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 155-195; Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, Abortion and Woman's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom , rev. ed. (1984; reprint, Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990), 67-138; Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 217-244; Kristin Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).

2. Barbara Welter, "The Cult of True Womanhood," American Quarterly 18 (summer 1966): 151-174; Nancy F. Cott, The Bonds of Womanhood: "Woman's Sphere" in New England, 1780-1835 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977); Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, "Female World of Love and Ritual: Relations between Women in Nineteenth-Century America," Signs 1 (1975): 1-29.

3. See two critiques and reviews of the field of women's history, Nancy A. Hewitt, "Beyond the Search for Sisterhood: American Women's History in the 1980s," Social History 10 (October 1985); reprint in Unequal Sisters: A Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S. Women's History , edited by Ellen Carol DuBois and Vicki L. Ruiz (New York: Routledge, 1990), 1-14; Linda K. Kerber, "Separate Spheres, Female Worlds, Women's Place: The Rhetoric of Women's History," Journal of American History 75 (June 1988): 9-39. For collections of recent scholarship on the history of women of color and working-class women, see DuBois and Ruiz, Unequal Sisters; Ava Baron, ed., Work Engendered: Toward a New History of American Labor (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991); and the pathbreaking collection by Gerda Lerner, ed., Black Women in White America: A Documentary History (New York: Random House, 1972).

4. The key work generating intellectual thought and debate on the public sphere is Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society , translated by Thomas Burger with Frederick Lawrence (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989). For a collection of recent scholarship, see Craig Calhoun, ed., Habermas and the Public Sphere (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992). For feminist thinking, see Nancy Fraser, Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse, and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989); Mary P. Ryan, Women in Public: Between Banners and Ballots, 1825-1880 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990); Judith R. Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992); Linda K. Kerber, "A Constitutional Right to Be Treated Like American Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship," in U.S. History as Women's History: New Feminist Essays , edited by Linda K. Kerber, Alice Kessler-Harris, and Kathryn Kish Sklar (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 17-35.

5. This cooperative relationship may have been particularly significant for public health and women's lives. Linda Gordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence, Boston, 1880-1960 (New York: Viking, 1988); Molly Ladd-Taylor, Mother-Work: Women, Child Welfare, and the State, 1890-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994); Robyn L. Muncy, Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890-1935 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990); Jane Lewis, The Politics of Motherhood: Child and Maternal Welfare in England, 1900-1939 (London: Croom Helm, 1980); Judith Walzer Leavitt, The Healthiest City: Milwaukee and the Politics of Health Reform (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), 190-213; Susan L. Smith, Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired: Black Women's Health Activism in America, 1890-1950 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995).

6. For examples of earlier feminists' views of medicine, see Ann Douglas Wood, "'The Fashionable Diseases': Women's Complaints and Their Treatment in Nineteenth Century America," in Clio's Consciousness Raised: New Perspectives on the History of Women , edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner (New York: Harper and Row, 1974), 1-22; and the critical response by Regina Morantz, "The Lady and Her Physician," in Hartman and Banner, Clio's Consciousness Raised , 38-53. See also Adrienne Rich, Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution (New York: W. W. Norton, 1976); Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre English, For Her Own Good: 150 Years of the Experts' Advice to Women (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1978). For a different view, see Judith Walzer Leavitt, Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750-1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

7. For other patient-focused histories, see Leavitt, Brought to Bed; Roy Porter, ed., Patients and Practitioners (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); Mary E. Fissell, Patients, Power, and the Poor in Eighteenth-Century Bristol (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

8. On police, see Eric H. Monkkonen, Police in Urban America, 1860-1920 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981); Roger Lane, Policing the City: Boston 1822-1885 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967). On prisons, see Lawrence M. Friedman and Robert V. Percival, The Roots of Justice: Crime and Punishment in Alameda County, California, 1870-1910 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981), 288-309; Estelle B. Freedman, Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981); David J. Rothman, The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1971).

On marriage, divorce, and women's property rights, see Kerber, "A Constitutional Right to Be Treated Like American Ladies"; Nancy F. Cott, "Giving Character to Our Whole Civil Polity: Marriage and the Public Order in the Late Nineteenth Century," in Kerber, Kessler-Harris, and Sklar, U.S. History as Women's History, 107-121; Grossberg, Governing the Hearth; Marylynne Salmon, Women and the Law of Property in Early America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986); Norma Basch, In the Eyes of the Law: Women, Marriage, and Property, in Nineteenth-century New York (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982); D. Kelly Weisberg, Property, Family, and the Legal Profession , vol. z of Women and the Law: A Social Historical Perspective (Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman Publishing, 1982). On women and crime, see D. Kelly Weisberg, Women and the Criminal Law , vol. 1 of Women and the Law: A Social Historical Perspective (Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman Publishing, 1982); Mary E. Odem, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995); Anna Clark, Women's Silence, Men's Violence: Sexual Assault in England, 1770-1845 (New York: Pandora Press, 1987).

9. James C. Mohr, Doctors and the Law: Medical Jurisprudence in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Mohr, Abortion in America; Charles E. Rosenberg, The Trial of the Assassin Guiteau: Psychiatry and Law in the Gilded Age (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968); Michael Clark and Catherine Crawford, eds., Legal Medicine in History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

10. James Willard Hurst, The Growth of American Law: The Law Makers (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1950). For overviews of American legal history, see Lawrence M. Friedman, A History of American Law , 2d ed. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985); Kermit L. Hall, The Magic Mirror: Law in American History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).

11. Histories of courts in action include Stanton Wheeler et al., "Do the 'Haves' Come out Ahead? Winning and Losing in State Supreme Courts, 1870-1970," Law and Society Review 21 (1987): 403-445; Robert A. Silverman, Law and Urban Growth: Civil Litigation in the Boston Trial Courts, 1880-1900 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981); Hendrik Hartog, "The Public Law of a County Court; Judicial Government in Eighteenth Century Massachusetts," The American Journal of Legal History 20 (1976): 282-329.

12. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison , translated by Alan Sheridan (1975; reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 1979), III, 108.

13. The state criminal abortion laws did not change at all or only in non-substantive ways for a century; Mohr, Abortion in America, 224-225. In Illinois, the legislature amended the law to prohibit advertising of abortion in 1919 and, in 1961, clarified that an attempted abortion, even if the woman was not pregnant, would be considered abortion. Illinois, Laws of Illinois , 1919, pp. 427-428, sec. 6; Illinois, Laws of Illinois , 1961, p. 2027.

14. Kristin Luker argues that there was medical consensus on therapeutic abortion for a century. until about 1960 when new technology broke that consensus apart and disagreement erupted within the medical profession and, then, the public. I disagree with this interpretation. Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood , 54-91.

15. Addison Niles, "Criminal Abortion," in Transactions of the Twenty-First Anniversary Meeting of the Illinois State Medical Society (Chicago: Fergus Printing, 1872), 99; James Foster Scott, "Criminal Abortion," American Journal of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children (hereafter cited as AJO ) 35 (January 1896): 77. On the pluralism and ambiguity of American law, see Hendrik Hartog, "Pigs and Positivism," Wisconsin Law Review 1985, no. 4 (1985): 899-935.

16. John T. Noonan Jr., "An Almost Absolute Value in History," in The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives , edited by John T. Noonan Jr. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970), 1-59.

17. A survey of the guides to religious periodicals shows this to be true. The small number of articles on abortion published in religious magazines were overwhelmed by those on birth control. The Catholic Periodicals Index , for example, lists 155 citations to articles on birth control and only 6 on abortion in 1930-1933. In 1961-1962, there were III articles on birth control and 28 on abortion. The Index to Religious Periodical Literature lists in one ten-year period, 1949-1959, only 6 articles on birth control and 3 on abortion. Not until 1971-1972 did the index cite more articles on abortion than on birth control. I am grateful to Rose Holz and Lynne Curry for collecting and tabulating this data.

18. On religious opinion in response to the birth control movement, see David M. Kennedy, Birth Control in America: The Career of Margaret Sanger (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970), 136-171.

19. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 5-10; Glanville Williams, The Sanctity of Life and the Criminal Law (New York: Knopf, 1957), 148-152, 192-197; Ronald L. Numbers and Darrel W. Amundsen, Caring and Curing: Health and Medicine in the Western Religious Traditions (New York: Macmillan, 1986), 31, 50, 87, 156-157. Most of the essays in Caring and Curing address only current attitudes toward abortion, suggesting that until recently, most sects showed little interest in abortion.

20. Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood , chap. 3.

21. For a helpful discussion of Foucault, poststructural analysis, and feminist critiques, see Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight , 1-13. Michel Foucault, An Introduction , vol. 1 in The History of Sexuality , translated by Robert Hurley (1976; reprint, New York: Random House, 1978). Joan Wallach Scott has become known as the strongest advocate for poststructural analysis of women's history; see Gender and the Politics of History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). For a debate, see Linda Gordon and Joan Scott in Signs 15 (summer 1990): 848-860. For another critique of the emphasis on linguistics, see\

bell hooks, Talking Back: thinking feminist, thinking black (Boston, Mass.: South End Press, 1989), 35-41.

22. My discussion of abortion in common law and its criminalization relies most on Mohr, Abortion in America .

22. My discussion of abortion in common law and its criminalization relies most on Mohr, Abortion in America .

23. Ibid., 10, chap. 1; Angus McLaren, Reproductive Rituals: The Perception of Fertility in England from the Sixteenth Century to the Nineteenth Century (London: Methuen, 1984), 102-103, 108-109, 188 n. 98.

24. McLaren, Reproductive Rituals , 188 n. 98; Williams, The Sanctity of Life and the Criminal Law , 149-152, 197.

25. Mohr, Abortion in America , 3-45; Charles E. Rosenberg, "The Therapeutic Revolution: Medicine, Meaning, and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century America," in The Therapeutic Revolution: Essays in the Social History of American Medicine , edited by Morris J. Vogel and Charles E. Rosenberg (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1970), 3-26.

26. Quotation as cited in Julia Cherry Spruill, Women's Life and Work in the Southern Colonies (1938; reprint, New York: W. W. Norton, 1972), 325-326. Mohr, Abortion in America , chap. 1, 58-66; McLaren, Reproductive Rituals , 103-105. On abortion methods worldwide, see Edward Shorter, A History of Women's Bodies (New York: Basic Books, 1982), 177-224.

27. Cornelia Hughes Dayton uncovered this case and the phrase, "Taking the Trade: Abortion and Gender Relations in an Eighteenth-Century New England Village," William and Mary Quarterly 48 (January 1991): 1, 24-25; McLaren, Reproductive Rituals , 106-107.

28. Mohr, Abortion in America , 20-25; Illinois, Revised Code , 1827, sec. 46, p. 131.

29. Mohr, Abortion in America , 22, 24.

29. Mohr, Abortion in America , 22, 24.

30. Ibid., 47-59, 70-71; Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct , 225-227.

31. Mohr, Abortion in America , 86-94.

31. Mohr, Abortion in America , 86-94.

32. Ibid., 147-225. On the Jacksonian period, the status of the regular profession, and Irregulars, see Richard Harrison Shryock, Medical Licensing in America, 1650-1965 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967); Ronald L. Numbers, "The Fall and Rise of the Medical Profession," in Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health , edited by Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, 2d ed., rev. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 185-205; William G. Rothstein, American Physicians in the Nineteenth Century: From Sects to Science (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972); Norman Gevitz, ed., Other Healers: Unorthodox Medicine in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988). Regulars presented abortion as an Irregular practice, but Homeopaths essentially shared their antiabortion position. See, for example, Edwin M. Hale, The Great Crime of the Nineteenth Century (Chicago: C.S. Halsey, 1867).

33. Daniel Scott Smith, "Family Limitation, Sexual Control, and Domestic Feminism in Victorian America," Feminist Studies 1 (winter-spring 1973): 40-57; Robert V. Wells, "Family History and Demographic Transition," Journal of Social History 9 (fall 1975): 1-9.

34. Mohr, Abortion in America , 166-168. Quotation from Horatio Robinson Storer, Why Not? A Book for Every Woman (Boston: Lee and Shepard,

1868); reprinted as A Proper Bostonian on Sex and Birth Control (New York: Arno Press, 1974), 85.

35. Quotation from Horatio Robinson Storer, Is It I? A Book for Every Man (Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1868); reprinted as A Proper Bostonian on Sex and Birth Control , 134; Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct , 224-228, 236-239; Mohr, Abortion in America , 107-108, 168-170.

36. Mary Roth Walsh, "Doctors Wanted: No Women Need Apply": Sexual Barriers in the Medical Profession, 1835-1975 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977), 109-118; Virginia G. Drachman, Hospital with a Heart: Women Doctors and the Paradox of Separatism at the New England Hospital, 1862-1969 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984).

37. On the anxieties about sexuality woven into the use of anesthesia and obstetrics, see Mary Poovey, Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 24-50; Martin S. Pernick, A Calculus of Suffering: Pain, Professionalism, and Anesthesia in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 6l-62. On the expectation that female physicians would care for female patients and treat them differently, see M. Walsh, Doctors Wanted , 95-95, 115-116; Regina Markell Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in American Medicine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985).

38. On medical concern about the morality of obstetrics and gynecology, see M. Walsh, Doctors Wanted , 113; Virginia G. Drachman, "The Loomis Trial: Social Mores and Obstetrics in the Nineteenth Century," in Childbirth: The Beginning of Motherhood, Proceedings of the Second Motherhood Symposium (Madison, Wis.: Women's Studies Research Center, 1982), reprint in Leavitt, Women and Health in America , 166-174.

39. On prostitution, see Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, "Beauty, the Beast, and the Militant Woman: A Case Study in Sex Roles and Social Stress in Jacksonian America," American Quarterly 23 (1971): 562-584, reprint in Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct , 109-128; Judith R. Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980); Ruth Rosen, The Lost Sisterhood: Prostitution in America, 1900-1918 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982). On antislavery, see Jean Fagan Yellin, Women and Sisters: The Anti-Slavery Feminists in American Culture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989); Gerda Lerner, The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina: Rebels against Slavery (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967). On temperance, see Barbara Leslie Epstein, The Politics of Domesticity: Women, Evangelism, and Temperance in Nineteenth-Century America (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1981). On voluntary motherhood, see Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , chap. 5. On ninteenth-century women's sense of moral superiority as a source of activism, see Lori D. Ginzberg, Women and the Work of Benevolence: Morality, Politics, and Class in the Nineteenth-Century United States (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990). On the women's movement as a whole, see Ellen Carol DuBois, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848-1869 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978); Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States , rev. ed. (1959; reprint Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1975).

40. Storer, Why Not? , 76, 83.

40. Storer, Why Not? , 76, 83.

41. Ibid., 32.

40. Storer, Why Not? , 76, 83.

42. Ibid., 34-35, 69-70, 84.

43. Mohr, Abortion in America , 200-225.

44. On Comstockery, see Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 24, 164-166, 208-209; Brodie, Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth-Century America , 257-258, 263-266, 281-288.

45. On the state laws in general, see Mohr, Abortion in America , 29-30. Only one statement has been uncovered to explain why the state of Illinois passed this new criminal abortion law in early 1867: "Mr. Green explained that the reason for the introduction oft he bill," the Illinois State Journal reported, "was that there was now no law on this subject in this state." "Illinois Legislature, Introduction of Bills," Springfield, Illinois State Journal , February 8, 1867, p. 1; Illinois, Journal of the Senate , 1867, p. 1107; Illinois, Journal of the House of Representatives , 1867, p. 689. Quotations from Illinois, Public Laws of Illinois , 1867, p. 89, and Illinois, Public Laws of Illinois , 1872, p. 369. The Illinois State Medical Society Papers, Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, Illinois, yielded no further information on the passage of this law in Illinois.

46. Ellen Ross, Love and Toil: Motherhood in Outcast London, 1870-1918 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993). The time it took for physicians to accept their own role in spreading infection via their hands and to change their own behavior is the classic example of the sometimes slow pace of change in medicine; Erwin H. Ackerknecht, A Short History of Medicine , rev. ed. (1955; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), 187-191.

47. Research included examining every issue of the Journal of the National Medical Association , vol. 1 (1901) to vol. 65 (1973); a survey of African American periodical literature, indexed in Index to Periodical Articles by and about Negroes , 1943-1972 and Index to Periodical Articles by and about Blacks , 1973; and research in archival collections.

48. James Gilbert, Perfect Cities: Chicago's Utopias of 1893 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991); Harold M. Mayer and Richard C. Wade, with the assistance of Glen E. Holt, Chicago: Growth of a Metropolis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969); Bessie Louise Pierce, The Rise of a Modern City, 1871-1893 , vol. 3 of A History of Chicago (New York: Knopf, 1957); Emmett Dedmon, Fabulous Chicago (New York: Random House, 1953); Thomas N. Bonner, Medicine in Chicago, 1850-1950: A Chapter in the Social and Scientific Development of a City , 2d ed. (1957; reprint, Urbana: University of Illinois, 1991).

49. Records that would give precise quantitative answers to questions about the practice of abortion do not exist. We will never know exactly how many abortions were performed or how many women died as a result of their abortions; nor will we ever be able to determine the proportion of the female population who had abortions or the proportion of practitioners who performed them. Social surveys and aggregate data that became available in medical literature in the 1930s help make it possible to estimate answers to these types of questions. Sources are discussed further in the text and in the note on sources.

50. On the related history of pregnancy, childbirth, and contraception, see Leavitt, Brought to Bed; Richard W. Wertz and Dorothy C. Wertz, Lying-In: A History of Childbirth in America (New York: Schocken Books, 1979); Gordon,

Woman's Body, Woman's Right; Kennedy, Birth Control in America; James Reed, From Private Vice to Public Virtue: The Birth Control Movement and American Society Since 1830 (New York: Basic Books, 1978); Ellen Chesler, Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992). On the centrality of reproduction to society and history, see Frederick Engels, The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884; reprint, New York: International Publishers, 1972); Mary O'Brien, The Politics of Reproduction (Boston: Routledge, 1981).

1. Dr. A. S. Warner's office was at 3236 West Polk Street. Inquest on Frances Collins, May 7, 1920, case no. 161-5-20, Medical Records Department, Cook County Medical Examiner's Office, Chicago, Illinois.

1. Dr. A. S. Warner's office was at 3236 West Polk Street. Inquest on Frances Collins, May 7, 1920, case no. 161-5-20, Medical Records Department, Cook County Medical Examiner's Office, Chicago, Illinois.

2. Ibid.

3. I have identified In women in the Chicago area who had abortions between 1880 and 1930. Most were white and working class. Of 73 for whom there is information available on their marital status, the majority were married (45, or 63 percent). This is not based on a random sample and cannot be universalized. Other historians have also noted the importance of abortion to working-class women. Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: Birth Control in America , rev. and updated (1976; reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1990), 144; James C. Mohr, Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), 243.

4. For examples of the use of silence as a metaphor for the history of abortion, see Patricia Miller, The Worst of Times (New York: Harper Collins, 1993), 6-7; Kristin Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 40. On the liberatory aspects of speaking, see bell hooks, Talking Back: thinking feminist, thinking black (Boston, Mass.: South End Press, 1989), 10-18; Adrienne Rich, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose, 1966-1978 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979). For a recent collection showing the fruitfulness of this theoretical conceptualization, Elaine Hedge and Shelley Fisher Fishkin, eds., Listening to Silences: New Essays in Feminist Criticism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).

