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1. For the history of France in the fifteenth century, see Autrand, Charles VI , 538-600; M. G. A. Vale, Charles VII (Berkeley, 1974); and G. du Fresne de Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII (Paris, 1881-91). [BACK]

2. When the Valois came to the throne, they promoted themselves as Capetians. English successors to the Valois employed the same tactics, even to the sleight-of-hand necessary to make Henry V both a direct descendant of Saint Louis and a legitimate king of England. Henry's father, Henry IV, had deposed the legitimate king, Richard II, in 1399. See Benedicta J. H. Rowe, "King Henry VI's Claim to France in Picture and Poem," The Library , 4th series, no. 13 (1933): 80-81. For earlier Plantagenet propaganda, see text pages 62-68.

For adaptations of traditional forms of French coinage for the new government, see J. W. McKenna, "Henry VI of England and the Dual Monarchy: Aspects of Royal Political Propaganda 1422-32," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes , 28 (1965): 145-62; for genealogical posters displayed in public in Paris, see McKenna, "Henry VI," 151-55; and Rowe, "King Henry VI's Claim," 77-88. For public celebrations (coronations, entries, pageants), see McKenna, "Henry VI," 156-61; Mary Floran, "Document relatif à l'entrée du roi d'Angleterre Henri VI à Paris en 1431," Revue des études historique 75 (1909): 411-15; Guenée and Lehoux, Entrées royales , 59-70; and Bryant, The King and the City , 84-88, 158-59, 178-80. [BACK]

3. Programs ranging from public ceremony to private manuscript commissions testify to the dynastic concerns of these late Valois monarchs. For a discussion of literature and manuscript commissions that promoted the religion royale , see Hindman and Spiegel, "The Fleurs-de-lis Frontispiece," 405-7; and Robert Scheller, "Imperial Themes in Art and Literature of the Early French Renaissance: The Period of Charles VIII," Simiolus 12 (1981-82): 5-69. For discussions of royal entries, see Guenée and Lehoux, Entrées royales , 70-136, 156-306; and Bryant, The King and the City . [BACK]

4. For a sketch of fifteenth-century historiography, see Spiegel, Chronicle Tradition , 123-36. [BACK]

5. Of the approximately 30 copies of the Grandes Chroniques that survive from the mid-fifteenth century, at least 20 were unillustrated; of these 20, 18 were written on paper or on paper gatherings with outer leaves of parchment. Colophons provide an idea of the audience for these books. They seem to have been written by notaries for their own use or by scribes for the use of other bureaucrats. Thus on the last page of B.N. fr. 4955 is a signature by a notary and secretary to Charles VII: "Escript par moy, Pierre de Taise. 1460.—de Taise." B.N. fr. 2612, fol. 319v, contains the inscription: "Ces croniques ont estre escriptes de la main de Nahei Fertuag pour maistre Jehan Blondeau praticien en la court de perlement. Et contiennent deux volumes, le quel blondeau, les vendra a qui vouldrea bailler argent content paix et accord ainsi que en tel cas appartient." In B.N. fr. 4984, fol. 227 is: "Explicit jusques cy en cest jour qui est le vi e jour de decembre, l'an mil iiii c lxix, et escript à Callac de la main Grest, qui avoit lxxii an d'age à janvier ensuyvant." For discussion of these and others, see Guenée, "Les Grandes Chroniques ," 206-7. [BACK]

6. On Fouquet's copy of the Grandes Chroniques , see François Avril, "Jean Fouquet, illustrateur des Grandes Chroniques de France ," in François Avril, Marie-Thérèse Gousset, and Bernard Guenée, Les Grandes Chroniques de France. Reproduction intégrale en facsimilé des miniatures de Fouquet. Manuscrit français 6465 de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris (Paris, 1987), 13-70. Avril demonstrates by a codicological study of the book that Fouquet was given an unfinished manuscript from the first third of the fifteenth century to complete. This explains the change in pictorial format to large-scale miniatures halfway through the chronicle. See also Nicole Reynaud, Jean Fouquet , Les dossiers du département des peintures, no. 22 (Paris, 1981): 60-61 no. 21. [BACK]

7. Although Saint Louis and Charlemagne were the most popular, Charles V was also used as an exemplum of kingship in entries, particularly in Louis XII's entry into Paris in continue

1498. See Guenée and Lehoux, Entrées royales , 28-29, 130, 132; and Bryant, The King and the City , 128. [BACK]

8. For the political ambitions of the last Valois kings and of Louis XII, see Scheller, "Imperial Themes;" and idem, "Ensigns of Authority: French Royal Symbolism in the Age of Louis XII," Simiolus 13 (1983): 75-141. [BACK]

9. See, for instance, the ceremonial books commemorating the entry of Francis I into Lyons in 1515 (Wolfenbuttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Cod. Guelf 86.4) and of Claude of France and Anne of Brittany into Paris in 1517 (B.N. fr. 5758). These are discussed and representative miniatures published in Hindman and Spiegel, "Fleurs-de-lis Frontispiece," 405-7 and figs. 9-10.

