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Chapter Five— The First Stage of Execution (before 1375)

1. For a history of Charles V, see Christine de Pizan, Le livre des fais et bonnes meurs du sage roi Charles V , ed. Suzanne Solente (Paris, 1936-40); Roland Delachenal, Histoire de Charles V , (Paris, 1909-31); Cazelles, Société politique . . . Jean le Bon et Charles V ; Schramm, König von Frankreich , 1:236-45; and Joseph Calmette, Charles V (Paris, 1979).

For previous discussions of Charles V's lavish manuscript, see Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, La librairie de Charles V (Paris, 1968), 112-13, no. 195; Paris, Grand Palais, Les fastes du gothique , 329-31, no. 284; Sherman, Portraits , 41-44; and Marcel Thomas, "La visite de l'Empereur Charles IV en France d'après l'exemplaire des Grandes Chroniques executé pour le roi Charles V," Congrès international des bibliophiles, Vienna 29 septembre à 5 octobre, 1969 (Vienna, 1971), 85-98. Portions of this chapter appear in Anne D. Hedeman, "Valois Legitimacy: Editorial Changes on Charles V's Grandes Chroniques de France ," Art Bulletin 66 (1984): 97-117; idem, "Restructuring the Narrative: The Function of Ceremonial in Charles V's Grandes Chroniques de France ," Studies in the History of Art 16 (1985): 171-81; and idem, "Copies in Context: The Coronation of Charles V in his Grandes Chroniques de France ," Coronations: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual , ed. Jànos Bak (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1990), 72-87.

For ease of reference, I have assigned chapter numbers to the unnumbered rubrics for the lives of John the Good and Charles V published in the chapter list in Delachenal, ed., Grandes Chroniques , 1:1-24. In both lives the coronation is the first chapter. [BACK]

2. For Charles V's role as literary patron, see Delisle, Recherches , 1:1-124; Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Librairie ; François Avril, Manuscript Painting at the Court of France: The Fourteenth Century (New York, 1978), 24-30; Lusignan, Parler vulgairement , 133-38; Sherman, Portraits; and Paris, Grand Palais, Les fastes du gothique , 324-34.

Specialized studies include: Claire Sherman, "The Queen in Charles V's Coronation Book: Jeanne de Bourbon and the Ordo ad Reginam Benediendem ," Viator 8 (1977): 155-98; idem, "Some Visual Definitions in the Illustrations of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Politics in the French Translation of Nicole Oresme," Art Bulletin 59 (1977): 320-31; idem, "A Second Instruction to the Reader from Nicole Oresme, Translator of Aristotle's Politics and Economics ," Art Bulletin 61 (1979): 468-69; Sharon Off Dunlap Smith, "Illustrations of Raoul de Praelle's Translation of Saint Augustine's City of God between 1375 and 1420, Vols. I and II" (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1975); and Donal Byrne, " Rex Imago Dei: Charles V of France and the Livre des propriétés des choses ," Journal of Medieval History 7 (1981): 97-113. [BACK]

3. For a diagrammatic analysis of the evolution of Charles V's manuscript, see Hedeman, "Valois Legitimacy," 108-15. [BACK]

4. Although Henri de Trévou did not sign his name in B.N. fr. 2813, comparison of the scribal hand with that in a manuscript of 1379 that he did sign, Jean Golein's Livre des information des princes (B.N. fr. 1950, signed in a colophon, fol. 148v), makes it almost certain that he was the first scribe in B.N. fr. 2813. In both books the aspect of the script and the letter forms are identical, and such secondary details as the decoration for catchwords (a flourished box) and the abbreviation for nota are the same. These stylistic comparisons are confirmed by the fact that marginal notes to the scribe in Ste.-Gen. 782, the textual model continue

for B.N. fr. 2813, are addressed to "Henri." Compare as well B.N. fr. 1728 (fols. 161-end) and B.N. fr. 24287 (fols. 85v-270), attributed to Henri de Trévou in Avril, Librairie , 119-20, no. 206.

The characteristics of Raoulet d'Orléans's hand (the aspect of the script and the tendency to flourish both catchwords and notas with flourished "u"s) are evident in the latter portion of B.N. fr. 2813 and in a number of manuscripts signed by Raoulet: B.N. fr. 12465 (colophon, fol. 147v), B.N. fr. 312 (1396, colophon, fol. 394v), B.N. n. a. fr. 1982 (signed in poem, fol. 86v), and B.N. fr. 5707 (name in corrector's note, fol. 39). See as well Ex-Bute Grandes Chroniques (on deposit in the Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris) and B.N. fr. 24287 (fols. 1-85v), attributed to Raoulet in Paris, Bibliothéque Nationale, Librairie , 93-94, no. 167; 113, no. 196; 119-20, no. 206.