5. The focus on the past as silencing and speaking as liberatory overdraws the oppressiveness of the past, the transformations of the late 1960s, and the freedoms of the present. My critique of this silencing trope is similar to the critique made recently by queer theorists of the tendency in lesbian-gay history to present a history of progress from marginalization or invisibility to coming out. See Henry Abelove, "The Queering of Lesbian/Gay History," Radical History Review 62 (spring 1995): 44-57; Lisa Duggan, "'Becoming Visible: The Legacy of Stonewall,' New York Public Library, June 18-September 24, 1994," Radical History Review 62 (spring 1995): 193. The entire spring issue of Radical History Review is titled "The Queer Issue: New Visions of America's Lesbian and Gay Past."

6. The bonds of womanhood" was Sarah Grimké's phrase and is the title

of Nancy F. Cott's book, The Bonds of Womanhood: "Woman's Sphere" in New England, 1780-1835 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 1. See also Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, "Female World of Love and Ritual: Relations between Women in Nineteenth-Century America," Signs 1 (1975): 1-29; Judith Walzer Leavitt, Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750 to 1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 4-7. For a debate and critiques of this idea see Nancy Cote, Marl Jo Buhle, Temma Kaplan, Gerda Lerner, and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, "Politics and Culture in Women's History: A Symposium," Fetal-nice Studies 6: 1 (1980): 26-62; Denise Riley, "Am I That Name?" Feminism and the Category of "Women" in History (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988). I do not suggest that the biological experiences of being female create "natural" bonds among all women, overcoming social differences by race, class, age, and so on, but these shared female experiences helped define womanhood and could, at moments, create sympathies across social boundaries.

7. The coroner's physician discovered during the autopsy that she had had an ectopic pregnancy, which her physicians, not surprisingly, had not discerned. The preeminent obstetrician Joseph B. DeLee reported that it was rare for a physician to diagnose ectopic pregnancy. The ectopic pregnancy was a contributing factor in Collins's death, but all of Collins's efforts were directed at aborting her pregnancy and that is what I concentrate on here. Edward H. Hutton, "Doctor's Statement Blank," Inquest on Collins; Joseph B. DeLee, The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics, 2d ed., rev. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1916), 399.

8. As cited in Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 493 n 23.

9. For the estimate by Dr. C. S. Bacon, see "Chicago Medical Society. Regular Meeting, Held Nov. 23, 1904," JAMA 43 (December 17, 1904): 1889; quote from J. Henry Barbat, "Criminal Abortion," California State Journal of Medicine 9 (February 1911): 69.

10. Marie E. Kopp, Birth Control in Practice: Analysis often Thousand Case Histories of the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau (1933; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1972), 124; Katharine Bement Davis, Factors in the Sex Life of Twenty-Two Hundred Women (1929; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1972), xi-xiii, 20, 21; Gilbert Van Tassel Hamilton, A Research in Marriage (New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1929), 134, 133.

11. U.S. Department of Labor, Children's Bureau, Maternal Mortality in Fifteen States , Bureau Publication No. 223 (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1934), 108, 112-113; Calvin Schmid, Social Saga of Two Cities: An Ecological and Statistical Study of Social Trends in Minneapolis and St. Paul (Minneapolis: Minneapolis Council of Social Agencies, 1937), 410-411. I am grateful to Elizabeth Lockwood for sharing the Schmid study with me. Isabella V. Granger, "Birth Control in Harlem," Birth Control Review (hereafter cited asBCR ) 22 (May 1938): 92; J. W. Walker in Val Do Turner, "Fertility of Women," Journal of the National Medical Association (hereafter cited as JNMA ) 5 (October-December 1913): 250; Caroline Hadley Robinson, Seventy Birth Control Clinics: A Survey and Analysis Including the General Effects of Control on Size and Quality of Population (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1930), 66-67.

12. Regine K. Stix, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," The Milbank Memorial

Fund Quarterly 13 (October 1935): 351-352. For examples of Catholic women in Chicago who had abortions, see Inquest on Frauciszka Gawlik, February 19, 1916, case no. 27-3-1916, Medical Records Department; Inquest on Mary Colbert, March 25, 1933, case no. 7-4-1933, Medical Records Department.

13. Frederick J. Taussig, Abortion, Spontaneous and Induced: Medical and Social Aspects (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1936), 26.

14. James Foster Scott, "Criminal Abortion," AJO 33 (January 1896): 80; Schmid, Social Saga of Two Cities , 410; Jerome E. Bates and Edward S. Zawadzki, Criminal Abortion: A Study in Medical Sociology (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1964), 44-45. Newspapers can be misleading. After examining abortion coverage in the New York Times and abortion case histories in the medical literature, James Mohr concluded that after 1880 abortion became the practice of unwed women. Mohr, Abortion in America , 240-244.

15. Press and court interest in unmarried women and men are discussed further in later chapters of this volume.

16. Mary A. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion—Its Evils and Its Sad Consequences," Woman's Medical Journal (hereafter cited as WMJ ) 3 (August 1894): 34; Dr. J. R. Gardner in Inquest on Ellen Matson, November 19, 1917, case 330-11-1917, Medical Records Department.

17. Marie Hansen in Inquest on Mary Schwartz, May 21, 1934, case no. 340-5-1934, Medical Records Department.

18. "Prevention or Abortion, Which?" BCR 7 (May 1923): 127.

19. Dr. B. Liber, "As a Doctor Sees It," BCR 2 (February-March 1918): 10; "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" BCR 7 ( July 1923): 182. A midwife used this phrase in 1888, "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 2.

20. Frank Mau in Inquest on Catherine Mau, March 12, 1928, case 390-3-1928, Medical Records Department.

21. Clara Taylor, "Observations of a Nurse," BCR 2 (June 1918), 13; see also Mary A. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion—Its Evils and Its Sad Consequences" continued, WMJ 3 (September 1894): 62, 63.

22. "Two Pertinent Remarks," Chicago Times , December 30, 1888, p. 4; A.B.C., "Does Public Opinion in the United States Sanction Abortion?" Medical Critic and Guide 23 (1920): 71. I suspect that "A.B.C." was William J. Robinson, an advocate of birth control and early advocate for legalized abortion. He was the editor of the Medical Critic and Guide and wrote most of its articles. Entry for William J. Robinson in The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Being the History of the United States , vol. 35 (New York: James T. White and Co., 1949), 546; Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 170-176.

23. Joseph Taber Johnson, "Abortion and its Effects," AJO 33 (January 1896): 86-97, quotation on 91. See also Scott, "Criminal Abortion," 72-86.

24. E. S. McKee, "Abortion," AJO 24 (October 1891): 1333.

25. Henry O. Marcy in J. H. Carstens, "Education as a Factor in the Prevention of Criminal Abortion and Illegitimacy," JAMA 47 (December 8, 1906): 1890; John G. Clark in Edward A. Schumann, "The Economic Aspects of Abortion," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (hereafter cited as A JOG ) 7 (April 1924): 485.

26. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 36; Susan E. Cayleff, "Self-

Help and the Patent Medicine Business," in Women, Health, and Medicine in America: A Historical Handbook , edited by Rima D. Apple (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990), 311-336; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , chap. 4. On self-medication in the early twentieth century, see Ronald L. Numbers, Almost Persuaded: American Physicians and Compulsory Health Insurance, 1912-1920 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 2-3.

27. Denslow Lewis, "Facts Regarding Criminal Abortion," JAMA 35 (October 13, 1900): 944.

28. Anne Burnet, "Abortion as the Exciting Cause of Insanity, WMJ 9 (November 1899): 400. On the germ theory and antiseptic procedure, see Charles E. Rosenberg, The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (New York: Basic Books, 1987), 137-150; Gert H. Brieger, "American Surgery and the Germ Theory of Disease," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 40 (March-April 1966): 135-145.

29. Barbara Brookes, Abortion in England, 1900-1967 (London: Croom Helm, 1988), 23, 37; quotation in "Hard Facts," BCR 4 (June 1920): 16. Regine Stix found that one illegal abortion (of 686) was performed by a neighbor, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," 360 n. 14.

30. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion" (September 1894), 60-61.

31. Inquest on Matson. Matson's aunt remarked that she and Matson's mother had advised against an abortion. Whether this remark was true or a comment made to avoid trouble with the authorities, neither aunt nor mother abandoned her.

32. Inquest on Colbert.

33. Joan Jacobs Brumberg, "'Ruined Girls': Changing Community Responses to Illegitimacy in Upstate New York, 1890-1920," Journal of Social History 18 (winter 1984): 247-272, quotation on 248.

34. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion" (August 1894), 36.

35. Inquest on Ester Reed, June 9, 1914, case no. 73771, Medical Records Department. Although Emma Alby denied having done anything "wrong," her parents were convinced she was pregnant and took her to a physician for an abortion. Inquest on Emma Alby, September 11, 1915, case no. 141-10-1915, Medical Records Department.

36. Inquest on Gawlik; Brumberg, "'Ruined Girls,'" 248-249, 250, 258; John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 187, 259. On neighborhood policing of unmarried women's sexual behavior, Joanne Meyerowitz, "Sexual Geography and Gender Economy: The Furnished Room Districts of Chicago, 1890-1930," Gender and History 2 (autumn 1990): 277.

37. "Queries and Minor Notes. Maternities for the Unmarried," JAMA 43 (July 2, 1904): 42.

38. Dr. Henry Fitzbutler founded the Louisville National Medical College. This is from the recollections of his grandson. Case 14, "Research Projects, The Negro Family in the U.S., Documents on Higher Class Families in Chicago," folder 13, box 131-81, E. Franklin Frazier Papers, used with the permission of the Manuscript Division, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington D.C. On black hospitals, see Vanessa Northington Gamble,

Making a Place for Ourselves: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).

39. Brumberg, "'Ruined Girls'," 260; Elizabeth Karsen Lockwood, "The Fallen Woman, the Maternity Home, and the State: A Study of Maternal Health Care for Single Parturients, 1870-1930" (master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1987); Regina G. Kunzel, Fallen Women, Problem Girls: Unmarried Mothers and the Professionalization of Social Work, 1890-1945 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993). By 1904, mandatory breastfeeding was an "established policy" among Illinois charitable maternities for the unwed, "Maternities for the Unmarried," 42.

40. Kunzel, Fallen Women, Problem Girls , 68-69, 81.

41. Women's wages were based on the (false) assumption that women did not support themselves or their families because they had husbands or fathers who supported them. This discussion is drawn from Joanne Meyerowitz's excellent survey of women's wages in the early twentieth century, Women Adrift: Independent Wage Earners in Chicago, 1880-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 33-38. See also Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 230, 258, 262-263.

42. Linda Gordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence, Boston, 1880-1960 (New York: Viking Penguin, 1988), 92-95, 98, 107-109, 112-113.

43. Inquest on Collins. See also Inquest on Mary Baxter Moorhead, November 29, 1926, case no. 371-11-1926, Medical Records Department.

44. Inquest on Mary Schwartz.

45. Inquest on Mau. See also Inquest on Rosie Kawera, June 15, 1916, case no. 152-5-1916, Medical Records Department.

46. The second visit is recorded in the Transcript of People v. Anna Heissler , 338 Ill. 56 (1930), Case Files, vault no. 44783, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901, Illinois State Archives, Springfield, Illinois.

47. Inquest on Collins; Inquest on Emily Projahn, October 10, 1916, case no. 26-12-1916, Medical Records Department; Inquest on Elsie Golcher, February 15, 1932, case no. 225-2-32, Medical Records Department; Inquest on Carolina Petrovitis, March 21, 1916, case no. 234-3-1916, Medical Records Department.

48. Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812 (New York: Knopf, 1990). On women in immigrant neighborhoods, see Elizabeth Ewen, Immigrant Women in the Land of Dollars: Life and Culture on the Lower East Side, 1890-1925 (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1985).

49. Ellen Ross notes a sense of "community obligation" among poor London mothers who automatically helped each other with child care. Ellen Ross, Love and Toil: Motherhood in Outcast London, 1870-1918 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 134-135; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , 87-108, 202-203, 208.

50. In eleven cases found through coroner's records, boyfriends helped their unmarried lovers obtain abortions. For example, Inquest on Anna Johnson, May 27, 1915, case no. 77790, Medical Records Department; Inquest on

Mary Nowakowski, April 4, 1935, case no. 8o-5-1935, Medical Records Department; Inquest on Mary L. Kissell, August 3, 1937, case no. 300-8-1937, Medical Records Department; Dorothy Dunbar Bromley and Florence Haxton Britten, Youth and Sex: A Study of 1300 College Students (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1938), 262. On dating, see Meyerowitz, Women Adrift , 101-106; Kathy Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), 54-55, 108-110.

51. Inquests on Matson, Colbert, Nowakowski, Kissell.

52. Charley Morehouse in Inquest on Matson.

53. See, for example, Statement of Patrick O'Connell in 1907 Inquest on Nellie Walsh included in Transcript of People v. Beuttner , 233 Ill. 272 (1908), Case Files, vault no. 30876, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901.

54. John Harris in Inquest on Anna Marie Dimford, September 30, 1915, case no. 75-11-1915, Medical Records Department.

55. Testimony of Fred Corderay in Inquest on Alma Heidenway, August 21, 1918, case no. 232-8-1918, Medical Records Department. He denied having a sexual relationship with Heidenway.

56. Testimony of Edward Dettman and Annie Cullinan in Inquest on Colbert.

57. Meyerowitz, Women Adrift , 118-123.

58. For example, see Joan M. Jensen, "The Death of Rosa: Sexuality in Rural America," Agricultural History 67 (fall 1993): 1-12; I am grateful to Daniel Schneider for showing me this article. See also Catharine MacKinnon, "The Male Ideology of Privacy: A Feminist Perspective on the Right to Abortion," Radical America 17 (July-August 1983): 23-35 and the responses by Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, "Abortion as 'Violence against Women': A Feminist Critique," Radical America 18 (March-June 1984): 64-68; Carole Joffe, "Comments on MacKinnon," Radical America 18 (March-June 1984): 68-69.

59. How to assess the female experience of heterosexuality has been a source of crucial debate among feminists. The role of pornography in women's oppression and legal measures to repress it have been especially controversial. See the proposed antipornography ordinance in Andrea Dworkin and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Pornography and Civil Rights: A New Day for Women's Equality (n.p., 1988) . For analyses of feminist thought on sexual pleasure and danger today and in the nineteenth century, see Carole S. Vance, ed. Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality (Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984); Ellen Carol DuBois and Linda Gordon, "Seeking Ecstasy on the Battlefield: Danger and Pleasure in Nineteenth-Century Feminist Sexual Thought," Feminist Studies 9 (spring 1983): 7-25.

60. Edward A. Balloch, "Criminal Abortion," AJO 45 (February 1902): 238.

61. Although Hoffmann may have miscarried, her abortion and death were investigated by the coroner as a criminal abortion. Inquest on Milda Hoffmann, May 29, 1916, case no., 342-5-1916, Medical Records Department. On the rape of young, unmarried women, see Mary E. Odem, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995).

62. Inquest on Edna M. Lamb, February 19, 1917, case no. 43-3-1917, Medical Records Department.

63. Inquest on Petrovitis.

64. Ross, Love and Toil , 112-118; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , 95. But husbands did sometimes assist; see the illustration of labor in early Virginia in Leavitt, 105.

65. Inquest on Collins; Inquest on Mau.

66. Burnet, "Abortion as the Exciting Cause of Insanity," 401.

67. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 102-103, 106, 121-122.

68. Testimony of Earnest Projahn in Inquest on Projahn.

69. Testimony of Earnest Projahn, written statement of Emily Projahn in Inquest on Projahn.

70. Testimony of Dr. C.W. Mercereau and Dr. Garford D.E. Haworth in Inquest on Projahn.

71. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , chaps. 9, 4,

72. For example, John C. Vaughan, "Birth Control Not Abortion," BCR 6 (September 1992): 183; "Birth Control and Abortion," BCR 8 (July 1924): 202; "Ten Good Reasons for Birth Control," BCR 13 (January 1929), no page no.

73. "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" (July 1923), 182.

74. Rachelle Yarros, "Birth Control Clinics in Chicago," BCR 12 (December 1928): 354-355. I have calculated the percentage from figures provided in the article.

75. Kate Simon, Bronx Primitive: Portraits in a Childhood (New York: Harper and Row, 1982), 70. I am grateful to Joyce Follet for bringing Simon's book to my attention.

76. The editor further commented, "In the case of many of the opponents of Birth Control this misapprehension is deliberately made . . . to discredit the cause. In other cases it arises out of ignorance." "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" (July 1923), 181.

77. These were constant themes. For example, see "Hard Facts," 16; Margaret Sanger, "Why Not Birth Control Clinics in America?" BCR 3 (May 1919): 10; "A Desperate Choice," BCR 9 (March 1925): 78; Margaret Sanger, Motherhood in Bondage (1928; reprint, Elmsford, N.Y.: Maxwell Reprint, 1958), 394-410. A political challenge to the birth control movement's perspective on abortion did not develop as it did in England nor did a movement for legalization. See Brookes, Abortion in England , 79-80, 87; and chapter 5 of this volume.

78. "Letters from Women," Letter No. 10, BCR 2 (April 1918): 12; "How Would You Answer This Woman?" BCR 5 (March 1921): 14.

79. "Letters from Women," Letter No. 17 and Letter No. 16, BCR 2 (June 1918): 12.

80. Ross, Love and Toil , 99; Rima D. Apple, Mothers and Medicine: A Social History of Infant Feeding, 1890-1950 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1987), chap. 6.

81. "A Desperate Choice," 78.

82. Leavitt, Brought to Bed , chap. 1.

83. "Appeals from Mothers," BCR 6 (August 1922): 150.

84. "Appeals from Mothers," p. 151. See also "Letters from Women," Letter no. 2, BCR 2 (January 1918): 13.

85. The Cook County Coroner's report for 1918-1919 showed that the great majority of women who died due to abortions (some of them miscarriages) were married, over 80 percent, and that over half of the women had children already. Most of the mothers had two children or more. Cook County Coroner, Biennial Report, 1918-1919 , p. 78, Municipal Reference Collection, Chicago Public Library, Chicago, Illinois.

86. See Barbara Katz Rothman's insightful discussion of pregnancy and motherhood, Recreating Motherhood: Ideology and Technology in a Patriarchal Society (New York: W.W. Norton, 1989), esp. 106-108.

87. For example, "Letters from Women" (January 1918), 13; "Unemployment," BCR 15 (May 1931): 131.

88. Louise Kapp Howe, Moments on Maple Avenue: The Reality of Abortion (1984; New York: Warner Books, 1986), 90-91, 117-118, 121-126.

89. "But What Can I Do?" BCR 11 (November 1927): 296.

90. Testimony of Lt. William P. O'Brien in Inquest on Mau.

91. These were not all illegal abortions, Biennial Report, 1918-1919 , 78.

92. See the video, Motherless: A Legacy of Loss from Illegal Abortions , produced by Barbara Attic, Janet Goldwater, and Diane Pontius, Filmmakers Library, New York; and interviews with orphans in Miller, The Worst of Times , 39-47, 48-57, 237-241.

93. "Letters from Women," Letter no. 14, BCR 2 (May 1918): 12.

94. The mother described herself as having "born and raised 6 children." This example illustrates changing norms. Women who grew up in large families themselves adopted the new smaller family norm promoted by the birth control movement. "'Why?'" BCR 2 (December 1918): 6.

95. Hard Facts. Jennie K.," BCR 3 (November 1919): 15.

96. Inquest on Margaret Winter, November 13, 1916, case no. 274-11-1916, Medical Records Department.

97. Simon, Bronx Primitive , 21, 25, 73; Ross, Love and Toil , 148-154.

98. "Letters from Women," Letter No. 17, BCR 2 (June 1918): 12. See also "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" (July 1923), 182.