For specific analyses of French ceremony in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, see Ralph Giesey, The Royal Funeral Ceremony in Renaissance France , Travaux d'Humanisme et Renaissance, no. 37 (Geneva, 1960); Jackson, Vive le Roi! ; Sarah Hanley, The "Lit de Justice" of the Kings of France: Constitutional Ideology in Ceremonial, Legend, and Discourse (Princeton, 1983); and Bryant, The King and the City . For a discussion of later commemorative art, see Louis Marin, Le portrait du roi (Paris, 1981); and idem, "Inscription of the King's Memory." [BACK]

10. For reproductions of the images from Philip the Good's manuscript in Leningrad, see G. A. Tchernova, Miniatury Bolsih Francuzkih Hronik (Moscow, 1960); and Salomon Reinach, "Un manuscrit de la bibliothèque de Philippe le Bon à Saint-Petersbourg," Monuments et mémoires publiées par l'Académie des inscriptions (Fondation Piot) , 11 (1904). For further discussion of this manuscript, see Salomon Reinach, "Un manuscrit de Philippe le Bon à la Bibliothèque de Sainte-Petersbourg," Gazette des Beaux-Arts , no. 29 (1903): 265-78; no. 30 (1903): 53-65, 371-80; and Alphonse Bayot, "Sur l'exemplaire des Grandes Chroniques offert par Guillaume Filastre à Philippe le Bon," Mélanges Godefroid Kurth (Paris, 1908), 2:183-90.

Ownership of the manuscript in Paris is not as securely established; all but the date was erased from its colophon. For the attribution of this manuscript to Robinet Testard, see Avril, "Jean Fouquet, illustrateur des Grandes Chroniques de France ," 281; and for information on other commissions given this artist, also called the Master of Charles of Angôuleme, see John Plummer, The Late Flowering: French Painting in Manuscripts 1420-1530 (New York, 1982), 46-47 no. 62.

Henry VII's manuscript in London is unfinished; only 39 of the 211 miniatures planned were completed. See Gilson and Warner, Old Royal and Kings Collections , 2: 387-88. [BACK]

11. B.N. fr. 2609 shares with two copies of the Grandes Chroniques painted by the Master of Marguerite of Orléans (B.N. fr. 2605 and Châteauroux, B.M. 5) a version of the prologue of the Grandes Chroniques that suppresses particularly royalist Paris-oriented portions of the text. These suppressions include references to the commissioning of the text, the division of the text into three parts corresponding to the three races of France, and the translatio studii . König dated B.N. fr. 2605 to the mid-1420s and Châteauroux B.M. 5 to c. 1460, and he described the artist's activity in Rennes, Angers, and Poitiers. For König's discussion, see Eberhard König, Französische Buchmalerei um 1450: Der Jouvenal-Maler, der Maler des Genfer Boccacio und die Anfange Jean Fouquets (Berlin, 1982); and for further discussion of B.N. fr. 2605, see Anne D. Hedeman, "The Clovis-Charlemagne Frontispiece to the Grandes Chroniques de France (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Ms. fr. 2605)," in The Politics of Myth , ed. Christopher Basewell and Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski (Ithaca, forthcoming).

The chronicle in Leningrad contains a variety of texts. To the Grandes Chroniques through the life of Philip Augustus, it appends a version of Guillaume of Nangis's life of Saint Louis and a chronicle by Guillaume Fillastre. See Tchernova, Miniatury Bolsih Francuzkih Hronik .

For patronage at the Burgundian court of Philip the Good, see Georges Doutrepont, La littérature française à la cour des ducs de Bourgogne (Paris, 1909); Brussels, Bibliothèque continue

Royale, La miniature flamande: Le mécenat de Philippe le Bon (Brussels, 1959); and Jeffrey Chipps Smith, "The Artistic Patronage of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy 1419-67" (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1979). [BACK]

12. For Verard's royal exemplars (B.N. Rés. vélins 725-27 and 728-30), see Lejeune and Stiennon, Légende de Roland , 290-94.

Only four editions of the Grandes Chroniques were printed: in 1477 (Paris: Paquier Bonhomme), 1493 (Paris: Antoine Vérard), 1514, 1518 (both, Paris: Guillaume Eustache). For these, see Guenée, "Les Grandes Chroniques de France ," 206-08; idem, "Histoire d'un succès," 138; Lejeune and Stiennon, Légende de Roland , 1:281, 290-94; Joseph Basile Bernard van Praet, Catalogue des livres imprimés sur vélin de la Bibliothèque du Roi (Paris, 1822), 5:87-92; M. Pellechet, Catalogue générale des incunables des bibliothèques publiques de France (1905; reprinted ed., Nedeln, 1970), 407-8, 469-70; and London, British Museum, Catalogue of Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century Now in the British Museum , pt. 8 (London, 1949), 80-81.

These books usually included the Grandes Chroniques to the 1380s and supplemented the chronicle with other histories to continue it to the late fifteenth century. Although the first edition was unillustrated, the 951 woodcuts from Antoine Vérard's edition in 1493 established the pictorial cycle for subsequent printed versions of the text. Few of the pictures in Vérard's densely illustrated book relate closely to their texts. Original pictures created for the book are repeated several times without alteration within the cycle of illustrations, but the majority of the images were adapted without change from sources that had absolutely no relationship to the chronicle. Illustrations come from sources as diverse as the Old Testament (Samson, or Absalom hanging from a tree by his hair), ancient history (Battle of Amazons), or Josephus. Even the title to the last printed edition of the chronicle confirms that Guillaume Eustache viewed it in a different light. He sought to present the chronicle as a universal history; the title includes a list of nations whose histories were described in the Grandes Chroniques . In place of Vérard's, "Le premier volume Des croniq[ue]s de france. nouuellement. Imprimez a paris," Eustache puts "Le premier volume Des grans croniq[ue]s de France. Nouuellement imprimees a Paris Avecques plusieurs incidences survenues durant les regnes des trescrestiens roys de France tant es royaulmes dytallie/ Dalmaigne/ Da[n]gleterre/Despaigne/ Hongrie/ Jherusalem/ Escoce/ Turquie/ Flandres et autres lieux circonvoisins. Avecques la Cronique frere Robert Gaugin contenue la cronique Martinienne." For these see Praet, Catalogue des livres imprimés , 5:88, 90-91. [BACK]

13. B. N. fr. 4943, cited in Lejeune and Stiennon, Légende de Roland , 280. [BACK]

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