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9— Politics and Priorities

1. See "Where the Candidates Stand on AIDS," Playboy , Oct. 1987, pp. 50-51, 54, which compiles statements by Democratic and Republican presidential candidates in 1987. [BACK]

2. That debate did not include all presidential candidates with views relevant to AIDS. Andre Marrou of the Libertarian Party, for example, opposed the ban on therapeutic marijuana use for the control of pain and nausea in PWAs. See Andre Marrou, "Why Gays Should Vote for a Libertarian President," Windy City Times , 15 Oct. 1992, p. 12. [BACK]

3. "Transcript of the First Debate among the Presidential Candidates," New York Times , 12 Oct. 1992, pp. A12-15. All citations from this debate are from this source. [BACK]

4. Fisher in fact represented the third heterosexual person to fill the position on the commission intended for someone with HIV. No gay man with AIDS was ever appointed to that post. [BACK]

5. See James Harvey Young, American Health Quackery: Collected Essays (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 256-285. [BACK]

6. See Jason DeParle, "111 Held in St. Patrick's AIDS Protest," New York Times , 11 Dec. 1989, p. B3. A PBS "P.O.V." presentation of the film that documented this protest, "Stop the Church," was canceled in 1991 because, according to a vice-president for scheduling and programming, the film "simply crosses the line of being responsible programming into being ridicule." The film's director, Robert Hilferty, denied that the film's intent was to ridicule; he said the "film followed the planning and outcome of the demonstration, in which 5,000 people gathered outside the church, and 134 of them entered and fell down in the aisles to symbolize death." [BACK]

7. In fact, Bush once characterized the tactics used by AIDS activists as "an excess of free speech." See "Bush Assails Tactics Used by AIDS Lobby," New York Times , 21 Apr. 1991, p. 121. Bush had, of course, also cautioned against excesses by other protests. For example, while expressing sympathy for anti-abortion sentiments, he cautioned protesters in Wichita about excesses. See Maureen Dowd, "Bush Chides Protesters on 'Excesses,'" New York Times , 17 Aug. 1991, p. A7. [BACK]

8. At both national Democratic and Republican conventions, speakers with HIV or AIDS addressed the audience. The 1992 Democratic party made AIDS visible in a way no presidential campaign had done before. Certainly, of course, the question of involvement of people with HIV at the convention raises the question of whether the speakers weren't co-opted from more direct and embarrassing confrontations with the political party. While such a perspective is possible because of the introduction of such persons into the campaign process, still the visibility--and especially the voice of people struck by HIV--countered the long lamented invisibility and voicelessness of PWAs in the national consciousness. [BACK]

9. Nancy Collins, "Liz's AIDS Odyssey," Vanity Fair , Nov. 1992, p. 264. [BACK]

10. Republican political Jack Kemp, for example, observed: "But, as President Reagan pointed out, 'When it comes to preventing AIDS, don't medicine and morality teach the same thing?' All the research we have confirms that the answer to that question is 'Yes, they do.'" "Where the Candidates Stand on AIDS," 51. [BACK]

11. "Health Insurance Cuts," New York Times , 16 Oct. 1992, p. A1; Robert Pear, "U.S. to Argue Employers Can Cut Health Coverage," New York Times , 16 Oct. 1992, p. A18. Ironically, the Court also held that the disabled may not be refused employment because of costs they would incur through insurance coverage. Robert Pear, "The Disabled Gain New Rights to Jobs and Health Insurance," New York Times , 9 June 1993, p. A1. [BACK]

12. "Clinton: 'Tomorrow We Will Try to Give You Change,'" Chicago Tribune , 4 Nov. 1992, sec. 1, p. 22. [BACK]

13. National Research Council, The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States , ed. Albert R. Jonsen and JeffStryker (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993), p. 3. [BACK]

14. Social Impact, 7. [BACK]

15. Social Impact, 3. [BACK]

16. Social Impact, 6. [BACK]

17. Social Impact, 7. [BACK]

18. Social Impact, 9, esp. 19. [BACK]

19. Social Impact, 8. [BACK]

20. Social Impact, 72 ff. [BACK]

21. Social Impact, 74 n. 10. [BACK]

22. Social Impact, 66. [BACK]

23. Social Impact, 80 ff. [BACK]

24. Liz McMillen, "Research Council's Report on AIDS Draws Fire for 'Insensitivity,'" Chronicle of Higher Education , 24 Feb. 1993, p. A9. [BACK]

25. Chris Bull, "Report on AIDS Impact Draws Intense Criticism," Advocate , 9 Mar. 1993, p. 25. [BACK]

26. Social Impact, 118. [BACK]

27. Hans Jonas, "Philosophical Reflections on Experimenting with Human Subjects," Philosophical Essays: From Current Creed to Technological Man (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 105-131. [BACK]

28. For example: "The AIDS epidemic thus represents an opportunity and challenge for the revitalization of the practice of public health with regard to both infectious conditions and the chronic disorders that represent so much of the task of public health in the United States today . . ." Social Impact , 43. [BACK]

29. Social Impact, 7. [BACK]

30. Social Impact, 10. [BACK]

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