99. Stix, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," 357-359; Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth and Abortion (New York: Harper and Brothers and Paul B. Hoeber Medical Books, 1958), 114, 120, 109-110, table 54.

100. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , chap. 8; James Reed, From Private Vice to Public Virtue: The Birth Control Movement and American Society Since 1830 (New York: Basic Books, 1978), 45; "A Connecticut Physician's Letter," BCR 5 (September 1921): 15.

101. Susan J. Kleinberg, "Technology and Women's Work: The Lives of Working Class Women in Pittsburgh, 1870-1900," Labor History 17 (winter 1976): 58-72.

102. "Letters from Women," Letter no. 1 (January 1918): 13; Ross, Love and Toil , 98-99; on wife-beating in America, Gordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives , 250-288.

103. "Letters from Women," Letter no. 1 BCR 2 (January 1918), 13.

104. "Prevention or Abortion—Which?" (July 1923), 182; "Prevention or Abortion, Which?" (May 1923), 127. See also "'A Damnably Cruel Dilemma,'" BCR 3 (July 1919): 17.

105. Frank A. Stahl, "Some Expressions of Abortive Attempts at Instrumental Abortion," JAMA 31 (December 31, 1898): 1560-1561.

106. Maximilian Herzog, "The Pathology of Criminal Abortion," JAMA 34 (May 26, 1900): 1310-1311; J.E. Lackner, "Serological Findings in 100 Cases, Bacteriological Findings in 50 Cases, and a Resume of 679 Cases of Abortion at the Michael Reese Hospital," Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics 20 (1915): 537; Lewis, "Facts Regarding Criminal Abortion," 945. J. L. Andrews reported the use of knitting needles, rubber catheters, and slippery elm to induce abortions, in "The Greatly Increased Frequency of the Occurrence of Abortion, as Shown by Reports from Memphis Physicians: An Essay on the Causes for the Same," Transactions of the Medical Society of Tennessee 72 (1905): 126-127. In 1928 a Cook County Hospital physician reported from patient histories that women used "catheters . . . orange sticks, hairpins, cotton ball, a substance called slippery elm." Dr. Gertrude Engbring in Transcript of People v. Heissler (1930); George Erety Shoemaker, "Septicemia from Self-Induced Abortion," AJO 35 (June 1897): 637; "Tetanus Follows Attempt to Abort with Chicken Feather," JAMA 84 (February 7, 1925): 470.

107. G.D. Royston, "A Statistical Study of the Causes of Abortion," AJOG 76 (October 1917): 571-572, quotation on 573.

108. Royston, "Statistical Study," 572-573; Dr. Gertrude Engbring in Transcript of People v. Heissler (1930).

109. Bessie Louise Pierce, The Rise of a Modern City , vol. 3. of A History of Chicago (New York: Knopf, 1957), 188.

110. John S. Hailer, American Medicine in Transition, 1840-1910 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), 267-270.

111. Addison Niles, "Criminal Abortion," Transactions of the Twenty-First Anniversary Meeting of the Illinois State Medical Society (Chicago: Fergus Printing, 1872), 100; Calvin Schmid reported on 109 abortion deaths in Minneapolis between 1927 and 1936 and found that the catheter was used in 29 cases, slippery elm in 18, in Social Saga of Two Cities , 411. "Propaganda for Reform. Chichester's Diamond Brand Pills," JAMA 56 (May 27, 1911): 1591.

112. Dr. Frederick D. Newbarr, Detroit, to Editor, July 21, 1920, Abortifacient File, Historical Health Fraud Collection of the AMA (hereafter cited as HHFC), AMA, Chicago, Illinois. See B. E. Ellis, M.D., Indianapolis, to JAMA , November 10, 1923, Abortifacient File, HHFC.

113. Ling's office was at 1909 Archer Avenue in Chicago. Letter to AMA from Chicago, August 22, 1922, Abortifacient File, HHFC.

114. Inquest on Anna P. Fazio, February 14, 1929, case no. 217-2-1929, Medical Records Department.

115. Quotations from A.B.C., "Does Public Opinion in the United States Sanction Abortion?," 61, 64.

1. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 15, 1888, pp. 1, 5.

2. Coverage related to the abortion exposé appeared in the Chicago Times through January 23, 1889.

3. "The Evil and the Remedy," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 4.

4. Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (New York: Basic Books, 1982), 79-144; William G. Rothstein, American Physicians in the Nineteenth Century: From Sects to Science (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972); Thomas Neville Bonner, Medicine in Chicago: A Chapter in the Social and Scientific Development of a City, 1850-1950 , 2d ed. (1957; reprint, Urbana: University of Illinois, 1991).

5. One physician estimated in 1913 that no more than 13 percent of sick patients were treated in the hospital and not until 1938 did approximately half of all births take place in the hospital, as cited in Charles E. Rosenberg, The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (New York: Basic Books, 1987), 316; Judith Walzer Leavitt, Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750-1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 171-195, 269, Morris J. Vogel, The Invention of the Modern Hospital: Boston, 1870-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980); Rosemary Stevens, American Medicine and the Public Interest (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), 80-82, 145.

6. Thomas Goebel, "American Medicine and the 'Organizational Synthesis': Chicago Physicians and the Business of Medicine, 1900-1920," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 68 (winter 1994): 639-663; Donald E. Konold, A History of American Medical Ethics (Madison: State Historical Society for the Department of History, University of Wisconsin, 1962), 11-12, 57-67, 75.

7. Bessie Louise Pierce, The Rise of a Modern City, 1871-1893 , vol. 3 of A History of Chicago (New York: Knopf, 1957), 166, 408-409, 418-419, 408 n. 47.

8. On this idea, see Peter Fritzsche, Reading Berlin 1900 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996).

9. Emmett Dedmon, Fabulous Chicago (New York: Random House, 1953), 73-94, 135-147.

10. Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States Through 250 Years, 1690-1940 (New York: Macmillan, 1941), 436-443; Michael Schudson, Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers (New York: Basic Books, 1978), 70-74, 86; Norma Green, Stephen Lacy, and Jean Folkerts, "Chicago Journalists at the Turn of the Century: Bohemians All?" Journalism Quarterly 66 (winter 1989): 815-816; Judith R. Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 81-134.

11. Justin E. Walsh, To Print the News and Raise Hell!, A Biography of Wilbur F. Storey (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), chap. 8 and 216-217.

12. "The Evil and the Remedy," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 4; "Doctors Who Advertise," Chicago Times , December 16, 1888, p. 4; "Hercules and the Doctor," cartoon, Chicago Times , December 16, 1888, p. 9; "Moral Aids Needed," Chicago Times , December 18, 1888, p. 4; "A Noble Work," Chicago Times , December 23, 1888, p. 4.

13. Text accompanying cartoon, "It Out-Herods the Days of Herod," Chicago Times , December 19, 1888, p. 4.

14. See the cartoons, "It Out-Herods the Days of Herod," Chicago Times , December 19, 1888, p. 4; "Hercules and the Baby," Chicago Times , December 21, 1888, p. 4; Mott, American Journalism , 438-439.

15. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 12, 1888, p. 1; "The Evil and the Remedy," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 4; "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 15, 1888, p. 5.

16. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 12, 1888, p. 1.

17. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 1; "The Evil and the Remedy," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 4.

18. "The Sunday Times," Chicago Times , December 15, 1888, p. 4; "To the Readers of 'The Times,'" Chicago Times , December 19, 1888, p. 4; "Triple Sheet," Chicago Times , December 22, 1888, p. 4.

19. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 1.

20. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 15, 1888, p. 1.

21. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 14, 1888, pp. 1-2. For other examples of midwives who refused to perform abortions, see the Vice Commission of Chicago, The Social Evil in Chicago, A Study of Existing Conditions with Recommendations by the Vice Commission of Chicago (1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1970), p. 225; Inquest on Mary L. Kissell, August 3, 1937, case no. 300-8-1937, Medical Records Department.

22. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 15, 1888, p. 1.

23. See, for example, the sketch of five female portraits, "For the Doctors," which asked, "Guess which one of the above is the 'girl reporter?'" and the sketch "A Souvenir," both in Chicago Times , December 21, 1888, p. 4; Editorial from the St. Louis Republic reprinted in "Talk About 'The Times,'" Chicago Times , December 23, 1888, p. 4. Interest in the reporters themselves was typical of the era, Schudson, Discovering the News , 65, 69.

24. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 18, 1888, pp. 1-2.

25. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 20, 1888, p. 5.

26. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 17, 1888, p. 5.

27. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 21, 1888, p. n On Clark Street, Emmett Dedmon, Fabulous Chicago (New York: Random House, 1953), 140, 144-145.

28. "Professional Abortionists," JAMA 11:26 (December 29, 1888): 913; Wilhelm Becker, "The Medical, Ethical, and Forensic Aspects of Fatal Criminal Abortion," Wisconsin Medical Journal 7 (April 1909): 624-626.

29. Thirty-one of the thirty-four physicians who agreed to perform abortions can be identified; of these, twenty-two were Regulars. Of the forty-eight who agreed to help in some fashion, forty-two can be identified. Thirty-three, or over two-thirds of the total, were Regulars. At least twenty-one belonged to a medical society, including some Irregular societies, and twenty-one belonged to none. I am grateful to Rose Holz and Lynne Curry for collecting and tabulating this biographical information. Biographical information located in Medical and Surgical Register of the United States (Detroit: R. L. Polk, 1886 and 1890 editions); McDonald's Illinois State Medical Directory: A Complete List of Physicians in the State (Chicago: J. Newton McDonald, 1891); Connorton's Directory of Physicians, Dentists, and Druggists of Chicago, Including Suburbs in Cook County (Chicago: J. Newton McDonald, 1889).

30. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 16, 1888, p. 9; "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 18, 1888, p. 2; J. H. Etheridge to Editor, Chicago Times , December 18, 1888, p. 5.

31. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 18, 1888, p. 2; Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight , 212-214.

32. "Awake! Arise!" Chicago Times , January 2, 1889, p. 4. I counted over sixty-five letters to the editor of the Chicago Times from doctors in the two-week period of the exposé. For example, Benjamin Miller to Editor, Chicago Times , December 21, 1888, p. 3.

33. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 17, 1888, p. 1; "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 20, 1888, p. 1; "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 22, 1888, p. 1; "From the Girl Reporter," Chicago Times , December 23, 1888, p. 9.

34. Council Minutes, December 17, 1888, vol. 1887-1892, pp. 104-105, Chicago Medical Society Records, Archives and Manuscripts Department, Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, Illinois. Jacob Franks and see William T. Thackerey in "The Doctors Will Investigate," Chicago Times , December 18, 1888, p. 2. The Times reported that 250 people attended this meeting.

35. Quotation by Etheridge in "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 18, 1888, p. 2; Council Minutes, December 17, 1888, vol. 1887-1892, p. 105, Chicago Medical Society Records.

36. Council Minutes, January 7, 1889, vol. 1887-1892, pp. 108-112, Chicago Medical Society Records; "Thurston Is Expelled," Chicago Times , January 8, 1889, p.1.

37. Bonner, Medicine in Chicago , 64-67, 84-103; Connorton's Directory , 31-53, 61-67.

38. "Professional Abortionists," 913; Dr. J. W. Hervey to Editor, JAMA 12 (January 12, 1889): 69.

39. Others have made similar observations. Norman Himes, Medical History of Contraception (1936; reprint, New York: Gamut Press, 1963), 282; Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: Birth Control in America , rev. and updated (1976; reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1990), 167-168.

40. Regina Markell Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in American Medicine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 188-189, 220; James C. Mohr, Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy, 1800-1900 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 161; Mary Roth Walsh, "Doctors Wanted: No Women Need Apply": Sexual Barriers in the Medical Profession, 1835-1975 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977), 145.

41. "Seeking the Remedy," Chicago Times , January 5, 1889, p. 8; "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 16, 1888, p. 9. Dr. Emilie Siegmund agreed to perform an abortion, "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 15, 1888, p. 1.

42. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 19, 1888, p. 7. Letters from P. Curran, M.D., and Birney Hand, M.D., confirmed that most women seeking abortions were married, in "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 22, 1888, p. 5.

43. "Infanticide. Retrospective Thoughts," Chicago Times , December 25, 1888, p. 1.

44. "Bring the Husbands to Book," Chicago Times , December 28, 1888, p. 1; "Seeking the Remedy," Chicago Times , January 5, 1889, p. 5. See also "A Vigorous Letter from a Woman Physician," Chicago Times , December 16, 1888,

p. 9. On nineteenth-century feminists' views, see Mohr, Abortion in America , 111-113; Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , chap. 5.

45. Reprint from Galesburg, Illinois, in "Talk About 'The Times,'" Chicago Times , December 23, 1888, p. 4; partial reprint of paper by Dr. H. H. Markham, "Seeking the Remedy, Duty of the Doctors," Chicago Times , January 1, 1889, p. 3.

46. Reprint from Chicago Medical Visitor in "Infanticide in Chicago," Chicago Times , January 23, 1889, p. 4; "The Infanticide Revelations," JAMA 12 (January 12, 1889): 55.

47. "The Infanticide Revelations," 56.

48. "He Did His Full Duty," Chicago Times , December 22, 1888, p. 5.

49. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 12, 1888, p. 1; "The Cream City Needs Just Such a Cleansing," Letter from Milwaukee, Chicago Times , December 12, 1888, p. 5; "The Devilish Crime Is Not Confined to Chicago," Chicago Times , December 22, 1888, p. 5; "An Adjunct to the Remedy," Letter from Monticello, Illinois, Chicago Times , December 31, 1888, p. 5.

50. Inez C. Philbrick, "Social Causes of Criminal Abortion," Medical Record 66 (September 24, 1904): 491; Henry W. Cattell, "Some Medico-Legal Aspects of Abortion," Bulletin of the American Academy of Medicine 8 (1907): 339; Earnest F. Oakley, "Legal Aspect of Abortion," A JOG 3 ( January 1922): 38.

51. Illinois, Public Laws of Illinois , 1867, p. 89.

52. See chapter 8 of this volume.

53 For historical analyses of the interplay between society and disease definition and treatment, see Joan Jacobs Brumberg, Fasting Girls: The Emergence of Anorexia Nervosa as a Modern Disease (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988); Allan M. Brandt, No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States Since 1880 , expanded ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987); Charles E. Rosenberg, The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962).

54. Peter J. O'Callaghan and Charles B. Reed in "Chicago Medical Society. Regular Meeting Held Nov. 23, 1904," JAMA 43 (December 17, 1904): 1890; Christian Johnson, "Therapeutic Abortion," St. Paul Medical Journal 9 (1907): 240, 241-242; Ronald L. Numbers, "A Note on Medical Education in Wisconsin," in Wisconsin Medicine: Historical Perspectives , edited by Ronald L. Numbers and Judith Walzer Leavitt (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981), 183.

55. Indications that necessitated abortion in order to preserve the pregnant woman's life included diseases of the kidneys, chronic heart or respiratory disease, eclampsia, cancers of the rectum, uterus, and breast, severe cases of rheumatism, contracted pelvis, uterine cysts, placenta previa, and pernicious anaemia. W. C. Bowers, "Justifiable Artificial Abortion and Induced Premature Labor," JAMA 33 (September 2, 1899): 568-569; E. S. McKee, "Abortion," AJO 24 (October 1891): 1333-1334; Frank A. Higgins, "The Propriety, Indications and Methods for the Termination of Pregnancy," JAMA 43 (November 19, 1904): 1531-1533.

56. Quotation from Bowers, "Justifiable Artificial Abortion," 569; phrase from R. C. Brown, "Vomiting," Cyclopedia of Medicine , edited by George Mor-

ris Piersol, vol. 12 (Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1935), 945. On vomiting in the nineteenth century, see Joseph Taber Johnson, "The Mechanical Treatment of the Vomiting of Pregnancy," JAMA 6 (March 13, 1886): 285. On the cure for this condition, see Paul Titus, "Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Treatment by Intravenous Injections of Glucose and Carbohydrate Feedings," JAMA 85 (August 15, 1925): 488-493, as cited in Kristin Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 55, 275 n. For continuing discussion, see Henricus J. Stander, Williams Obstetrics: A Textbook for the Use of Students and Practitioners , 7th ed., a revision and enlargement of the text originally written by J. Whitridge Williams (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1936), 521. The Children's Bureau found that vomiting remained an important indication for therapeutic abortions in the late 1920s, U.S. Department of Labor, Children's Bureau, Maternal Mortality in Fifteen States , Bureau publication no. 223 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1934), 108.

57. Paul Titus, "A Statistical Study of a Series of Abortions Occurring in the Obstetrical Department of the Johns Hopkins Hospital," AJO 65 (June 1912): 960-961; Taussig, Abortion, Spontaneous and Induced: Medical and Social Aspects (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1936), 281-282, see table on 282; Irving K. Perlmutter, "Analysis of Therapeutic Abortions, Bellevue Hospital 1935-1945," A JOG 53 (June 1947): 1012.

58. Joseph B. DeLee, The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics , 2d ed. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1916), 1045; E. A. Weiss, "Some Moral and Ethical Aspects of Feticide," AJO 67 (January 1913): 76, 73; Walter B. Dorsett, "Criminal Abortion in Its Broadest Sense," JAMA 51 (September 19, 1908): 957. See also Edward P. Davis, "Therapeutic Abortion," Therapeutic Gazette 43 (June 15, 1919): 389-390.

59. "Is Abortion Justifiable in the Insane Pregnant?" JAMA 38 (January 4, 1902): 69; Response in "Queries and Minor Notes. Is Abortion Justifiable in the Insane Pregnant?" JAMA 38 (January 18, 1902): 213. R. Finley Gayle commented that "older physicians" had aborted women for eugenic reasons in "The Psychiatric Consideration of Abortion," Southern Medicine and Surgery 91 (April 1929): 251. On eugenics, see Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 118-132; Mark H. Hailer, Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1963), 95-143.

60. "Pregnancy from Rape Does Not Justify Abortion," JAMA 43 (August 6, 1904): 413.

61. "Therapeutic Abortion," JAMA 92 (February 16 1929): 581.

62. H. Douglas Singer, "Mental Disease and the Induction of Abortion," JAMA 91 (December 29, 1928): 2042-2044; Gayle, "The Psychiatric Consideration of Abortion," 252-254.

63. "Pregnancy and Contracted Pelvis," JAMA 38 (February 8, 1902): 433.

63. "Pregnancy and Contracted Pelvis," JAMA 38 (February 8, 1902): 433.

64. Ibid. Professor H.J. Boldt believed that the patient with contracted pelvis should decide whether to have an abortion or a cesarean section. H.J. Boldt, "The Treatment of Abortion," JAMA 46 (March 17, 1906): 791.

65. Judith Walzer Leavitt, "The Growth of Medical Authority, Technology, and Morals in Turn-of-the-Century Obstetrics," Medical Anthropology Quarterly 1 (September 1987): 230-255; Carey Culbertson, "Therapeutic Abortion

and Sterilization," The Surgical Clinics of Chicago 1 (1917): 608; Evelyn Fine, "'Belly Ripping Has Become a Mania': A History of the Cesarean Section Operation in Twentieth Century America" (master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Department of the History of Science, 1982), 4-6, 8-12, 42.

66. On choosing the family physician, George Rosen, The Structure of American Medical Practice, 1875-1941 , edited by Charles E. Rosenberg (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983), 22. Quotations from Becker, "Medical, Ethical, and Forensic Aspects," 624; E. F. Fish, "Criminal Abortion," Milwaukee Medical Journal 17 (April 1909): 107-108. See also Dorsett, "Criminal Abortion in Its Broadest Sense," 958.

