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Chapter Ten— The Being of Artworks

1. Roman Ingarden, Das literarische Kunstwerk, 2d ed. (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1960), p. 1; English translation, The Literary Work of Art: An Investigation on the Borderlines of Ontology, Logic, and Theory of Literature, trans. George G. Grabowicz (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1973), p. 3. [BACK]

2. Most of this analysis can be found in the concluding sections (115-17) of Baumgarten's Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus (Philosophical meditations on several matters pertaining to the poem); English translation, Reflections on Poetry, trans. Karl Aschenbrenner and William B. Holther (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1954), pp. 77-79. Section 116 is where Baumgarten introduces the term aesthetic to designate the "science of perception," or science that investigates the lower faculty. [BACK]

3. Waldemar Conrad, "Der ästhetische Gegenstand: Eine phänomenologische Studie," Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft 3 (1908): 71-118, 469-511; and 4 (1909): 400-455. Even the standard history of the phenomenological movement makes no mention of Conrad. See Herbert Spiegelberg, The Phenomenological Movement: A Historical Introduction, 2 vols. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1960). The standard full-length book on phenomenology and literature also contains no reference to Conrad. See Robert R. Magliola, Phenomenology and Literature: An Introduction (West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1977). [BACK]

4. Conrad, "Ästhetische Gegenstand," 3 (1908): 76. [BACK]

5. Conrad, "Ästhetische Gegenstand," 4 (1909): 452-54. [BACK]

6. See Roman Ingarden, "Phenomenological Aesthetics: An Attempt at Defining its Range," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 33 (1974-75): 257-69. Ingarden talks about Conrad on p. 258. [BACK]

7. Ingarden, Literarische Kunstwerk, pp. 121-33 (secs. 20-21); Literary Work of Art, pp. 117-27. [BACK]

8. Roman Ingarden, Untersuchungen zur Ontologie der Kunst (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1962). [BACK]

9. René Wellek, "The Mode of Existence of a Literary Work of Art," Southern Review 7 (1942): 735-54. [BACK]

10. René Wellek and Austin Warren, Theory of Literature (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949), chap. 12, "The Analysis of the Literary Work of Art," pp. 139-58. The discussion of Ingarden is on p. 152. [BACK]

11. Stephen Pepper, The Work of Art (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1955); George Dickie, Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis continue

(Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974); Nelson Goodman, Ways of Worldmaking (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1978); Arthur C. Danto, The Transfiguration of the Commonplace: A Philosophy of Art (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981). [BACK]

12. Martin Heidegger, "Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes," in Holzwege (Frankfurt-am-Main: Klostermann, 1950), pp. 7-68. [BACK]

13. Heidegger, "Ursprung," p. 39. See below, pp. 222-23, for the distinction between Being and being. [BACK]

14. Heidegger, Sein und Zeit (Halle: Niemeyer, 1927), p. 227. [BACK]

15. Heidegger, "Ursprung," p. 59. [BACK]

16. Heidegger, "Ursprung," p. 60. [BACK]

17. The phrase is featured, for example, in "Das Wesen der Sprache," in Unterwegs zur Sprache (Pfullingen: Neske, 1959), pp. 157-216. [BACK]

18. Heidegger, "Ursprung," pp. 61-62. [BACK]

19. See Bloom, Closing of the American Mind . [BACK]

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