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The Russian Tradition from Potebnia to Shklovsky, with Some Poets in Between

1. Victor Erlich, Russian Formalism: History—Doctrine (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955), pp. 23-26. [BACK]

2. Aage A. Hansen-Löve, Der russische Formalismus (Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1978), pp. 43-58. [BACK]

3. Some recent articles on Potebnia in the West are Joseph Bya, "Deux précurseurs du formalisme russe: Potebnja et Vesselovsky," Revue des langues vivantes 37 (1971): 753-65; Donatella Ferrari-Bravo, "Aleksandr Afanas'evic * Potebnja," Strumenti critici 42-43 (October 1980): 563-84; John Fizer, "Similarities and Differences in Oleksandr O. Potebnja's Theory of 'Internal Form' and Roman Ingarden's 'Stratum of Aspects,'" Minutes of the Seminar in Ukrainian Studies Held at Harvard 5 (1974-75): 32-35; John Fizer, "Potebnja's Views of the Structure of the Work of Art: A Critical Retrospective," Harvard Ukrainian Studies 6, no. 1 (1983): 5-24; Renate Lachmann, "Potebnja's Concept of Image," in Linguistic and Literary Studies in Eastern Europe, vol. 8, The Structure of the Literary Process, ed. Peter Steiner (Amsterdam: John Benjamin, 1982), pp. 297-319; Pirinka Penkova, "The Derivative Semantics of A. A. Potebnja (1835-1891)," Die Welt der Slaven 22 (1977): 126-34; Willem G. Weststeijn, "A. A. Potebnja and Russian Symbolism," Russian Literature 7 (1979): 443-64. [BACK]

4. For instance, Oleg P. Presnjakov, Poètika poznanija i tvorcestva:[tvorčestva] Teorija slovesnosti A. A. Potebni (The poetics of cognition and creation: A. A. Potebnia's theory of literature) (Moscow: Xudozestvennaja * literatura, 1980). [BACK]

5. John Fizer, Alexander A. Potebnja's Psycholinguistic Theory of Literature (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986). [BACK]

6. Aleksandr Afanas'evich Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk (Thought and language) (Kharkov, 1862; rpt. Kiev: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo Ukrainy, 1926), pp. 9-22. [BACK]

7. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, pp. 22-38. [BACK]

8. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, p. 11. [BACK]

9. Cassirer, Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, 1:166. [BACK]

10. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, p. 77. [BACK]

11. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, p. 77. [BACK]

12. Andrei Bely, "Mysl' i jazyk. Filosofija jazyka A. A. Potebni" (Thought and language. A. A. Potebnia's philosophy of language), Logos (Moscow) 2 (1910): 240-58. The quoted passage appears on p. 251. [BACK]

13. John Fizer talks about the analogy Potebnja makes between artworks continue

and words in Potebnja's Psycholinguistic Theory of Literature, pp. 19-23, 36- 37. [BACK]

14. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, pp. 149, 143. [BACK]

15. Andrei Bely, Mezdu * dvux revoljucij (Between two revolutions) (Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo pisatelej, 1934), p. 377-78. [BACK]

16. Bely, Mezdu * dvux revoljucij, p. 376. [BACK]

17. Andrei Bely, Simvolizm (Symbolism; henceforth S) (Moscow, 1910; rpt. Munich: Fink Verlag, 1969), p. 484. [BACK]

18. Bely, Mezdu * dvux revoljucij, p. 211-12. [BACK]

19. I have written about Bely's theories in several places. See Steven Cassedy, "Toward a Unified Theory of the Aesthetic Object in Andrej Belyj," Slavic and East European Journal 28 (1984): 205-22; "Belyj, 'zaum',' and the Spirit of Objectivism in Modern Russian Philosophy of Language," in Andrej Belyj pro et contra: Atti del I Simposio Internazionale Andrej Belyj (Milan: Edizioni Unicopli, 1986), pp. 23-30; "Bely's Theory of Symbolism as a Formal Iconics of Meaning" and "Bely the Thinker," both in Andrey Bely: Spirit of Symbolism, ed. John E. Malmstad (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987), pp. 285-312 and 313-35, respectively. [BACK]

20. English translation in Selected Essays of Andrey Bely (henceforth SE ), ed. and trans. Steven Cassedy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985), p. 95. [BACK]

21. Aleksandr Afanas'evich Potebnia, Iz zapisok po teorii slovesnosti (Notes on the theory of literature) (Kharkov: M. Zil'berberg, 1905). [BACK]

22. Bely, "Mysl' i jazyk," pp. 248-49. [BACK]

23. Heinrich Rickert, Der Gegenstand der Erkenntnis: Einführung in die Transzendentalphilosophie (The object of cognition: Introduction to transcendental philosophy), 2d ed., rev. and enl. (Tübingen and Leipzig: Mohr, 1904). The book came out in Russian with the title and subtitle curiously reversed, as Vvedenie v transcendental'nuju filosofiju. Predmet poznanija (Kiev, 1904). [BACK]

24. See the translator's introduction to SE, pp. 18-52, 64-69. [BACK]

25. Andrei Bely, Pocemu * ja stal simvolistom i pocemu * ja ne perestal im byt' vo vsex fazax moego idejnogo i xudozestvennogo * razvitija (Why I became a symbolist and why I never ceased being one in all the phases of my intellectual and artistic development) (Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1982), pp. 1-2. [BACK]

26. Sergei Gorodetsky, "Nekotorye tecenija * v sovremennoj russkoj poèzii" (Some currents in contemporary Russian poetry), Apollon 5, no. 1 (1913): 46- 50, at p. 48. [BACK]