67. "The Case of Robert Thompson," JAMA 92 (February 16, 1929): 579. Similar networks in Chicago are analyzed further in chapter 5 of this volume.

68. For examples, "Medicolegal. Revocation of License for Conviction of Offense Involving Moral Turpitude," JAMA 68 (February 10, 1917): 485; "Medical News. INDIANA. Sentenced for Illegal Operation," JAMA 93 (July 13, 1929): 125.

69. Judith Walzer Leavitt has similarly argued for the importance of analyzing nineteenth-century rural medical practice in terms of its location within the domestic domain in "'A Worrying Profession': The Domestic Environment of Medical Practice in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 69 (spring 1995): 1-29.

70. Kate Simon, Bronx Primitive: Portraits in a Childhood (New York: Harper and Row, Perennial Library, 1982), 68-70, quotation on 70. From the context, I conclude that this doctor practiced during the 1920s, perhaps into the 1930s and longer. See also B. Liber, "As a Doctor Sees It," BCR 2 (February-March 1918): 10.

71. Becker, "The Medical, Ethical, and Forensic Aspects of Fatal Criminal Abortion," 624.

72. In this particular case, Aiken was convicted but appealed his case to the state Supreme Court of Illinois, which reversed the conviction and remanded it back. I do not know if he was retried. Aiken v. the People , 183 Ilk 215 (1899); Transcript of Aiken v. the People , 183 Ilk 215 (1899), Case Files, vault no. 8105, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901.

73. Denslow Lewis, "Facts Regarding Criminal Abortion," JAMA 35 (October 13, 1900): 945; Mary Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion—Its Evil and Its Sad Consequences," continued, WMJ 3 (September 1894): 66; W.W. Parker, "In Opposition to Woman Doctors in Insane Asylums," JAMA 22 (March 31, 1894): 479.

74. Rudolph W. Holmes in "Symposium on Criminal Abortion," JAMA 43 (December 17, 1904): 1891; "Criminal Advertisements," JAMA 37 (August 10, 1901): 393. Post Office officials used classified advertisements to investigate and prosecute midwives and doctors for abortion advertising in 1912. Dr. Margaret Livingston had advertised herself as a "specialist for diseases of women." See Govt. Ex. 9 in U.S. v. Margaret Livingston , November 22, 1912, Case no. 5084, Criminal Docket Book no. 8 (Criminal Case Files), Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, Record Group 21, Records of the District Courts of the United States, National Archives—Great Lakes Region, Chicago, Illinois. For

examples of nineteenth-century advertisements, see Mohr, Abortion in America , 51, 52, 54, 56, 57.

75. See Charlotte G. Borst, Catching Babies: The Professionalization of Childbirth, 1870-1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).

76. I have identified sixty-one abortionists in the Chicago area between 1890 and 1930. Thirty-eight were physicians, twenty-three midwives.

77. Grace Abbott, "The Midwife in Chicago," The American Journal of Sociology 20 (March 1915): 687. Nationally, midwives had delivered half the country's babies in 1900, but only 15 percent by 1930. Leavitt, Brought to Bed , 12, graph; Judy Barrett Litoff, American Midwives: 1860 to the Present (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978), 141.

78. In the St. Louis study, a large proportion of the abortions were self-induced (thirty, or 36 percent). I calculated the percentages from the data presented in table I in Royston. G. D. Royston, "A Statistical Study of the Causes of Abortion," AJOG 76 (October 1917): 573.

79. Marie E. Kopp, Birth Control in Practice: Analysis often Thousand Case Histories of the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau (1933; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1972), table 8.

80. Jerome E. Bates and Edward Zawadzki, appendix C in Criminal Abortion: A Study in Medical Sociology . (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1964), 202. In the last decade of this study, it is unlikely that any midwives would still have been practicing, but, unfortunately, the authors did not break down their findings by decade.

81. Caroline Hedger reported that 57 of 363 Chicago midwives (or 6 percent, my calculation) were "suspected of practicing abortion." F. Elisabeth Crowell investigated 500 New York midwives in 1906 and found 176 midwives who had been convicted of abortion or agreed to perform one (35 percent, my calculation) and suspected over half the midwives practiced abortion. The 1908 study of Chicago midwives found 49 out of 223 midwives who "agreed to operate" and concluded that "at least one-third should be classified as criminal." The Baltimore study found almost one third of the midwives (48 of 150) were "suspected of criminal practice." A 1912 study of Massachusetts found that 5 percent (5 of 91) of the midwives were suspected of performing abortions. Caroline Hedger, "Investigation of 363 Midwives in Chicago," Transactions of the American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality 3 (1912): 264, table 3; F. Elisabeth Crowell, "The Midwives of New York," Charities and the Commons 17 (January 1907): 667-677, reprint in Judy Barrett Litoff, The American Midwife Debate: A Sourcebook on Its Modern Origins (New York: Greenwood Press, 1986), 44; Rudolph W. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," JAMA 50 (April 25, 1908): 1347-1348; Mary Sherwood, "The Midwives of Baltimore," JAMA 52 (June 19, 1909): 2010; James Lincoln Huntington, "Midwives in Massachusetts," Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 167 (October 17, 1912): 547.

82. Recorded statement of Emily Projahn and testimony of Earnest Projahn, Inquest on Emily Projahn, October 10, 1916, case no. 26-12-1916, Medical Records Department.

83. Of twenty-one cases where it can be determined where the operation

occurred, all but three took place in the physician's office (which in some cases was the doctor's home). The other three were induced in hospitals run by the doctor.

84. Inquest on Viola Koepping, June 7, 1929, case no. 246-6-29, Medical Records Department.

85. People v. Rongetti 331 Ill. 581 (1928), p. 584; "Woman Confesses Murder of Baby," Chicago Daily News , [July] 1928, Abortionists Files, HHFC. See also Joseph G. Stern in Chicago Tribune , January 10, 1929, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

86. There are twenty cases with information on fees paid to Chicago doctors for abortions between 1890 and 1930. The average fee stated to prospective patients would be higher than what doctors actually received.

87. Inquest on Ester Reed, June 9, 1914, case no. 73771, Medical Records Department.

88. McKee, "Abortion," 1334; Frank A. Higgins, "The Propriety, Indications, and Methods for the Termination of Pregnancy," JAMA 43 (November 19, 1904): 1533; Frederick J. Taussig, The Prevention and Treatment of Abortion (St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1910), 91-121; Taussig, Abortion , 352-354, 322-304.

89. Ten Chicago physicians who performed abortions used instruments of some kind, perhaps uterine sounds to open the cervix or curettes to scrape out the uterus. For illustrations of instruments, see Taussig, The Prevention and Treatment of Abortion , 78, 92, 120.

90. Inquest on Edna Lamb, February 19, 1917, case no. 43-3-1917, Medical Records Department.

91. Catherine Heidman as quoted by Harry Golcher in Inquest on Elsie Golcher, February 16, 1932, case no. 225-2-32, Medical Records Department.

92. Of thirty-eight identified abortion providers in the Chicago area, twenty-seven are identified as Regulars. Five of these physicians had graduated from irregular schools, but each of them was identified as a Regular in the directory published by the AMA. I have therefore counted them as Regulars, but even if they were subtracted, the majority of the physician-abortionists in this sample would still be Regulars. That Homeopaths and Eclectics now considered themselves Regulars and the AMA described them as such, despite their education, demonstrates the process of consolidation of all sects into Regulars in the early twentieth century. Biographical data found in American Medical Directory 1912-1940 (Chicago: American Medical Association); Polk's Medical and Surgical Register of the United States (1896); Chicago Medical Society, History of Medicine and Surgery and Physicians and Surgeons of Chicago (Chicago: Biographical Publishing, 1922).

93. Mary Elizabeth Fiorenza, "Midwifery and the Law in Illinois and Wisconsin, 1877 to 1917" (master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1985), 35-36. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1346, 1347, table 1. The African American population in Chicago before World War I was small; in 1913 African Americans made up only 2.5 percent of Chicago's population. Louise DeKoven Bowen, "The Colored People of Chicago" (Juvenile Protective Association, 1913) Jane Addams Collection, reel 54, Department of Special Collections, The University Library, University of Illinois-Chicago.

94. Inquest on Rosie Kawera, June 15, 1916, case no. 152-5-1916, Medical Records Department.

95. "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 13, 1888, p. 1.

96. On the issue of refusing male physicians during childbirth, see Abbott, "The Midwife in Chicago," 685.

97. Inquest on Kawera; Inquest on Frauciszka Gawlik, February 19, 1916, case no. 27-3-1916, Medical Records Department. On this issue, see Abbott, "The Midwife in Chicago," 684-685; Litoff, American Midwives , 27-30; Eugene Declerq, "The Nature and Style of Practice of Immigrant Midwives in Early Twentieth-Century Massachusetts," Journal of Social History 19 (1985): 113-129. In Catching Babies , Charlotte Borst points out the preference of immigrant women for doctors who were either foreign-born themselves or children of the foreign-born and who understood their culture and language.

98. Hedger, "Investigation of 363 Midwives in Chicago," 264, table 3; Jane Pacht Brickman, "Public Health, Midwives, and Nurses, 1880-1930" in Nursing History: New Perspectives, New Possibilities , edited by Ellen Condliffe Lagemann (New York: Teacher's College Press, 1983), 71. I have calculated the average fee for an abortion charged by the midwives from the figures given in the 1910 report. The fees ranged from $10 to $50. Chicago Vice Commission, The Social Evil in Chicago , 225-227.

99. There were twelve cases with information on fees paid to midwives for abortions between 1900 and 1930. The range was $4 to $35, and the most frequent fee was $25.

100. Inquest on Kawera; People v. Wyherk , 347 Ill. 28 (1931), p. 30; Inquest on Matilda Olson, April 30, 1918, case no. 289-4-1918, Medical Records Department. On check-ups by midwives, see Hedger, "Investigation of 363 Midwives in Chicago," 264; Litoff, American Midwives , 28-29.

101. Chicago Vice Commission, The Social Evil in Chicago , 225; Inquest on Esther Stark, June 12, 1917, case no. 65-6-1917, Medical Records Department. Also see Inquest on Bertha Dombrowski, February 23, 1917, case no. 223-3-1917, Medical Records Department; Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1349.

102. Chicago Vice Commission, The Social Evil in Chicago , 225-227.

103. First quotation is in Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1349. Last quotation is in testimony of Robert Crelly in Inquest on Kissell. See also Abbott, "The Midwife in Chicago," 691; People v. Patrick , 277 Ill. 210 (1917), p. 212; "Officials Plan Fight to Curb Abortion Evil," n.p., June 7, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

104. Quotations from Transcript of People v. Wyherk , 347 Ill. 28 (1931) Case Files, vault no. 45804, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901; Styskal in Inquest on Margaret B. Winter, November 13, 1916, case no. 274-11-1916, Medical Records Department; Haisler in Inquest on Catherine Mau, March 12, 1928, case no. 390-3-1928, Medical Records Department.

105. Litoff, American Midwives , 139. For a table showing the national distribution of midwives, see Louis S. Reed, Midwives, Chiropodists, and Optometrists: Their Place in Medical Care (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932), 5-6, 67, table 1A.

106. Cook County Coroner's Quadrennial Report, 1908-1922 , p. 20, Municipal Reference Collection.

107. Maternal Mortality in Fifteen States , 103.

108. Transcript of People v. Hagenow , 236 Ill. 514 (1908), Case Files, vault no. 31202, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901; People v. Hagenow , 334 Ill. 341 (1929). I do not know how long Hagenow was in prison, but in 1907 she had been convicted and sentenced to twenty years imprisonment (a conviction upheld by the Illinois State Supreme Court).

109. On maternal mortality see Irvine Loudon, "Maternal Mortality: 1880-1950. Some Regional and International Comparisons," Social History of Medicine 1 (August 1988): 186, figure A, 210-211; Joyce Antler and Daniel M. Fox, "The Movement toward a Safe Maternity: Physician Accountability in New York City, 1915-1940," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 50 (1976): 569-595, reprint in Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health , edited by Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978), 375-376, 386. For a different view of how trends in maternal mortality changed over time, see Edward Shorter, A History of Women's Bodies (New York: Basic Books, 1982), 130-138, 193-195.

110. The 14. percent figure is the sum of abortions categorized in the study as "induced," which includes both self-induced abortions and "criminal" abortions induced by others (11 percent), and those counted as "type not reported" (3 percent) because the researchers suspected that the latter were also induced abortions. It is a mistake to assume as some scholars have that illegal abortions were responsible for the total proportion of maternal deaths assigned to abortion (25 percent), because this total includes deaths following spontaneous abortions, or miscarriages (8 percent), and deaths following therapeutic abortions (3 percent). These latter figures show the dangers of medical intervention. The report discusses the problem of physicians curetting when they should not. Furthermore, it is incorrect to assume that all septic abortion cases were illegal abortions, because physicians responding to spontaneous abortions or performing therapeutic abortions also introduced infections and caused deaths. Finally, the international classification list of maternal mortality cannot be relied upon either because of the way it assigned abortions to other causes and included cases that should not have been. The handful of "certified" criminal abortions were assigned to "homicide." Maternal Mortality in Fifteen States , 103-115.

111. Dorothy Reed Mendenhall, "Prenatal and Natal Conditions in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Medical Journal 15 (March 1917): 353, as cited in Leavitt, Brought to Bed , 56-57, 231 n; Antler and Fox, "The Movement toward a Safe Maternity," 381; Charles R. King, "The New York Maternal Mortality Study: A Conflict of Professionalization," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 65 (winter 1991): 482, 484, 489; Shorter concludes that midwives and doctors were "about equally septic" in attending deliveries, in A History of Women's Bodies , 137. Loudon finds that home deliveries tended to be safer, whether by M.D. or midwife, than hospital deliveries, in "Maternal Mortality," 219-221.

112. Cook County data in "Officials Plan Fight to Curb Abortion Evil," June 7, 1915, no name of newspaper, Abortionists Files, HHFC; Becker, "The Medical, Ethical, and Forensic Aspects of Fatal Criminal Abortion," 620; Calvin Schmid, Social Saga of Two Cities: An Ecological and Statistical Study of

Social Trends in Minneapolis and St. Paul (Minneapolis: Minneapolis Council of Social Agencies, 1937), 410-411.

113. Taussig, Abortion , 222-238, quotation on 22-226. Taussig believed nonphysicians to be more responsible for infections. Taussig summarizes the history of the debate around curetting as a treatment for miscarriage and criminal abortion cases on pages 156-158. Specialists disagreed over whether or not to intervene and whether to use the curette or other methods. Some believed too many general practitioners lacked gynecological expertise, yet actively intervened in all abortion cases with the curetee. H.J. Boldt, "The Treatment of Abortion," JAMA 46 (March 17, 1906): 792; Discussion of Frederick J. Taussig, "What Shall We Teach the General Practitioner Concerning the Treatment of Abortion?" JAMA 52 (May 8, 1909): 1530-1531.

114. Lester C. Hall in Frank A. Higgins, "The Propriety, Indications, and Methods for the Termination of Pregnancy," 1534. The experience of abortion in the Soviet Union, which legalized abortion in 1920, showed that abortion could be safe. Paul Lublinsky, "Birth Control in Soviet Russia," BCR 12 (May 1928): 143; Frederick J. Taussig, "The Abortion Problem in Russia," AJOG 22 (July 1931): 134-139.

115. Rosemary Stevens, American Medicine and the Public Interest (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), 78-82, 96, 127-128; Ronald L. Numbers, Almost Persuaded: American Physicians and Compulsory Health Insurance, 1912-1920 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 4-5; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , 163-168.

116. Others have made this argument about attendants during childbirth; Antler and Fox, "The Movement toward a Safe Maternity," 375-392; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , chap. 6; King, "The New York Maternal Mortality Study," 484-, 489-491. Today, legal abortion is much safer than childbirth. The Centers for Disease Control reported that the risk of a woman dying as a result of childbirth was seven times higher than the risk of a woman who had an abortion. Cited in Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, Abortion and Woman's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom , rev. ed. (1984; reprint Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990), 310.

1. Joseph Taber Johnson, "Abortion and Its Effects," AJO 33 (January 1896): 86-97; James Foster Scott, "Criminal Abortion," AJO 33 (January 1896): 72-86, discussion, 118-132.

2. The phrase is Kristin Luker's, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), chap. 3-5.

3. On specialists, see Charlotte G. Borst, "The Professionalization of Obstetrics: Childbirth Becomes a Medical Specialty," in Women, Health, and Medicine in America: A Historical Handbook , edited by Rima D. Apple (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990), 197-216; Frances E. Kobrin, "The American Midwife Controversy: A Crisis of Professionalization," in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings , edited by Judith Walzer Leavitt (Madison: University. of Wisconsin Press, 1984), 318-326.

4. The section was renamed several times after it was formed in 1860. Harold Speert, Obstetrics and Gynecology in America: A History (Chicago: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1980), 115-116.

5. J. Milton Duff, "Chairman's Address," JAMA 21 (August 26, 1893): 292; C. S. Bacon, "The Legal Responsibility of the Physician for the Unborn Child," JAMA 46 (June 30, 1906): 1981-1984; Walter B. Dorsett, "Criminal Abortion in Its Broadest Sense," JAMA 51 (September 19, 1908): 957-961; H. G. Wether-ill, "Retrospection and Introspection: Our Opportunities and Obligations," Transactions of the Section on Obstetrics and Diseases of Women of the American Medical Association ( 1911 ), 17-31.

6. See the introduction, this volume; James C. Mohr, Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy, 1800-1900 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 78, 147-170.

7. Duff, "Chairman's Address," 292.

8. James C. Mohr has also examined the attempts to suppress abortion in Chicago in the 1900s, "Patterns of Abortion and the Response of American Physicians, 1970-1930," in Leavitt, Women and Health in America , 119-120.

9. Meeting of January 12, 1904, Council Minutes, 1903-1905, vol. 19, Chicago Medical Society Records, Archives and Manuscripts Department, Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, Illinois. For biographical information, see Rudolph W. Holmes, Deceased Physician Master File, AMA; Charles Sumner Bacon, Deceased Physician Master File; C. S. Bacon, "Failures of Midwives in Asepsis," JAMA 28 (February 6, 1897): 247; Charles B. Reed, Deceased Physicians Master File.

10. This is based on my reading of the Journal of the National Medical Association (JNMA ) from 1909 through 1973, vol. 1-65. For black women seeking abortions from black doctors, see J. W. Walker in discussion of Val Do Turner, "Fertility of Women," JNMA 5 (October-December 1913): 250. For an antiabortion article, see Barnett M. Rhetta, "A Plea for the Lives of the Unborn," JNMA 7 (July-September 1915): 292.

11. Charles B. Reed, "Therapeutic and Criminal Abortion," Illinois Medical Journal 7 (January 1905): 27.

12. Mary A. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion—Its Evils and Its Sad Consequences," WMJ 3 (August 1894): 34—38, quotation on 34.; Mary A. Dixon-Jones, "Criminal Abortion—Its Evils and Its Sad Consequences" continued, WMJ 3 (September 1894): 61, quotation on 60; remark of A. McDermid in George J. Engelmann, "The Increasing Sterility of American Women," JAMA 37 (October 5, 1901): 896-897.

13. E. E. Hume in C. J. Aud, "In What Per Cent, Is the Regular Profession Responsible for Criminal Abortions, and What is the Remedy.?" Kentucky Medical Journal 2 (September 1904.): 100; William McCollum called for "missionary work" in this area in "Criminal Abortion," JAMA 26 (February 8, 1896): 258.