I would like to thank François Avril for calling the unpublished manuscripts to my attention. [BACK]

5. Delisle, Recherches , 1:312-14; see also Boinet, Les manuscrits à peintures , 39-47. Some of the rubrics added in the margins for Henri had already been incorporated into early fourteenth-century copies of the chronicle. See Chapter 2, note 4. [BACK]

6. For further discussion of the manuscripts dependent on Charles V's chronicle, see Chapter 8 of this book. [BACK]

7. For the discussion of conflicts in Normandy, see Calmette, Charles V , 62-65; and Cazelles, Société politique . . . Jean le Bon et Charles V , 421-22. [BACK]

8. Charles the Simple, chapter 2+, "The Baptism of Rollo" (fol. 166v); Louis IV, chapter 2+, "The Treason of Arnoul, the Count of Flanders" (fol. 169); and Henry, chapter 3, "The Miraculous Feat of the Chief of the Norman Soldiers" (fol. 179v). [BACK]

9. For the unction and the other sacred symbols of royalty associated with Clovis, see Bloch, The Royal Touch , 130-137. For Clovis's popularity in the Middle Ages, see Colette Beaune, "Saint Clovis: Histoire, religion royale et sentiment nationale en France à la fin du Moyen-Âge," in Le métier d'historien au Moyen-Âge: Étude sur l'historiographie médiévale , ed. Bernard Guenée (Paris, 1977), 13:139-56; and idem, Naissance de la nation France , 55-74. For the representation of Clovis's baptism in art, see Benedicta I. H. Rowe, "Notes on the Clovis Miniature and the Bedford Portrait in the Bedford Book of Hours," Journal of the British Archaeological Association , 3rd series, 25 (1962): 56-64; Sandra Hindman and Gabrielle Spiegel, "The Fleur-de-lis Frontispiece to Guillaume of Nangis's Chronique abrégée: Political Iconography in Late Fifteenth-Century France," Viator 12 (1981): 381-407; and Janet Backhouse, "A Reappraisal of the Bedford Hours," The British Library Journal 7 (1981): 47-70. [BACK]

10. See Robert Folz, L'idée d'empire en occident de V e au XIV e siècles (Paris, 1953); Speigel, " Reditus "; M. Louis Carolus-Barré and Paul Adam, "Contributions à l'étude de la légende carolingienne: Les armes de Charlemagne dans l'héraldique et l'iconographie médiévales," Mémorial d'un voyage en Rhenanie de la Société nationale des antiquaires de France (1953): 289-308; Jacques Monfrin, "Le figure de Charlemagne dans l'historiographie du XV e siècle," Annuaire-bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France (1964-65): 67-78; and Zeller, "Les rois de France." [BACK]

11. For the decoration in the Hôtel Saint-Pol, see Paul Durrieu, "La peinture en France de Jean le Bon à la mort du Charles V (1350-1380)," in André Michael, Histoire de l'art depuis les premiers temps chrétiens jusqu'à nos jours . . . (Paris, 1905-[29]), 3, pt. 1:101-137.

Charles was compared to Charlemagne in the prefaces of at least three works that he had commissioned: Raoul de Praelles's preface to his translation of the City of God (1375), the preface of Denis Foullechat's Polycraticus (1372), and Jean Corbechon's translation of De proprietatibus rerum (1372), cited by Smith, "St. Augustine's City of God ," 288. [BACK]

12. For a discussion of Charles's 1378 speech, see text pages 121-22. Although Charle-magne had been canonized at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1165, his cuit was not popular in France until the reign of Charles V. For more on the cult of Charlemagne, see Robert Folz, continue

"Aspects du culte liturgique de Saint Charlemaine en France," in Karl der Grosse , ed. W. Braunfels and P.E. Schramm (Düsseldorf, 1967), 4:77-99. [BACK]

13. In interpreting vignette as representing a historiated initial, I am following the usage in the marginal notes of Ste.-Gen. 782 that dictate the layout of miniatures in B.N. fr. 2813. These notes indicate that either a histoire or a vignette should appear in B.N. fr. 2813. The only other place where vignettes are called for in Charles V's chronicle is on fol. 219 (see Fig. 13) of Ste.-Gen. 782. There a note in the margin calls for vignettes and specifies their height (" vignettes vi [cut by margin] poins" ); two historiated initials were painted in the appropriate space in B.N. fr. 2813 (fol. 173v). This is the only surviving note calling for vignettes in the margins of Ste.-Gen. 782, and the initials executed in B.N. fr. 2813 are the only historiated initials in that manuscript. [BACK]

14. For the text of Hugh the Great's dream, see Viard, ed., Grandes Chroniques , 7:5-7. [BACK]

15. The notes regarding double miniatures in Ste.-Gen. 782, fols. 152 and 155V, occur in the fifth book of the life of Charlemagne, chapters 1 and 5. [BACK]

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