27. Aleksei Kruchenykh, "Deklaracija slova, kak takovogo" (Declaration of the word as such), in Manifesty i programmy russkix futuristov, ed. Vladimir Markov (Manifestos and programs of the Russian Futurists) (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1967), pp. 63-64. The quoted passage appears on p. 63. [BACK]

28. Velimir Khlebnikov, "O prostyx imenax jazyka" (On the simple names of language), in Sobranie socinenij * (Collected works) ed. Vladimir Markov (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1968-71), 3:203-6. [BACK]

29. Aleksei Kruchenykh, "Novye puti slova" (New ways of the word), in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 64-73, at p. 66. break [BACK]

30. Velimir Khlebnikov, "O sovremennoj poèzii" (On contemporary poetry), in Sobranie socinenij * , 3:222-24, at p. 222. [BACK]

31. Velimir Khlebnikov, "O stixax" (About verses), in Sobranie socinenij * , 3:225-27, at p. 226. [BACK]

32. Raymond Cooke discusses the problem of word and world in Khlebnikov in Velimir Khlebnikov: A Critical Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 73-74. He also cites Ronald Vroon on the subject. See Ronald Vroon, Velimir Xlebnikov's Shorter Poems: A Key to the Coinages (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983), p. 10. [BACK]

33. Markov, Manifesty i programmy, p. 66. [BACK]

34. The phrase word as such, with one variation, appears as the theme or title of at least four important Cubo-Futurist manifestos, all reprinted in Markov, Manifesty i programmy : "Slovo kak takovoe" (The word as such), by Kruchenykh and Khlebnikov, pp. 53-58; an originally untitled manifesto by Kruchenykh and Khlebnikov, p. 59, containing the expression slovo kak takovoe and later unofficially given this title in the Markov collection and in Khlebnikov's collected works; "Bukva kak takovaja" (The letter as such), by Kruchenykh and Khlebnikov, pp. 60-61; and Kruchenykh, "Deklaracija slova, kak takovogo," pp. 63-64. I cited Bely's phrase above, p. 42. [BACK]

35. Viktor Shklovsky, "O poèzii i zaumnom jazyke" (On poetry and transrational language), first published in Sborniki po teorii poeticeskogo * jazyka (Collections on the theory of poetic language) (Petersburg, 1916), 1:1-15; reprinted in Poètika: Sborniki po teorii poeticeskogo * jazyka (Poetics: Collections on the theory of poetic language) (Petrograd, 1919), pp. 13-26, at p. 21. [BACK]

36. Shklovsky, "0 poèzii i zaumnom jazyke," in Poètika, p. 25. [BACK]

37. Viktor Shklovsky, "Potebnja," first published in Birzevye * vedomosti, December 30, 1916; reprinted in Poètika, pp. 3-6, at p. 4. [BACK]

38. Poètika, p. 5. [BACK]

39. Erlich, Russian Formalism, p. 23. [BACK]

40. Daniel Laferrière, "Potebnja, Sklovskij * , and the Familiarity/Strangeness Paradox," Russian Literature 4 (1976): 175-99. [BACK]

41. Viktor Shklovsky, "Iskusstvo kak priem" (Art as device), first published in Sborniki po teorii poèticeskogo * jazyka (Petersburg, 1917), 2:3-14; reprinted in Texte der russischen Formalisten, ed. Jurij Striedter (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1969-72), 1:2-35; English translation, "Art as Technique," in Russian Formalist Criticism: Four Essays, trans. Lee T. Lemon and Marion J. Reis (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965), pp. 3-24. [BACK]

42. Viktor Shklovsky, "Voskresenie * slova," a brochure (Petersburg, 1914); reprinted in Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:2-17; English translation, "The Resurrection of the Word," in Russian Formalism: A Collection of Articles and Texts in Translation, ed. Stephen Bann and John E. Bowlt (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1973), pp. 41-47. [BACK]

43. Shklovsky, "Voskresenie * slova," in Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:4. [BACK]

44. Potebnia, Iz zapisok po teorii slovesnosti, p. 208. [BACK]

45. Aleksandr Nikolaevich Veselovsky, "Iz istorii èpiteta," in Istoriceskaja * continue

poètika (Historical poetics) (Leningrad, 1940; rpt. The Hague: Mouton, 1970), pp. 73-92. [BACK]

46. Inge Paulmann, who wrote the footnotes to the second volume of the Striedter collection of formalist texts, has pointed out some of Shklovsky's borrowings from Veselovsky. See Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:418n. [BACK]

47. Veselovsky, "Iz istorii èpiteta," pp. 73-74. [BACK]

48. Shklovsky, "Potebnja," in Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:6. [BACK]

49. Veselovsky, "Iz istorii èpiteta," pp. 81-82. [BACK]

50. See, for example, Erlich, Russian Formalism, pp. 28-30, and Bya, "Deux prècurseurs," pp. 763. [BACK]

51. For the passage from the Iliad, see Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:6; Veselovsky, "Iz istorii èpiteta," p. 82; and Potebnia, Iz zapisok po teorii slovesnosti, p. 214. For "white hands," see Striedter, 2: 6; Veselovsky, p. 81; and Potebnia, p. 213. For "mucky mud," see Striedter, 2:4; Veselovsky, p. 74; and Potebnia, p. 212. [BACK]

52. Potebnia, Iz zapisok po teorii slovesnosti, p. 212. [BACK]

53. Roman Jakobson, "Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances," in Selected Writings (The Hague: Mouton, 1971- ), 2:239-59. See below, p. 123. [BACK]

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