14. Dr. Stuver in Minnie C. T. Love, "Criminal Abortion," Colorado Medicine 1 (1903-1904.): 60.

15. "Chicago Medical Society. Regular Meeting, Held Nov. 23, 1904. Symposium on Criminal Abortion," JAMA 43 (December 17, 1904): 1891. See also J. L. Andrews, "The Greatly Increased Frequency of the Occurrence of Abor-

tion, as Shown by Reports from Memphis Physicians: An Essay on the Causes for the Same," Transactions of the Tennessee State Medical Association 72 (1905): 136.

16. C.P. McNabb and others in Andrews, "The Greatly Increased Frequency oft he Occurrence of Abortion," 139-142. In the I888 investigation of abortion in Chicago, many physicians suggested that the woman marry, for example, Dr. J. Harvey, "Infanticide," Chicago Times , December 2l, 1888, p. 1.

17. Meeting of January 12, 1904, Chicago Medical Society Records; "Chicago Medical Society. Regular Meeting, Held Nov. 23, 1904. Symposium on Criminal Abortion," 1889; Meeting of October 1905, Council Minutes, October 1905-July 1907, vol. 20, Chicago Medical Society Records. Apparently this event did not attract local press; neither the Chicago Tribune , November 20-26,1904, nor the Chicago Record-Herald , November 21-26, 1904, covered it.

18. Frederick J. Taussig, The Prevention and Treatment of Abortion (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1910), 79. For discussions of the contemporary importance of the deployment of fetal images, see Rosalind Petchesky, "Fetal Images: The Power of Visual Culture in the Politics of Reproduction," Feminist Studies 13 (summer 1987): 263-292; Barbara Duden, Disembodying Women: Perspectives on Pregnancy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993).

19. For example, "Little Jane's Tragedy Typical of Hundreds Who Disappear Here," Chicago Examiner , March 3, 1918; Abortionists Files, HHFC.

20. David M. Kennedy, Birth Control in America: The Career of Margaret Sanger (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970), 191.

21. Phrase in Frank H. Jackson, "Criminal Abortion. Its Prevalence, Results, and Treatment," AJOG 58 (October 1908): 663; and Palmer Findley "The Slaughter of the Innocents," AJOG 3 (January-June 1922): 36.

22. Wilmer Krusen, "The Indications for Therapeutic Abortion, with Consideration of the Rights of the Unborn Child," The Therapeutic Gazette 34. (March 15, 1910): 163.

23. Duff, "Chairman's Address," 292.

24. Jackson, "Criminal Abortion," 662, 663, 669. On private efforts and calls to purge the profession, see McCollum, "Criminal Abortion," 259; Aud, "In What Per Cent," 96.

25. Edward W. Pinkham, "The Treatment of Septic Abortion, with a Few Remarks on the Ethics of Criminal Abortion," AJO 61 (March 1910): 420; Meetings of Jan 9, 1912 and March 12, 1912, Council Minutes, October 1911-June 1912, vol. 25, Chicago Medical Society Records.

26. Meeting of January 10, 1911, Council Minutes, 1911-1912, vol. 25, Chicago Medical Society Records.

27. "Chicago Medical Society. Regular Meeting, Held Nov. 23, 1904. Symposium on Criminal Abortion," 1891; Report of Dr. Rudolph Holmes, Meeting of October 9, 1906, Council Minutes, October 1905-July 1907, vol. 20, Chicago Medical Society Records.

28. Report of Dr. Parkes, Meeting of January 9, 1912, 55-56, Chicago Medical Society Records.

29. On antiabortion activities in Philadelphia and New York, see Henry W.

Cattell, "Some Medico-Legal Aspects of Abortion," Bulletin of the American Academy of Medicine 8 (1907): 338-340, quotation on 339. See chapter 4 for analysis of coroner's inquests.

30. Report of Dr. Holmes, Meeting of October 9, 1906, Chicago Medical Society Records; Meeting of December 13, 1906, Board of Trustees Minutes, May 1903-07, vol. 14, Chicago Medical Society Records.

31. J. Henry Barbat, "Criminal Abortion," California State Journal of Medicine 9 (February 1911): 69.

32. For numerous examples of correspondence between physicians, businesses, government agencies, and the Bureau of Investigation, see Abortifacient Files, HHFC.

33. B.O. Hailing Report on AMA Bureau of Investigation, July 14, 1938, Bureau of Investigation File, HHFC; W. L. Taggart, Trial Attorney for Federal Trade Commission to AMA, August 24, 1937, Abortifacient Files, HHFC. The Los Angeles County Medical Association and the AMA's Bureau of Investigation worked with California district attorneys, Board of Medical Examiners, and special agents in the 1934 to 1940 investigation and prosecution of the "Pacific Coast Abortion Ring," Pacific Coast Abortion Ring File, HHFC.

34. Comment by R.W. Holmes in Dorsett, "Criminal Abortion in Its Broadest Sense," 960.

35. Report of Dr. Carey Culbertson, Meeting of January 10, 1911, Chicago Medical Society Records.

36. Report of Dr. Parkes, Meeting of January 9, 1912, p. 53, Chicago Medical Society Records.

37. Resolution proposed in Dorsett, "Criminal Abortion in Its Broadest Sense," 958-959; JAMA Proceedings of the Fifty-Ninth Annual Session Held at Chicago (June 1-5, 1908): 40-41, 45, quotations on 40.

38. Kobrin, "The American Midwife Controversy," 318-326; Judy Barrett Litoff, American Midwives: 1860 to the Present (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978).

39. F. Elisabeth Crowell, "The Midwives of New York," Charities and the Commons 17 (January 1907): 667-677; reprint, in Judy Barrett Litoff, ed., The American Midwife Debate: A Sourcebook on Its Modern Origins (New York: Greenwood Press, 1986), 45.

40. Charles R. King, "The New York Maternal Mortality Study: A Conflict of Professionalization," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 65 (winter 1991): 476-480; Speert, Obstetrics and Gynecology in America; Judith Walzer Leavitt, Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750-1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), chaps. 2, 6, 7; Litoff, The American Midwife Debate , 6-7.

41. King, "New York Maternal Mortality Study," 483-485, 495.

42. Brickman alone noted that the charge of abortion was a way to degrade midwives; Jane Pacht Brickman, "Public Health, Midwives, and Nurses, 1880-1930," in Nursing History: New Perspectives, New Possibilities , edited by Ellen Condliffe Lagemann (New York: Teacher's College, Columbia University Press, 1983), 69. For an overview of the history of midwives, see Judy Barrett Litoff, "Midwives and History," in Apple, Women, Health, and Medicine in America , 443-458. On midwife practices, see Charlotte G. Borst, Catching Babies: The Professionalization of Childbirth, 1870-1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Uni-

versity Press, 1995); Eugene R. Declercq, "The Nature and Style of Practice of Immigrant Midwives in Early Twentieth Century Massachusetts," Journal of Social History 19 (1985): 113-129. On African American midwives, see Susan L. Smith, "White Nurses, Black Midwives, and Public Health in Mississippi, 1920-1950," Nursing History Review 2 (1994): 29-49; Ruth C. Schaffer, "The Health and Social Functions of Black Midwives on the Texas Brazos Bottom, 1920-1985," Rural Sociology 56 (spring 1992): 89-105; Molly Ladd-Taylor, "'Grannies' and 'Spinsters': Midwife Education Under the Sheppard-Towner Act," Journal of Social History 22 (1988): 255- 275; Debra Anne Susie, In the Way of Our Grandmothers: A Cultural View of Twentieth-Century Midwifery in Florida (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988); Sharon A. Robinson, "A Historical Development of Midwifery in the Black Community: 1600-1940," Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 29 (July-August 1984): 247-250.

43. On the Progressive Era, see Alan Dawley, Struggles for Justice: Social Responsibility and the Liberal State (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1991); Noralee Frankel and Nancy S. Dye, eds., Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1991); Paul Boyer, Urban Masses and Moral Order in America, 1820-1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), 123-292; Robert Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877-1920 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1967).

44. Rudolph W. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," JAMA 50 (April 25, 1908): 1347, 1346; see also Edward A. Ayers et al., "Report of the Committee on 'The Practice of Obstetrics by Midwives,'" Medical Record 44 (December 9, 1893): 767; Thomas Darlington, "The Present Status of the Midwife," AJO 63 (May 1911): 874; Ralph Waldo Lobenstine, "The Influence of the Midwife upon Infant and Maternal Morbidity and Mortality," AJO 63 (May 1911): 878; Kobrin, "The American Midwife Controversy."

45. Robyn Muncy, Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890-1935 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991); Molly Ladd-Taylor, "Hull House Goes to Washington: Women and the Children's Bureau," in Frankel and Dye, Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era , 110-126; Thomas Neville Bonner, Medicine in Chicago, 1850-1950: A Chapter in the Social and Scientific Development of a City , 2d ed. (1957; Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 84-107.

46. Ruth Rosen, The Lost Sisterhood: Prostitution in America, 1900-1918 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982); Allan M. Brandt, No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States Since 1880 , expanded ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987); Joanne J. Meyerowitz, Women Adrift: Independent Wage Earners in Chicago, 1880-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988); Kathy Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986); Mary E. Odem, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995); Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: Birth Control in America , rev. and updated (1976; reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1990), chap. 7; John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 171-235.

47. Eliza H. Root, "The Status of Obstetrics in General Practice," in Transactions of the First Pan-American Medical Congress , part 1 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1895), 901-904. I learned of this event through an entry in Women in Medicine: A Bibliography of the Literature on Women Physicians , edited by Sandra L. Chaff et al. (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1977), 293.

48. Root, "The Status of Obstetrics in General Practice," 904.-905.

48. Root, "The Status of Obstetrics in General Practice," 904.-905.

49. Ibid., 904. On Stevenson, see Regina Markell Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in American Medicine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 232-233.

50. Ella M.S. Marble, "The First Pan-American Medical Congress—Some of the Women Who Took Part," WMJ 1 (October 1893): 199.

51. Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science , 47-65, 216-228.

52. Letter from Sarah Hackett Stevenson, Chicago Times , December 23, 1888, p. 11; Elizabeth Jarrett, "The Midwife or the Woman Doctor," Medical Record 54. (October 22 1898): 610-611. See also Georgina Grothan, "Evil Pratrices of the So-Called Midwife," Omaha Clinic 7 (1895-1896): 175-180. A handful of physicians, female and male, defended midwives or advocated their training. Comments of Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi as recorded in "Special Meeting, January 31, 1898. Discussion on Proposed Legislation against Midwives," Medical Record 53 (February 5, 1898 210; Litoff, American Midwives , 34-37.

53. Litoff notes that few historians of midwifery ever suggested that the campaign to control midwives was a plot of male physicians against women, though others have summarized the history in this way. Litoff, "Midwives and History," 446-447, 451. Robyn Muncy and Molly Ladd-Taylor discuss the relationship between reformers and midwives at later dates; Muncy, Creating a Female Dominion , 115-119; Ladd-Taylor,"'Grannies' and 'Spinsters,'" 255-275.

54. Mohr, Abortion in America , 94-95, 102-118, 168-169, 188, 216; Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, Abortion and Woman's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom , rev. ed. (1984.; Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990), 82-83. While middle-class married women still pressed physicians for abortions (often successfully), the new campaign paid little attention to these women or their doctors.

55. C.S. Bacon, "The Midwife Question in America," JAMA 29 (November 27, 1897): 1091. The last quotation is in C. S. Bacon, "Failures of Midwives in Asepsis," 247.

56. When New York regulated midwives in 1906, it was not "the first" to do so, as claimed by the New York doctors cited in Joyce Antler and Daniel M. Fox, "The Movement toward a Safe Maternity: Physician Accountability in New York City, 1915-1940," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 50 (1976): 569-595; reprint in Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health , edited by Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978), 379. Litoff suggests that the debates began in about 1910 and, also, that by 1910 the debate had become "fierce" and that it was at its "height . . . between 1910 and 1920." My reading of the medical literature suggests that the latter assessment is correct, but that the debates began in the 1890s. Litoff, American Midwives , 64, 137, 138, 140.

57. Bacon, "Failures of Midwives in Asepsis," 247-248.

58. All quotations from Bacon, "The Midwife Question," 1091; see also Kobrin, "The American Midwife Controversy."

59. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1346.

59. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1346.

60. Ibid. On the public-health work of women physicians, see Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science , 296-302. On the public-health activism of organized women, see Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House, with Autobiographical Notes (1910; reprint, New York: The New American Library, 1938); Molly Ladd-Taylor, Mother-Work: Women, Child Welfare, and the State, 1890-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994); Judith Walzer Leavitt, The Healthiest City: Milwaukee and the Politics of Health Reform (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982), chap. 6; Suellen M. Hoy,"'Municipal Housekeeping': The Role of Women in Improving Urban Sanitation Practices, 1880-1917," in Pollution and Reform in American Cities, 1870-1930 , edited by Martin Melosi (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980), 173-198.

61. On Herbert Stowe, see Entry for Herbert Marion Stowe, American Medical Directory 1918 , 6th ed. (Chicago: Press oft he American Medical Association, 1918), 473. On Alice Hamilton, see Entry for Alice Hamilton by Barbara Sicherman in Notable American Women: The Modern Period: A Biographical Dictionary , edited by Barbara Sicherman et al. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1980), 303-306. On Caroline Hedger, see entry for Caroline Hedger, American Medical Directory 1918 , 448; Mary Riggs Noble, "The Women Doctors of the Children's Bureau," Medical Woman's Journal 40 (January 1933): 5-10, cited in Chaff et al, Women in Medicine . In 1918, perhaps earlier, Drs. Hedger and Stowe shared an office in downtown Chicago. I am grateful to Lynne Curry for informing me that Hedger worked primarily with the University of Chicago Settlement House.

62. I have calculated the percentage from the figures provided by Crowell. Because of the difficulty of winning convictions for abortion, the New York County Medical Society's attorney pursued midwives suspected of abortion by initiating legal actions against them for "practicing medicine illegally." Seventy-one midwives had been convicted on this charge in five years of work. Crowell, "The Midwives of New York," 44. (Crowell's first name is spelled differently in "The Midwives of New York" and Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago.") J. Milton Mabbott, "The Regulation of Midwives in New York," AJO 55 (April 1907): 516-517.

63. Mary Sherwood, "The Midwives of Baltimore: A Report to the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland," JAMA 52 (June 19, 1909): 2009-2010.

64. Two hundred twenty-three Chicago midwives were investigated. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1346-1349, quotations, in order,on 1346, 1348, 1347, 1349.

64. Two hundred twenty-three Chicago midwives were investigated. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1346-1349, quotations, in order,on 1346, 1348, 1347, 1349.

65. Ibid., 1348, 1349.

64. Two hundred twenty-three Chicago midwives were investigated. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1346-1349, quotations, in order,on 1346, 1348, 1347, 1349.

66. Ibid., 1349.

64. Two hundred twenty-three Chicago midwives were investigated. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1346-1349, quotations, in order,on 1346, 1348, 1347, 1349.

67. Ibid., 1346.

64. Two hundred twenty-three Chicago midwives were investigated. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," 1346-1349, quotations, in order,on 1346, 1348, 1347, 1349.

68. Ibid., 1350.

69. Illinois Medicine and Surgery Act, in Illinois, All the Laws of Illinois , 1899, sec. 10, p. 216. This is not to say that physicians had nothing to fear when they got involved in illegal abortion; see chapter 4, this volume.

70. S. Josephine Baker, Fighting For Life (New York: Macmillan, 1939), 114-115; Leavitt, Brought to Bed , 63, chap. 4. Some physicians thought that the birthing women seen by midwives rightfully belonged to medical students and might be the solution to the poor obstetrical education of physicians. Dr. S. Josephine Baker criticized this idea in "The Function of the Midwife," WMJ 23 (September 1913): 197.

71. "Seeks New Nurse Law," Chicago Record-Herald , April 25, 1908, p. 16. The hospital ordinance was revised June 1, 1908. Report of the Department of Health, 1907-1910 , pp. 193-196, Municipal Reference Collection, Chicago Public Library, Chicago, Illinois. On private hospitals, see Morris J. Vogel, The Invention of the Modern Hospital, Boston, 1870-1930 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 102-103.

72. "Women Press Charges against an Attorney," Chicago Record-Herald , September 3, 1910, p. 9; "Boy in 'Hobble' Skirt Spies upon Midwives," Chicago Record-Herald , September 17, 1910, p. 18. I have not been able to locate these affidavits.

73. "Boy in 'Hobble' Skirt Spies upon Midwives."

73. "Boy in 'Hobble' Skirt Spies upon Midwives."

74. Ibid.

75. Historians have discovered only one other instance of turn-of-the-century midwife organization: St. Louis midwives formed the Scientific Association of Midwives; Litoff, American Midwives , 39-41.

76. Litoff, American Midwives , 106-107, 140; Litoff, The American Midwife Debate , 7, 9. Although midwives may have sporadically organized in their own interest, as in Chicago, they did not turn their calling into a profession. On this point, see Borst, Catching Babies . James R. Barrett makes a similar critique of historians' assumptions about divisions within the working class and shows how workers of different ethnic groups sometimes organized together in "Unity and Fragmentation: Class, Race, and Ethnicity on Chicago's South Side, 1900-1922," Journal of Social History 18 (September 1984): 37-55.

77. Vice Commission of Chicago, The Social Evil in Chicago. A Study of Existing Conditions with Recommendations by the Vice Commission of Chicago (1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1970), 225, 223. The Commission investigated midwives in November 1910.

77. Vice Commission of Chicago, The Social Evil in Chicago. A Study of Existing Conditions with Recommendations by the Vice Commission of Chicago (1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1970), 225, 223. The Commission investigated midwives in November 1910.

78. Ibid., quotations in order on 226, 225, 223. Judith R. Walkowitz analyzes how Victorians connected prostitution, abortion, and same-sex relationships in "Dangerous Sexualities," in A History of Women in the West: Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War , vol. 4, edited by Genevieve Fraisse and Michelle Perrot (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 369-398.

79. Grace Abbott, "The Midwife in Chicago," American Journal of Sociology 20 (March 1915: 685-686. Dr. Rudolph W. Holmes later commented that the 1896 rules for midwives were "the best system for the control of midwife practice ever devised in this country," but only a few midwives ever registered. The regulations "were never rescinded—they merely fell by the wayside." Rudolph W. Holmes, "Midwife Practice—An Anachronism," Illinois Medical Journal 38 (January 1920): 30. On Grace Abbott, see the entry by Jill Ker Conway in Notable American Women 1607-1950, A Biographical Dictionary , vol. 1,

edited by Edward T James (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971), 2-4; Lela B. Costin, Two Sisters for Social Justice: A Biography of Grace and Edith Abbott (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983).

80. Abbott, "The Midwife in Chicago," 684—686, 692-694, quotations on 684, 694.

80. Abbott, "The Midwife in Chicago," 684—686, 692-694, quotations on 684, 694.

81. Ibid., 689-699, quotation on 699; Mary Elizabeth Fiorenza, "Midwifery and the Law in Illinois and Wisconsin, 1877-1917" (master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1985), 45-46. On medical education in obstetrics, see Virginia G. Drachman, "The Loomis Trial: Social Mores and Obstetrics in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," Health Care in America , edited by Susan Reverby and David Rosner (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979), 67-83; reprint, in Leavitt, Women and Health in America , 166-174.

82. "Jurors Hold Shavers for Girl Murder," Chicago Daily Tribune , May 29, 1915, pp. 1, 4, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Raid," [1915], n.p., Abortionists Files, HHFC; "End Baby Murder, Cry from Public," Herald , May 31, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

83. Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science , 188-189; Mohr, Abortion in America , 161.

84. On the city and sexual danger for women, see Meyerowitz, Women Adrift; Peiss, Cheap Amusements , chap. 7; Odem, Delinquent Daughters; Ellen Carol Dubois and Linda Gordon, "Seeking Ecstasy on the Battlefield: Danger and Pleasure in Nineteenth-Century Feminist Sexual Thought," Feminist Studies 9 (spring 1983): 7-25; Walkowitz, "Dangerous Sexualities;" Judith R. Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992). On sexuality and the city, see Jean-Christophe Agnew, "Times Square: Secularization and Sacralization," in Inventing Times Square: Commerce and Culture at the Crossroads of the World , edited by William R. Taylor (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1991), 2-13; Timothy J. Gilfoyle, "Policing of Sexuality," in Taylor, Inventing Times Square , 297-314; George Chauncey Jr., "The Policed: Gay Men's Strategies of Everyday Resistance," in Taylor, Inventing Times Square , 315-328; Laurence Senelick, "Private Parts in Public Places," in Taylor, Inventing Times Square , 329-353.

85. "End Murders by Abortion, Council Order," Chicago Tribune , June 2, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Jurors Hold Shavers for Girl Murder," Abortionists Files, HHFC.

86. In 1913, for example, of one hundred abortion deaths investigated by the Cook County Coroner, the coroner listed twelve as "criminal" cases, eight "accidental," five "spontaneous" (miscarriages), thirty-three "self-induced," and forty-two "undetermined." Many of the undetermined may have been criminal abortions as well, but the point is that the press coverage of abortion overemphasized the fatalities of criminal abortion by including miscarriages and other abortions. Cook County. Coroner, Biennial Report , 1918-1919, p. 79, Municipal Reference Collection; Cook County Coroner, Biennial Report , 1912-1913, p. 80, Municipal Reference Collection. On the marital status of women who had abortions, see Cook County Coroner, Biennial Report , 1918-1919, p. 78; and chapter I of this volume.

87. "Coroner Starts War on Wildcat 'Homes,'" Chicago News , May 29, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Abortion Lairs Facing Clean-Up by Authorities," Chicago Herald , May 30, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Court Denies Divorce to Woman Aborter," Chicago Daily Tribune , June 1, 1915, p. 6, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

88. "Hostetter's [sic] Last Letter to Girl Who Was Quack Victim," n.p., May 28, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Jurors Hold Shavers for Girl Murder"; "Body of Slain Gift Robbed, Fiance Claims," Chicago Post , May 29, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Death Threat to Hostetler," Chicago Tribune , June 5, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

89. "Officials Plan Fight to Curb Abortion Evil," n.p., June 7, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

90. "Abortion Lairs Facing Clean-Up by Authorities."

91. "Officials Plan Fight to Curb Abortion Evil?'

92. "Abortion Lairs Facing Clean-up by Authorities;" "End Baby Murder," Chicago Herald , May 31, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

93. The first mention that I have seen of any group supporting the exposure of abortion in Chicago mentions the city's "women's organizations" only, in "Death of Girl Perils Schools for Abortions," n.p., May 28, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

94. "End Baby Murder." See also "Alderman to Ask Probe of Quack Homes," Chicago Tribune , May 30, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

95. "Body of Slain Girl Robbed, Fiance Claims."

96. "End Baby Murder."

97. "Letters to 'Tribune' Expose Abortion Crimes," Chicago Daily Tribune , June 3, 1915, p. 4, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

98. All quotations in "Abortion Lairs Facing Clean-Up by Authorities."

99. "Crusade against Infant Murders Grows Rapidly," Chicago Herald , June 2, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

99. "Crusade against Infant Murders Grows Rapidly," Chicago Herald , June 2, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

100. Ibid.; Chicago City Council, Proceedings, 1916-1917 , vol. 1, p. 459, Municipal Reference Collection.

101. "Officials Unite to End Practice of Baby Murder," Chicago Herald , June 6, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "End Murders by Abortions."

102. Quotations in "Officials Plan Fight to Curb Abortion Evil," "End Murders by Abortion."

103. "Officials Plan Fight to Curb Abortion Evil;" Abbott's report was summarized in "End Baby Murder;" Fiorenza, "Midwifery and the Law in Illinois and Wisconsin," 45-46.

104. "Practice of Medicine-Act of 1899 Amended," in Illinois, Laws of Illinois 1915, p. 504. I am grateful to Elaine Shemoney Evans of the Illinois State Archives for finding this for me. Chicago Department of Police, Annual Report , 1878-1916, Municipal Reference Collection. Who fired the gun at Johnson's head and why was never clarified. "Fears Public Opinion in Abortion Cases," Chicago Sunday Herald , June 6, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Woman Doctor is Convicted," Chicago News , March 10, 1916, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

105. Inquest on Edna M. Lamb, February 19, 1917, case no. 43-3-1917, Medical Records Department.

106. Frank Alby in Inquest on Emma Alby, September 11, 1915, case no. 141-10-1915, Medical Records Department. By 1918, Dr. Windmueller was listed as a specialist in laryngology and rhinology. Entry for Charles R. A. Windmueller, American Medical Directory, 1918 , 479.

107. My thanks to Robert E. Bailey and Elaine Evans at the Illinois State Archives who searched the Chicago City Council files for 1915 and found no reports or investigations on midwives. Chicago Department of Police, Annual Report , 1916, Municipal Reference Collection.

108. "'Dr.' Benn Put on Trial as Woman's Slayer," Chicago Examiner , March 5, 1918, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

109. Findley, "The Slaughter of the Innocents," 35-36.

109. Findley, "The Slaughter of the Innocents," 35-36.

110. Ibid., 36.

111. Brickman makes a slightly different but complementary argument about the relationship between the medical profession's attack on midwifery and the Sheppard-Towner Act and public-health efforts in general in her excellent article, "Public Health, Midwives, and Nurses," 66-67, 76-77. On the Sheppard-Towner Act, see J. Stanley Lemons, The Woman Citizen: Social Feminism in the 1920s (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973), chap 6; Rosemary Stevens, American Medicine and the Public Interest (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), 143-144, 200; Ladd-Taylor, Mother-Work; Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science , 296-303. On the medical profession and national health insurance, see Ronald L. Numbers, Almost Persuaded: American Physicians and Compulsory Health Insurance, 1912-1920 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1978).

112. Kobrin and Litoff have divided the people in the midwife debate as either opponents of midwives who favored their abolition or proponents who, as Kobrin described it, took "the public health approach." Kobrin, "The American Midwife Controversy," 320; Litoff, American Midwives , chaps. 5, 6. I have found it difficult to determine to which side various doctors and commentators belonged; they often seem to fall in both camps. Individuals' positions could change over time from a negative view of midwives to a more positive view, a change that seems to have been true for female and male physicians most dedicated to public-health work. For example, Dr. S. Josephine Baker's attitude was transformed as she worked to improve maternal and infant health in New York City. S. Josephine Baker, "The Function of the Midwife," 196-197. Nancy Schrom Dye finds a similar change in attitude among dispensary physicians who came to know midwives in New York City in the 1890s. "But," she observes, "obstetricians' professional identity and prestige . . . depended upon the attainment and exercise of unilateral authority. To cooperate with a midwife, or to share responsibility with her, was professionally untenable." "Modem Obstetrics and Working-Class Women: The New York Midwifery Dispensary, 1890-1920," Journal of Social History 20 (spring 1987): 554.

113. Lemons, The Woman Citizen , 169; Costin, Two Sisters for Social Justice , 142; Bonner, Medicine in Chicago , 140-141, 218-220, 222; Lynne Elizabeth Curry, "Modem Mothers in the Heartland: Maternal and Child Health Reform in Illinois, 1900-1930" (Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1995). I am grateful to Lynne Curry for sharing with me the names of physicians who supported the Sheppard-Towner Act.

114. Margaret Sanger, "Why Not Birth Control Clinics in America?" BCR 3 (May 1919): 10.

115. Rudolph W. Holmes, chair of the Chicago Medical Society Criminal Abortion Committee, worked with a committee of the Chicago Gynecological Society to oppose birth control clinics and the provision of birth control to the general public. See letter from Rudolph W. Holmes, Joseph L. Haer, and N. Sproat Heaney, "Correspondence. The Regulation of Conception," Illinois Medical Journal 43 (March 1923): 193. Dr. Henry W. Cattell of Philadelphia, an antiabortion activist early in the century, testified at a Congressional Hearing in 1931 against a bill granting doctors the right to dispense birth control. Cattell, "Some Medico-Legal Aspects of Abortion," 334-341; Statement of Dr. Henry W. Cattell in U.S. Congress, Senate, Birth Control Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office: 1931), 59-60. On the relationship between the medical profession and the birth control movement, see Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right , 255-269; Kennedy, Birth Control in America , 172-217; James Reed, "Doctors, Birth Control, and Social Values, 1830-1970," in Leavitt, Women and Health , 124-139.

116. "Birth Controllists and Maternity Legislation," Illinois Medical Journal 43 (May 1923): 344; "Birth Control a Corollary of the Sheppard-Towner Bill," Illinois Medical Journal 50 ( December 1926): 448-449.

117. In 1910, at the peak of the campaign against midwives, midwives still delivered half of the nation's babies, but twenty years later they delivered only 15 percent. The nation's midwives had become concentrated in the South, where most of the midwives and the women they assisted were African American. Louis S. Reed, Midwives, Chiropodists, and Optometrists: Their Place in Medical Care (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932), 4-7, 67, table 1A; Kobrin, "The American Midwife Controversy," 318, 324-325; Ladd-Taylor, "'Grannies' and 'Spinsters,'" 269-270.

1. She had had three children, but one died. Inquest on Carolina Petrovitis, March 21, 1916, case no. 234-3-1916, Medical Records Department. For another physician who closely questioned a woman about abortion, see the Inquest on Matilda Olson, April 30, 1918, case no. 289-4-1918, Medical Records Department.

2. On this point, see Martha Vicinus, "Sexuality and Power: A Review of Current Work in the History of Sexuality," Feminist Studies 8 (spring 1982): 133-156. The few histories that examine the control of male heterosexuality include Mary E. Odem, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995); Allan M. Brandt, No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States Since 1880 , exp. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), 61-64, 66-70; and G.J. Barker-Benfield, The Horrors of the Haft Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth Century America (New York: Harper and Row, 1976). For overviews of

the history of sexuality, see John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1988); Kathy Peiss and Christina Simmons, eds., with Robert A. Padgug, Passion and Power: Sexuality in History (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989).

3. Michael Grossberg argues that the judiciary dominated nineteenth-century family law and claimed patriarchal authority over domestic relations. Michael Grossberg, Governing the Hearth: Lava and the Family in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 289-307. On feminists, see also Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 243-244; Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: Birth Control in America , rev. and updated (1976; reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1990), chap. 5. Joan Brumberg found that members of the Women's Christian Temperance Union acted as marriage "enforcers" in cases of unmarried pregnant women when they deemed marriage appropriate. Joan Jacobs Brumberg, "'Ruined' Girls: Changing Community Responses to Illegitimacy in Upstate New York, 1890-1920," Journal of Social History 18 (winter 1984): 254-257. Linda Gordon finds that feminists had a powerful impact on the welfare state, "particularly its regulatory organizations," at the turn of the century. That influence extended to the state's promotion of male responsibility in cases of pregnant unwed women. Linda Gordon, Heroes of Their Oran Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence, Boston, 1880-1960 (New York: Viking, 1988), 297. On juvenile courts, see Odem, Delinquent Daughters .

4. On the control of medicine, see Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (New York: Basic Books, 1982), 102-112, 118, 184-197.

5. H.H. Hawkins in, "Symposium. Criminal Abortion. The Colorado Law on Abortion," JAMA 40 (April 18, 1903): 1099; Franz Eschweiler in Wilhelm Becker, "The Medical, Ethical, and Forensic Aspects of Fatal Criminal Abortion," Wisconsin Medical Journal 7 (April 1909): 633; James C. Mohr, "Patterns of Abortion and the Response of American Physicians, 1790-1930," in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings , edited by Judith Walzer Leavitt (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), 12l.

6. The Illinois Supreme Court commented on dying declarations in twelve out of the thirty-seven cases concerning an abortion-related death. Dying declarations may have been introduced or discussed in additional cases without having been addressed in the Supreme Court opinions. Furthermore, many dying declarations were collected but never used in court. For examples of Illinois Supreme Court discussion of dying declarations, see Dunn v. the People , 172 Ill. 582 (1898), pp. 587-591; People v. Huff 339 Ill. 328 (1930), p. 332. For evidence of the importance of dying declarations in other states, see reports of cases in Texas, Wisconsin, and Maryland respectively in "Dying Declarations Obtained in Abortion Case as Condition to Rendering Aid," JAMA 52 (April 10, 1909): 1204; "Dying Declarations Made after Refusal of Physician to Treat Abortion Case without History," JAMA 60 (June 7, 1913): 1829-1830; "Admissibility of Evidence to Prove Criminal Abortion," JAMA 60 (January 4, 1913): 79-80. For nineteenth-century cases, see Grossberg, Governing the Hearth , 363 n. 64. On Canada, see Constance B. Backhouse, "Involuntary Motherhood: Abortion, Birth Control, and the Law in Nineteenth Century Canada," Windsor

Yearbook of Access to Justice 3 (1983): 61-130; Angus McLaren, "Birth Control and Abortion in Canada, 1870-1920," Canadian Historical Review 59, no. 3 (1978): 319-340.

7. The clerk of the Criminal Court of Cook County reported that between 1924 and, I believe, 1934, there were thirty-two prosecutions for murder by abortion and only seven convictions; and out of six prosecutions for abortion, two convictions. [Thomas E. Harris], "A Functional Study of Existing Abortion Laws," Columbia Law Review 35 (January 1935): 91 n. 17. Frederick J. Taus-sig provided the name of the author in Abortion, Spontaneous and Induced: Medical and Social Aspects (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1936), 426. In his study of abortion indictments in early twentieth-century Philadelphia, Roger Lane also finds few prosecutions and even fewer convictions. Personal communication from Roger Lane to author, May 31, 1989. Comparable data on the number of arrests and convictions for abortion are not available after the mid-1930s because police annual reports stopped reporting this information in detail.

8. The rise in arrests beginning in 1889 was probably the result of the abortion exposé in the Chicago Times , December 12, 1888, through January 6, 1889. On the Comstock raids, see "Fight Race Suicide in Raids All over U.S.," Chicago [News ], November 20, 1912, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Take Chicagoans in Federal War on Race Suicide," Chicago Tribune , November 21, 1912, Abortionists Files, HHFC. The peaks in 1914 to 1917 coincided with local and state investigations of abortion and baby farms, and newspaper coverage of abortion in Chicago. Chicago Department of Health, Report , 1911-1918, vol. 1, pp. 1055-1056; Juvenile Protective Association, Baby Farms in Chicago , by Arthur Alden Guild ([Chicago], 1917).

9. See, for example, Inquest on Milda Hoffmann, May 29, 1916, case no. 342-5-1916, Medical Records Department; Degma Felicelli, October IX, 1916, case no. 224-10-1916, Medical Records Department.

10. Coroner Peter Hoffman reported sending 185 people to the grand jury for abortion during his fifteen year tenure between 1905 and 1919. I have calculated the average. Cook County Coroner, Biennial Report , 1918-1919, Municio pal Reference Collection.

11. The following three paragraphs are based on my reading of coroner's inquests and transcripts of criminal abortion trials.

l2. William Duffor English, "Evidence—Dying Declaration—Preliminary Questions of Fact—Degree of Proof," Boston University Law Review 15 (April 1935): 382.

l2. William Duffor English, "Evidence—Dying Declaration—Preliminary Questions of Fact—Degree of Proof," Boston University Law Review 15 (April 1935): 382.

13. Ibid., 381-382.

14. Quotation from Inquest on Petrovitis. Simon Greenleaf described the dying declaration as "declarations made in extremity, when the party is at the point of death, and when every hope of this world is gone; when every motive to falsehood is silenced, and the mind is induced, by the most powerful considerations, to speak the truth. A situation so solemn and so awful is considered by the law as creating an obligation equal to that which is imposed by a positive oath in a court of justice." Simon Greenleaf, A Treatise on the Law of Evidence , vol. 1, 16th ed. (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1899), 245. See also John Henry Wigmore, A Treatise on the System of Evidence in Trials at Common Law, In-

cluding Statutes and Judicial Decisions of All Jurisdictions of the United States (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1904), 1798-1819.

15. "Murder by abortion" was the standard phrase used in the coroner's jury's verdicts and Grand Jury indictments. For example, Inquest on Rosie Kawera, June 15, 1916, case no. 152-5-1916, Medical Records Department; People v. Dennis 246 Ill. 559 (1910), pp. 560-561.

16. C.S. Bacon, in "Chicago Medical Society. Regular Meeting, Held Nov. 23, 1904. Symposium on Criminal Abortion," JAMA 43 (December 17, 1904.): 1889. Roger Lane finds, from his study of indictments in Philadelphia's circuit court, that most abortion cases did not follow the death of a woman, but that women testified as a "result of the damage done." On the nineteenth century, see Roger Lane, Violent Death in the City: Suicide, Accident, and Murder in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979), 93; on the early twentieth century, personal communication from Roger Lane to author.

17. Lawrence M. Friedman and Robert V. Percival, The Roots of Justice: Crime and Punishment in Alameda County, California, 1870-1910 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981), 111-116, 310; Sidney L. Harring, Policing a Class Society: The Experience of American Cities, 1865-1915 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1983).

In my discussion of the state, I am interested in the broad array of people, institutions, and officials involved in the enforcement of the criminal abortion laws. I do not regard the state as completely unified or consistent in its policies, for certainly there were conflicts between various state agents. The judiciary scrutinized police actions and criticized them, for example, but the differences among the different levels and officers of the state are not my primary focus. For a critical discussion on historians' use of the term the state , see Michael Ig-natieff, "State, Civil Society, and Total Institution: A Critique of Recent Social Histories of Punishment," in Legality, Ideology, and the State , edited by David Sugarman (London: Academic Press, 1983), 183-211.

18. This chapter is based on my examination of forty-four Cook County Coroner's Inquests into abortion deaths between 1907 and 1937, held in the Medical Records Department, Cook County Medical Examiner's Office. Two were found in transcripts of criminal abortion trials.

19. Mohr, "Patterns of Abortion," 122; Paul H. Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth and Abortion (New York: Harper and Brothers and Paul B. Hoeber Medical Books, 1958), 194-195, 198. On delay in seeking medical treatment, see James R. Reinberger and Percy B. Russell, "The Conservative Treatment of Abortion," JAMA 107 (November 7, 1936): 1530; J. D. Dowling, "Points of Interest in a Survey of Maternal Mortality," American Journal of Public Health 27 (August 1937): 804. On the high level of complications and fatalities associated with self-induced abortions, see Regine K. Stix, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 13 (October 1935): 362-363; Raymond E. Watkins, "A Five-Year Study of Abortion," AJOG 26 (August 1933), 162.

20. Taussig, Abortion , 24.; William J. Robinson, The Law against Abortion: Its Perniciousness Demonstrated and Its Repeal Demanded (New York: Eugenics Publishing, 1933), 38-39. See also U.S. Dept. of Labor, Children's Bureau, Ma-

ternal Mortality in Fifteen States , Bureau publication no. 223 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1934), 103-104. I have not found an incident of families bribing officials, but on the corruption of police and coroners, see Mark H. Hailer, "Historical Roots of Police Behavior: Chicago, 1890-1925," Law and Society Review 10 (winter 1976), 306-307, 311, 316-317; Julie Johnson, "Coroners, Corruption, and the Politics of Death: Forensic Pathology in the United States," in Legal Medicine in History , edited by Michael Clark and Catherine Crawford (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 268-289.

21. I requested the Inquest on Flossie Emerson, who died February 28, 1916, but the Cook County Coroner's Office has no record of her death. Personal communication with Cathy Kurnyta, Director of Medical Records Department, Cook Count), Medical Examiner's Office. Emerson's abortion-related death was one of the cases for which Dr. Schultz-Knighten was prosecuted, People v. Schultz-Knighten , 277 Ill. 238 (1917). I did not find any records from the 1920s or 1930s of black women who had abortions. The paucity of information on the abortion-related deaths of black women may be an artifact of bias in the sources or may reflect the relatively small size of Chicago's African American population. Although World War I migration of African Americans from the South increased Chicago's black population by 148 percent, African Americans still made up only 4 percent of Chicago's population in 1920. Allan H. Spear, Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967), 140-146,223. On black women's use of abortion, see Rod-rique, "The Black Community and the Birth Control Movement," 140-141.

22. Dr. Anna B. Schultz-Knighten complained that the coroner's physician, Dr. Springer, had "sneered" at her and called her a "nigger." Abstract of Record, p. 117, People v. Schultz-Knighten , 277 Ill. 238 (1917), Case Files, no vault no., Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901.

23. Taussig, Abortion , 156-158,185-222.

24. Mortality reached 60 to 70 percent when septiccmia or peritonitis had occurred, according to Report of Fred J. Taussig, White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, Fetal, Newborn, and Maternal Morbidity and Mortality (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1933), 466-467. Almuth C. Van-diver, "The Legal Status of Criminal Abortion, with Especial Reference to the Duty and Protection of the Consultant," AJO 61 (March 1910): 434-435, quotation on 497.

25. O.B. Will, "The Medico-Legal Status of Abortion," Illinois Medical Journal 2 (1900-1901): 506, 508. Edward W. Pinkham, "The Treatment of Septic Abortion, with a Few Remarks on the Ethics of Criminal Abortion," AJO 61 (March 1910): 420. Illinois, All the Laws of Illinois , 1899, sec. 10, p. 216. In Nebraska and New Jersey, revocation of a physician's license for abortion did not require a criminal conviction. "Procedure before State Board of Health and Revocation of License for Criminal Abortion," JAMA 51 (August 29, 1908): 788; "Revocation of License for 'Practice' of Criminal Abortion on Single Occasion," JAMA 78 (June 24, 1922): 1988.

26. Inquest on Mary L. Kissell, August 3, 1937, case no. 300-8-1937, Medical Records Department. See also Inquests on Edna M. Lamb, February 19,

1917, case no. 43-3-1917 and Anna P. Fazio, February 14, 1929, case no. 217-2-1929, both held by Medical Records Department.

27. Verdict of Coroner's Jury,, Superintendent of Rhodes Avenue Hospital (name illegible) to Coroner Peter M. Hoffman, March 17, 1916 in the Inquest on Annie Marie Dimford, September 30, 1915, case no. 75-11-1915, Medical Records Department. See also Inquest on Ellen Matson, November 19, 1917, case no. 330-11-1917, Medical Records Department; Doctors D.S.J. Meyers and W.W. Richmond commenting on C.J. Aud, "In What Per Cent, Is the Regular Profession Responsible for Criminal Abortions, and What is the Remedy?" Kentucky Medical Journal 2 (September 1904): 98, 99.

28. This "agreement" is discussed in the Inquest on Matson. It may have been made in 1915 during the abortion scandal following Anna Johnson's death. See chapter 3, this volume.

29. Dr. Marion S. Swiont in Transcript of People v. Zwienczak , 338, Ill. 237 (1929), Case Files, vault no. 44701, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901.

30. Dr. Coe and others in Vandiver, "Legal Status of Criminal Abortion," 496-501, quotation on 500; "Transactions of the New York Academy of Medicine. Section on Obstetrics and Gynecology. Meeting, of March 23, 1911. Criminal Abortion from the Practitioner's Viewpoint. Paper read by Walter B. Jennings," AJO 63 (June 1911): 1094-1096.

31. Meeting of January. 9, 1912, Council Minutes, October 1911-June 1912, pp. 53-54, 56-57, Chicago Medical Society Records. The New Orleans Parish Medical Society published a letter to be sent to every physician in New Orleans, which included a model dying declaration. N.F. Thiberge, "Report of Committee on Criminal Abortion," New, Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal 70 (1917-1918): 802, 807-808.

32. Meeting of January 9, 1912, Council Minutes, p. 57, Chicago Medical Society Records. For examples of dying declarations and judicial discussions on their validity, see Hagenow v. People , 188 Ill. 545 (1901), pp. 550-551, 553; People v. Cheney , 368 Ill. 131 (1938), pp. 132-135.

33. "Criminal Abortion," JAMA 39 (September 20, 1902): 706; Palmer Findley, "The Slaughter of the Innocents," AJOG 3 (January 1922): 37.

34. Inquest on Emily Projahn, October 10, 1916, case no. 26-12-1916, Medical Records Department. Abortion convictions appealed to higher courts in Texas and Wisconsin revealed that dying declarations were obtained from women under threats by physicians to refuse medical care. "Dying Declarations Obtained in Abortion Case as Condition to Rendering Aid"; "Dying Declarations Made after Refusal of Physician to Treat Abortion Case without History."

35. John Ross in Inquest on Mathilde C. Kleinschmidt, September 22, 1930, case no. 255-9-30, Medical Records Department.

36. Vandiver, "Legal Status of Criminal Abortion," 435; Furniss commenting on Jennings, "Criminal Abortion from the Practitioner's Viewpoint," 1096.

37. See comments of Louise Hagenow as quoted in Hagenow v. the People , 188 Ill. 545 (1901), p. 552.

38. Ernest F. Oakley in discussion of "Legal Aspects of Abortion," AJOG 3 (January 1922): 84.; "Abortion 'Club' Exposed," BCR 4 (November 1936): 5.

See also "Dying Girl Runaway Hides Name of Slayer," Chicago Examiner , March 8, 1918, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

39. "End Murders by Abortions," Chicago Tribune , June 2, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC; Transcript of People v. Anna Heissler , 338 Ill. 596 (1930), Case Files, vault no. 44783, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901.

40. Quotation from an unnamed physician in Hawkins, "Symposium. Criminal Abortion. The Colorado Law on Abortion," 1099. See also Will, "The Medico-Legal Status of Abortion," 508; Simon Marx and George Kos-mak in Jennings, "Criminal Abortion from the Practitioner's Viewpoint," 1095-1096.

41. Parkes in Meeting of January 9, 1912, Council Minutes, October 11-June 1912, p. 55, Chicago Medical Society Records; W. Robinson, The Law against Abortion , 105-111.

42. Inquest on Lamb; Jennings, "Criminal Abortion from the Practitioner's Viewpoint," 1094.

43. Frank commenting on Aud, "In What Per Cent," 100. See comments of A. C. Morgan and Richard C. Norris in "Society Proceedings. North Branch Philadelphia County Medical Society. Regular Meeting, held April 14, 1904," JAMA 42 (May 21, 1904.): 1375-1376. Attorneys disagreed about whether or not physicians should act as informers in abortion cases. Allen H. Seaman and Charles R. Brock in "Symposium. Criminal Abortion. The Colorado Law on Abortion," 1097, 1098. Illinois law did not privilege communications between doctors and patients. C. S. Bacon, "The Duty of the Medical Profession in Relation to Criminal Abortion," Illinois Medical Journal 7 (January 1905): 22.

44. "Girl's Letters Blame Dr. Mason in Death Case," Chicago Tribune , [April] 9, 1916, Abortionists Files, HHFC; "Voice from Grave Calls to Dr. Mason during Trial as His Fiancee's Betrayer," Denver Post , April 5, 1916. See also chapter 3, this volume.

45. Quotation from "Dying Girl Runaway Hides Name of Slayer" (emphasis in original). See also "Girl Slain Here Gives Life to Hide Her Tragedy," Chicago Examiner , March 5, 1918; "Slain Girl Dies Holding Her Tragedy from Kin," Chicago Examiner , March 9, 1918. Both clippings in Abortionists Files, HHFC. All of these stories mention fathers.

46. "Mrs. Ruth Conn," Chicago Herald , December 19, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

47. "Death Arrest Bares List of 1,500 Women," Chicago Examiner [1916], Abortionists Files, HHFC.

48. Inquest on Mary Shelley, October 30, 1915, case no. 352-10-1915, Medical Records Department. Bacon, "The Duty of the Medical Profession," 21-22. The Crowell family tried to prevent an investigation into Mamie Ethel Crowell's abortion by lying to physicians and the coroner, Inquest on Crowell, April 16, 1930, case no. 305-4-30, Medical Records Department.

49. For family members who wanted the state to investigate an abortion, see People v. Hotz , 261 Ill. 239 (1914.). Quotation from "Medical News. A Maryland Abortionist Gets No Pardon," JAMA 43 (November 12, 1904.): 1476.

50. Edward Flanigan in Inquest on Frances Collins, May 7, 1920, case no. 161-5-20, Medical Records Department.

51. Comments of "Esther E.," BCR 4 (September 1920): 15. See also, W. Robinson, The Law against Abortion , 106-107.

52. Hagenow v. People (1901), p. 551; People v. Hagenow 236 Ill. 514. (1908), p. 527; People v. Heissler (1930), p. 599. The coroner told Dr. Kruse to "make it a rule" at his hospital to call police in abortion cases so that they could bring the suspect in for identification; Inquest on Lamb.

53. Sgt. O'Connor in Inquest on Petrovitis.

54. Inquest on Petrovitis.

55. Mable Matson in Transcript of People v. Hobbs , 297 Ill. 399 (1921), Case Files, vault no. 38773, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901.

56. Rosie Kronowitz in abstract of People v. Heisler , 300 Ill. 98 (1921), p. 38, Case Files, vault no. 39077, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901

57. The following account is drawn from the Inquest on Eunice McElroy, November 14, 1928, case no. 486-11-28, Medical Records Department.

58. John Harris in Inquest on Dimford. See also Robert Patrick Crelly in Inquest on Kissell. One man married his lover two days after her abortion; she died three weeks later (see Inquest of Esther Stark, June 12, 1917, case no. 65-6-1917). Quotation in People v. Rongetti , 344 Ill. 278 (1931), p. 284.

59. Inquest on Anna Johnson, May 27, 1915, case no. 77790, Medical Records Department.

60. Inquest on Matson.

61. "Death Threat to Hostetler," Chicago Tribune , June 5, 1915, Abortionists Files, HHFC. Police and press often called the men in these cases "the sweetheart"; see "Doctor Faces Manslaughter Charge in Girl's Death," Chicago Tribune , April 18, 1930, Abortionists Files, HHFC.

62. Inquest on Alma Bromps, April 27, 1931, case no. 35-5-1931, Medical Records Department; People v. Ney , 349 Ill. 172 (1932), pp. 173-174. For other lovers who testified against the abortionist, see Cochran v. The People , 175 Ill. 28 (1898); People v. Hobbs , 297 Ill. 399 (1921).

63. Walter Beisse in Inquest on Rose Siebenmann, April 16, 1920, case no. 266-4-20, Medical Records Department.

64. Charles Morehouse's name is spelled as "Moorehouse" in Transcript of People v. Hobbs , 297 Ill. 399 (1921), Case Files, vault no. 38773, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901; O'connell in Transcript of People v. Buettner 233 Ill. 272 (1908), Case Files, vault no. 30876, ibid. For convictions of boyfriends, see Dunn v. the People; People v. Patrick , 277 Ill. 210 (1917). Grace and Edith Abbott found that many foreigners languished in jail because they could not pay their fines; see Lela B. Costin, Two Sisters for Social Justice: A Biography of Grace and Edith Abbott (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 77.

65. I know of only one case where the husband was charged. Bertis Dougherty pied guilty to abortion and testified as a state witness against the abortionist in People v. Schneider , 370 Ill. 612 (1939), pp. 613-614.

66. Juvenile Protective Association of Chicago, A Study of Bastardy Cases, taken from The Court of Domestic Relations in Chicago , text by Louise DeKoven Bowen [Chicago, 1914] (History of Women, 1977) microfilm, item 9921, pp. 18, 19, 22.

67. Young men and women understood how the juvenile courts worked

and how statutory rape cases proceeded; young men probably also knew how bastardy and abortion investigations proceeded. Odem, Delinquent Daughters .

68. Transcript of Dunn v. the People , 172 Ill. 582 (1898), Case Files, vault no. 7876, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901. On the ways in which women could use the state's regulation for their own ends, see Gordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives , 289-299.

69. Abortionists sometimes offered to cover funeral and other expenses as in the unsuccessful cover-up participated in and described by Emil Winter in the Inquest on Margaret B. Winter, November 13, 1916, case no. 274-11-1916, Medical Records Department. In the Winter case the abortionist was a midwife. For an unsuccessful attempt to keep abortion quiet by a physician, see Testimony of Walter F. Heidenway and Elizabeth Heidenway in the Inquest on Alma Heidenway, August 21, 1918, case no. 232-8-1918, Medical Records Department.

70. On false death certificates, see Earll v. the People , 73 Ill. 329 (1874), p. 336; Rudolph W. Holmes et al., "The Midwives of Chicago," JAMA 50 (April 25, 1908), 1348.

71. See Inquest on Fazio; Pinkham, "Treatment of Septic Abortion," 420.

1. "Unemployment," BCR 15 (May 1931): 131.

2. Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 213-249; Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), 250-272.

3. "'Doctor' Jailed after Raid on Abortion Mill," Chicago Daily Tribune , November 14, 1932, Abortionists Folders, HHFC; Julian Moynahan to Editor, New York Times (hereafter cited as NYT ), January 15, 1995, p. 16.

4. Carole Joffe and I made similar arguments about the "back-alley butcher" model of abortion history in papers presented on a panel together at the 1990 Berkshire Conference on the History of Women. Hers has since been published; Carole Joffe, "Portraits of Three 'Physicians of Conscience': Abortion before Legalization in the United States," Journal of the History of Sexual- ivy 2 (July 1991): 4-6-67.

5. Lois Rita Helmbold, "Beyond the Family Economy: Black and White Working-Class Women during the Great Depression," Feminist Studies 13 (Fall 1987): 640-641; A. J. Rongy, Abortion: Legal or Illegal ? (New York: Vanguard Press, 1933), 111.

6. Kessler-Harris, Out to Work , 256-257; quotations from typed letter from Charleston, IL 61920, April 20, 1985, "Silent No More" Campaign, National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL), Chicago.

7. The doctor, apparently a chiropractor, performed eight abortions per day. "Abortion 'Club' Exposed," BCR 4 (November 1936): 5; "Birth Control 'Club' Revealed in Newark," NYT October 13, 1936, p. 3.

8. Eric M. Matsner, M.D., to Editor, "Differentiation Sought," NYT October 15, 1936, p. 26.

9. Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: Birth Control in America, rev. and updated (1976; reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1990), chap. 11; John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 244-248; David M. Kennedy, Birth Control in America: The Career of Margaret Sanger (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970), 246-261, 214-217; James Reed, From Private Vice to Public Virtue: The Birth Control Movement and American Society Since 1830 (New York: Basic Books, 1978), 239-241.

10. Frederick J. Taussig, Abortion, Spontaneous and Induced: Medical and Social Aspects (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1936), quotation on 372, Cincinnati and New York on 363-364. On New Orleans, J. Thornwell Witherspoon, "An Analysis of 200 Cases of Septic Abortion Treated Conservatively," AJOG 26 (September 1933): 368. On Minneapolis, Jalmar H. Simons, "Statistical Analysis of One Thousand Abortions," AJOG 37 (May 1939): 840; Ransom S. Hooker, Maternal Mortality in New York City: A Study of All Puerperal Deaths, 1930-1932 (New York: Oxford University Press for the Commonwealth Fund, 1933), 54; Henry J. Sangmeister, "A Survey of Abortion Deaths in Philadelphia from 1931 to 1940 Inclusive," AJOG 46 (November 1943): 758.

11. Paul H. Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth and Abortion (New York: Harper and Brothers and Paul B. Hoeber Medical Books, 1958). Since much of the data comes from the earlier Kinsey studies on sexuality and this report came out of his institute, hereafter I refer to this book in the text as the Kinsey report or study on abortion.

12. Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion, 113-114, 140, table 55.

13. The percentage of first pregnancies aborted in this young generation was no more than 10 percent, but it was more than double the rate of earlier generations of women. Regine K. Stix, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 13 (October 1935): 358, fig. 2, quotation on 359; Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion , 97-98.

14. Helmbold, "Beyond the Family Economy," 642-643; Ruth Milkman, "Women's Work and the Economic Crisis: Some Lessons from the Great Depression," The Review of Radical Political Economics 8 (spring 1976): 73-91, 95-97; reprint, in A Heritage of Her Own: Toward a New Social History of American Women, edited by Nancy F. Cott and Elizabeth H. Pleck (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979), 507-541.

15. On African Americans and the Kinsey study, see "Why Negro Women are Not in the Kinsey Report," Ebony 8 (October 1953): 109-115; quotation from Charles H. Garvin, "The Negro Doctor's Task," BCR 16 (November 1932): 270. My thanks to Susan Smith and Leslie Schwalm for giving me the Ebony and BCR articles respectively. Jessie M. Rodrique, "The Black Community and the Birth Control Movement," in Passion and Power: Sexuality in History, edited by Kathy Peiss and Christina Simmons with Robert A. Padgug (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989), 140-141.

16. Peter Marshall Murray and L. B. Winkelstein, "Incomplete Abortion: An Evaluation of Diagnosis and Treatment of 727 Consecutive Cases of Incomplete Abortions," Harlem Hospital Bulletin 3 (June 1950): 31, 33, offprint in folder 163, box 76-9, Peter Marshall Murray Papers, used with the permission of the Manuscript Division, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard

University. I am grateful to Susan Smith for bringing this article to my attention.

17. Endre K. Brunner and Louis Newton, "Abortions in Relation to Viable Births in 10,609 Pregnancies: A Study Based on 4,500 Clinic Histories," AJOG 38 (July 1939): 82-83, 88. See also Virginia Clay Hamilton, "Some Sociologic and Psychologic Observations on Abortion," AJOG 39 (June 1940): 923, table.

18. John Zell Gaston in George W. Kosmak, "The Responsibility of the Medical Profession in the Movement for 'Birth Control,'" JAMA 113 (October 21, 1939): 1559.

19. The Kinsey study did not report directly on women's reproductive practices according to class, but used level of education to signify class status. The study found that, of all the women surveyed who had abortions between the 1920s and 1940s, white married women with a grade school education (therefore presumably lower income) both delivered more babies and had more abortions than did women with greater levels of education (presumably middle or upper class). Women with less education bore more children and did so earlier in life (sixteen to twenty-five years), whereas college educated women tended to abort a greater proportion of pregnancies during these same years while in college and had children later. Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion, 114, 120, 109-110, table 54; Brunner and Newton, "Abortions in Relation to Viable Births," 83. Among clients of birth control clinics in New York and Cincinnati in the 1930s, the abortion rate also rose as income rose, although a sample of New York City women found a higher rate of abortion in only "the poorest non-relief group." Regine K. Stix and Dorothy G. Wiehl, "Abortion and the Public Health," American Journal of Public Health 28 (May 1938): 624, fig. 2.

20. Hamilton, "Some Sociologic and Psychologic Observations on Abortion," quotations on 922, table on 923; Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion, 37, 65-66, 162; Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (New York: William Morrow, Bantam Books, 1984.), 151-152.

21. Of the unmarried women, the Kinsey survey found that "the Negro college educated women aborted 81 per cent of their pregnancies (essentially the same percentage as for white college women), the high school educated women 25 per cent, and the grade school 19 per cent." The study found too that unwed black women with the least education (and thus from the lowest economic levels) were more likely to give birth and less likely to abort than unwed white women. Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion, 162; D'Emilio and Freedman, Intimate Matters, 187, 259. Regina G. Kunzel also finds class differences among African-Americans in their use of maternity homes; Kunzel, Fallen Women, Problem Girls: Unmarried Mothers and the Professionalization of Social Work, 1890-1945 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), 73.

22. Approximately 12 percent of the Catholic women, 13 percent of the Jewish women, and 14 percent of the Protestant women in the Brunner and Newton study had had induced abortions. Brunner and Newton, "Abortions in Relation to Viable Births," 85, 90. A Minneapolis study reached similar conclusions; Simons, "Statistical Analysis of One Thousand Abortions," 840-841. But 35 percent of Stix's informants had had illegal abortions. "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," 352.

23. The study showed that up to the age of twenty, Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant women all aborted pregnancies at about the same rate, approximately 7 percent. After the age of twenty a major shift occurred. The rate of abortion for Catholic and Jewish women rose only slightly for the twenty-one to twenty-five years of age group, whereas Protestant women's rate of abortion jumped to 20 percent. At the age of thirty-one to thirty-five years, another major shift occurred. The abortion rate for Protestant women dropped dramatically from the highest to zero, whereas the abortion rates for both Jewish and Catholic women increased. Brunner and Newton, "Abortions in Relation to Viable Births," 87, fig. 4.

24. Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion, 64-65, 114-118.

24. Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion, 64-65, 114-118.

25. Ibid., 194-195, 198.

26. You May Plow Here: The Narrative of Sara Brooks, edited by Thordis Simonsen (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 176, 177.

27. Stix, "A Study of Pregnancy Wastage," 362-363; complications following abortions are summarized in a table on 362. Raymond E. Watkins, "A Five-Year Study of Abortion," AJOG 26 (August 1933): 162. See also a Tennessee study, James R. Reinberger and Percy B. Russell, "The Conservative Treatment of Abortion," JAMA 107 (November 7, 1936): 1527.

28. The closing of numerous small hospitals, including maternity hospitals, during the 1930s contributed to the movement of all medical care, including abortion, into public hospitals. Rosemary Stevens, In Sickness and in Wealth: American Hospitals in the Twentieth Century (New York: Basic Books, 1989), 141-143, 147-148; Judith Walzer Leavitt, Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750-1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 171-195.

29. I do not know when this ward first opened. Obstetric staff records beginning in 1938 discuss the number of abortion cases in ward 41. "Staff Conference of the Obstetrics Department," 1938-1958, box 30, "Department of Obstetrics," Medical Director's Office, Cook County Hospital, Cook County Hospital Archives.

30. Dr. Gertrude Engbring in Transcript of People v. Heissler, 338 Ill. 596 (1930), Case Files, vault no. 44783, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901; Augusta Weber, "Confidential Material Compiled for Joint Commission on Accreditation, June 1964," box 5, "Obstetrics Department—Accreditation 1964," Office of the Administrator, Cook County Hospital Archives. An "Abortion Service" was opened at Harlem Hospital in 1935. Murray and Winkelstein, "Incomplete Abortion," 31.

31. The Children's Bureau study was reported on before publication by Fred J. Taussig, "Abortion in Relation to Fetal and Maternal Welfare," AJOG 22 (November 1931): 729-738 and AJOG 22 (December 1931): 868-878; and Fred J. Taussig, "Abortion in Relation to Fetal and Maternal Welfare," in Fetal, Newborn, and Maternal Morbidity and Mortality (New York: D. Appleton-Century by the White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, 1933), 446-472; U.S. Dept. of Labor, Children's Bureau, Maternal Mortality in Fifteen States, Bureau publication no. 223 (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1934), 100-115, 133.

32. Hooker, Maternal Mortality in New York City, 51, 54; Taussig, "Abortion in Relation to Fetal and Maternal Welfare" (December 1931), 872.

33. William J. Robinson, The Law against Abortion: Its Perniciousness Demonstrated and Its Repeal Demanded (New York: Eugenics Publishing, 1933); A. J. Rongy, Abortion: Legal or Illegal? (New York: Vanguard Press, 1933). See also Alan F. Guttmacher, "The Genesis of Liberalized Abortion in New York: A Personal Insight," update by Irwin H. Kaiser, in Abortion, Medicine, and the Law, 3d ed., rev., edited by J. Douglas Butler and David F. Walbert (New York: Facts on File Publications, 1986), 231.

34. On Rongy, see "Abraham Rongy, Obstetrician, 71," NYT , October 11, 1949. On Robinson, see Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right, 173-178; "Dr. W.J. Robinson, Urologist, Is Dead," NYT , January 7, 1936, p. 22; entry for William Josephus Robinson in The National Cyclopaedia of Biography, Being the History of the United States, vol. 35 (New York: James T. White and Co., 1949), 545-546. For early support for legal abortion, see W. Robinson, The Law against Abortion, 26; M. Rabinovitz, "End Results of Criminal Abortion: With Comments on Its Present Status," New York Medical Journal 100 (October 24, 1914): 808-811; William J. Robinson, "The Ethics of Abortion," New York Medical Journal 100 (October 31, 1914): 897.

35. W. Robinson, The Law against Abortion, remark on 26.

36. Rongy, Abortion, 39, 90, 146, 200-204, 206-209.

37. "Abraham Rongy, Obstetrician, 71."

38. A.J. Rongy, "Abortion: The $100,000,000 Racket," American Mercury 40 (February 1937): 145.

39. Gretta Palmer, "Not to Be Born," Pictorial Review 38 (February 1937): 24, 37, 45.

40. B. B. Tolnai, "The Abortion Racket," Forum 94 (September 1935): 177.

41. "Book Notices," JAMA 102 (January 6, 1934): 71-72.

42. On England, see Barbara Brookes, Abortion in England, 1900-1967 (London: Croom Helm, 1988); Sheila Rowbotham, "A New World for Women": Stella Browne, Socialist Feminist (London: Pluto Press, 1977). On the Soviet Union, see Taussig, Abortion, chap. 26. On Germany, see Atina Grossmann, "Abortion and Economic Crisis: The 1931 Campaign against 218 in Germany," New German Critique 14 (spring 1978): 119-137; "Demand of the Independent Social Democrats that the Penalties for Abortion Be Removed," JAMA 75 (November 6, 1920): 1283; "Attack on the Law Concerning Abortion," JAMA 96 (February 14, 1931): 541-542; "The Attitude of Women Physicians toward the Abortion Question," JAMA 98 (April 30, 1932): 1580. On Switzerland, see "Bill to Legalize Abortion in Basel," JAMA 73 (October 4, 1919): 1095; "Abolishing Penalties for Abortion," JAMA 74 (June 12, 1920): 1656. On Vienna, see "Proposed New Legislation Concerning Abortion," JAMA 78 (January 21, 1922): 208.

43. Brookes, Abortion in England, chap. 4.

44. For examples of coverage of the European movements in medical journals, see note 42. Numerous articles appeared in the Birth Control Review. See, for example, Paul Lublinsky, "Birth Control in Soviet Russia," BCR 12 (May 1928): 142-143; Margaret Sanger, "Women in Germany," BCR 4 (December 1920): 8-9. See also "Sweden Considers a Proposal to Legalize Abortion," Nation 140 (March 20, 1935): 318; B. B. Tolnai, "Abortions and the Law," Nation 148 (April 15, 1939): 424-427.

45. Tess Slesinger, "Missis Flinders," part 4 of The Unpossessed; A Novel of the Thirties (1934; reprint, New York: Feminist Press, 1984). This chapter was first published in 1932 as a short story and "was the first fiction dealing with abortion to appear in a magazine of general circulation," as Janet Sharistanian notes in the afterword to The Unpossessed, 377, 385 n. 38. See also Agnes Smedley, Daughter of Earth (1929 reprint, New York: Feminist Press, 1973), 197-200, and Meridel Le Sueur, The Girl (Minneapolis: West End Press and MEP Publications, 1978), which was written in 1939 but not published until the 1970s. Josephine Herbst wrote autobiographically of abortion in "Unmarried" but did not publish the story. On Herbst, see Elinor Langer, Josephine Herbst, An Atlantic Monthly Press Book (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1983), 71-72. I am grateful to an anonymous reviewer for alerting me to Langer. That Le Sueur and Langer's stories were left unpublished shows the difficulty for women of publicly discussing this topic.

46. Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right, 377-378; Ellen Chesler, Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), 300-303.

47. Colorado State Senator George A. Glenn, M.D. to Dr. Sanger, December 26, 1938; Florence Rose to Glenn, January 3, 1939; "A Bill for an Act Relating to the Legalization of Birth Control by Artificial or Natural Methods"; telegram from Rose to Glenn, January 16, 1939; Rose to Glenn, January 16, 1939, all letters in folder 10, box 2, Mary Steichen Calderone Papers, Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Calderone Papers used with the permission of the Schlesinger Library. The Colorado State Archives has no material of Senator Glenn's or the Medical Affairs Committee; personal communication from Terry Ketelsen, Colorado State Archivist.

48. Linda Gordon discusses why the birth control movement moved away from the left in Woman's Body, Woman's Right, chap. 9, 245-247. See also J. Stanley Lemons, The Woman Citizen: Social Feminism in the 1920s (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973), 209-227; Carole R. McCann, Birth Control Politics in the United States, 1916-1945 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994), 26-53; Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 60-61.

49. On the U.S. birth control movement's antiabortion position, see, for example, the response of Mary Knoblauch to letter from Herman Dekker, BCR 4 (July 1920): 16 "Here Is an Illogical Situation," BCR 14 (March 1930): 73; "The Curse of Abortion," BCR 13 (November 1929): 307. On the English movement, see Brookes, Abortion in England, 80, 87, 90.

50. Taussig, Abortion. On the National Committee on Maternal Health, a committee of doctors that disassociated itself from the radicalism of the birth control movement, see Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right, 258-259 Reed, From Private Vice to Public Virtue, 168-191.

51. Fred J. Taussig, review of Abortion: Legal or Illegal? by A. J. Rongy, BCR 17 (June 1933): 153.

52. Taussig, Abortion, 443-444.

52. Taussig, Abortion, 443-444.

53. Ibid., 444.

52. Taussig, Abortion, 443-444.

54. Ibid., 443.

55. Norman R. Fielder, "Study of Attitudes, Personality, Social Fitness, Adaptability, Character, and Motivations of Medical Students," JAMA 113 (November 25, 1939): 2005.

56. Taussig, Abortion, 292-297.

57. Quotations in ibid., 296, 292; see also Gerald B. Webb, "Clinical Aspects of Tuberculosis," in The Cyclopedia of Medicine, edited by George Morris, vol. 12 (Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1935), 244-268.

58. Taussig, Abortion, 296.

58. Taussig, Abortion, 296.

59. Ibid., 320-321, 297.

58. Taussig, Abortion, 296.

60. Ibid., 277-321.

58. Taussig, Abortion, 296.

61. Ibid., 278-279. For a more conservative view, see Hugo Ehrenfest, book review of Der Kuenstliche Abort. Indikationen und Methoden (Indications and methods of artificial abortion), 2d ed., by Georg Winter and Hans Naujoks, AJOG 25 (March 1933): 463.

62. "Queries and Minor Notes. Abortion or Removal of Pregnant Uterus," JAMA 96 (April 4, 1931): 1169.

63. Quotation from Rongy, Abortion, 170-171; Guttmacher, "The Genesis of Liberalized Abortion in New York," 229-230.

64. Ed Keemer, Confessions of a Pro-Life Abortionist (Detroit: Vinco Press, 1980), 63.

65. Rongy, Abortion, 134.

66. On specialization, see Rosemary Stevens, American Medicine and the Public Interest (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971); Charlotte G. Borst, "The Professionalization of Obstetrics: Childbirth Becomes a Medical Specialty," in Women, Health, and Medicine in America: A Historical Handbook, edited by Rima D. Apple (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990), 197-216.

67. Lawrence Lader, Abortion (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966), 46; Keemer, Confessions, 65-68; "Abortaria," Time 28 (October 19, 1936): 71.

68. Rongy, Abortion, 134-135.

69. Tolnai, "The Abortion Racket," 176.

70. See "Pacific Coast Abortion Ring" File, HHFC; "Abortaria," 70-71. Dr. Robert Douglas Spencer performed abortions for women from all over the East Coast in his office in Ashland, Pennsylvania; see Lader, Abortion, 42-47, and Ellen Messer and Kathryn E. May, eds., Back Rooms: Voices from the Illegal Abortion Era (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988), 218-224. On a nonphysician abortionist who practiced for decades in Portland, Oregon, see Ruth Barnett, as told to Doug Baker, They Weep on My Doorstep ([Oregon]: Halo Publishers, 1969) and a recent biography of Barnett by Rickie Solinger, The Abortionist: A Woman against the Law (New York: Free Press, 1994).

71. This case study is based on patient records and other legal documents discovered in the Transcript of People v. Martin, 382 Ill. 192 (1943), Case Files, vault no. 51699, Supreme Court of Illinois, Record Series 901.

72. Gabler went to Dearborn Medical College. In 1921, she gained a second medical license in West Virginia, where she spent part of each year. Perhaps she ran an abortion practice there also. All biographical information on Dr. Josephine Gabler is from the Deceased Physician Master File, AMA.

73. Supplemental Report, Statement of Gordon B. Nash, Assistant State's Attorney, April 23, 1942, in Transcript of People v. Martin.

74. A business card of Gabler's introduced into evidence in the Martin trial suggests that the clinic was open every day. The card lists the hours as "8 to 8." Transcript of People v. Martin.

75. Supplemental Report, Statement of Gordon B. Nash.

76. Martin estimated that she had worked as a receptionist for Gabler for "about 12 or 15 years." Supplemental Report, Statement of Gordon B. Nash. On Martin's management of the practice, see Ada Martin in the Transcript of People v. Martin. On Dr. Millstone's involvement, see "Doctor Bares Abortion Ring, Then Kills Self," Chicago Daily Tribune, April 18, 1941, pp. 1-2. Dr. E. D. Howe was also arrested, though it is unclear whether he performed abortions; "Offices of Loop Doctor Raided in Abortion Quiz," Chicago Sunday Tribune, May 11, 1941, p. 21.

77. Kristin Luker has assumed that women did not seek illegal abortions from doctors and that doctors did not assist women. Kristin Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 50, 51.

78. Supplemental Report, Statement of Gordon B. Nash; "Millstone's Widow Kills Self in Abortion Probe," Chicago Daily Tribune, May 1, 1941, p. 1. Of the eighteen doctors named in the patient records, eleven could be identified. (Sometimes only a last name was included on the record). All eleven were AMA members and eight were specialists of various types. Biographical data found in American Medical Directory: A Register of Legally Qualified Physicians of the United States, 16th ed. (Chicago: Press of the AMA, 1940). I am grateful to Rose Holz for collecting this information.

79. Of seventy patient records and seven additional witnesses, the referring individual was identifiable in thirty-eight cases. Eighteen were referred by doctors, or 47 percent. On the process of seeking and finding an abortionist in a later period, see Nancy Howell Lee, The Search for an Abortionist (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969).

80. Mrs. Helen B. in Transcript of People v. Martin. I have used initials rather than surnames of women who testified in abortion cases and may still be living.

81. Supplemental Report, Statement of Gordon B. Nash. For a referring nurse, see the patient record for Grace E. in Transcript of People v. Martin.

82. George Wright, "Tells Bribe behind Killing," Chicago Daily Tribune, May 2, 1941, p. 1. The average fee charged for an abortion is my estimate based on records in the transcript of the trial; see the discussion of fees later in this chapter.

83. Stevens, In Sickness and in Wealth, 54, 114; Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (New York: Basic Books, 1982), 136, 358.

84. Twelve of thirty-eight identifiable referrals found their way to the clinic through friends.

85. While the newspapers covered the Martin story, they reported the deaths of two women due to criminal abortions; "Orders Arrest of Midwife in Woman's Death," Daily Tribune, May 7, 1941, p. 17; "Charge Doctor with Murder in Abortion Death," Daily Tribune, November 20, 1942, p. 9.

86. Each of the women who testified described the same procedure; this paragraph summarizes their testimony in the Transcript of People v. Martin.

87. Quotations from testimony of Helen Z., Gordon Nash, Julia M., Violet S. in Transcript of People v. Martin.

88. On standard medical procedures in abortion cases, see Taussig, Abortion, 328-340. As one physician noted, "a clean curettage by a skilled abortionist is obviously no more liable to infection than a therapeutic abortion performed in our own operating room"; Virginia Clay Hamilton, "The Clinical and Laboratory Differentiation of Spontaneous and Induced Abortion," AJOG 41 (January 1941): 62.

89. A study of working-class New York women found that of the 1,497 women who reported induced abortions, only 33, or 2 percent, were unmarried at the time. Brunner and Newton, "Abortion in Relation to Viable Births," 88.

90. All of the figures are based on my calculations from the seventy patient records included in the Transcript of People v. Martin. I have compared the testimony of the witnesses to their medical records. Of twenty-four witnesses, seventeen appeared in the patient records. Fifteen of the records showed the correct information; one patient record had no information on marital status, but she was unmarried; and one woman lied and said she was married when she was not. If other unmarried women lied too, the proportion of unmarried women would be higher.

91. Most of the women with children had one or two. Fourteen had one child, twelve had two, five had three, and one had four. All of these figures are my own calculations from the patient record data.

92. Victoria M. in patient record in Transcript of People v. Martin.

93. This is based on comparing the testimony of Helen N., Helen Z., and Helen B. to the information on their patient records in Transcript of People v. Martin.

94. Two modal ages, however, were younger, twenty-one and twenty-three years old. Of the women in this sample, 55 percent were under twenty-five; 45 percent were twenty-five or more years old.

95. "Abortion Surveillance: Preliminary Data—United States, 1992," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: CDC Surveillance Summaries 43 (December 23, 1994): 930, 932, table 1.

96. Rosalind Petchesky, Abortion and Woman's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom, rev. ed. (1984; reprint, Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990), quotation on 145, and 141-167. Recent abortion data show the trend to delaying childbearing. Teenagers make up a smaller proportion of the women having abortions than in the past: in 1972, 33 percent of the women who had abortions were nineteen years old or less; in 1992, teenagers were only 20 percent of the women having abortions, and women twenty-five or older made up 45 percent of the women having abortions. "Abortion Surveillance," 932, table 1.

97. "Millstone's Widow Kills Self," 12.

98. Based on the information in the patient records under "date" of coming into the office at 190 North State Street and "mstd.," which refers to the last menstrual date, I have calculated at what point in their pregnancies these women came in for abortions. The most frequent length of pregnancy at the time of abortion was two months (thirty cases). Sixty of the women (86 per-

cent) aborted pregnancies that had progressed eight weeks or less. In 1992, 53 percent of abortions were in the first eight weeks. Nearly 90 percent of all abortions are performed in the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. "Abortion Surveillance," 930-933, table 1.

99. I have calculated these figures from the data in the patient records in the Transcript of People v. Martin. The Kinsey study was based on 304 cases. Gebhard et al., Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion, 203, table 73.

100. Kessler-Harris, Out to Work, 263.

101. A study of births in 1928 found that th