previous sub-section
next sub-section

Chapter Nine— How Numbers Ran Amok in Russia

1. Alexander Vucinich, Science in Russian Culture, 1861-1917 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1970), pp. 351-54. [BACK]

2. Vucinich, Science, pp. 354-55. break [BACK]

3. Andrei Bely, "Princip formy v èstetike," in S, pp. 175-94; English translation in SE, pp. 205-21. [BACK]

4. This figure is given in B. O. Unbegaun, Russian Versification (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956), p. 36. [BACK]

5. Roman Jakobson, "On Verse, Its Masters and Explorers," in SW, 5:569-601. [BACK]

6. Jakobson and Lévi-Strauss, "«Les chats» de Charles Baudelaire," pp. 401-19, at p. 414. [BACK]

7. The standard English-language work on Russian Futurism is Vladimir Markov, Russian Futurism: A History (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968). See also, specifically on Cubo-Futurism, Vahan D. Barooshian, Russian Cubo-Futurism 1910-1930: A Study in Avant-Gardism (The Hague: Mouton, 1974). [BACK]

8. Gianni Vattimo, La fine della modernità (Milan: Garzanti, 1985), p. 10; English translation, The End of Modernity: Nihilism and Hermeneutics in Post-Modern Culture, trans. Jon Snyder (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), p. 2. This account of modernity is not Vattimo's own; it is the one he finds in Nietzsche and Heidegger. [BACK]

9. "Poscecina * obscestvennomu * vkusu" (A slap in the face of public taste), signed by David Burliuk, Aleksandr Kruchenykh, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Viktor Khlebnikov (Viktor was Khlebnikov's real name; Velimir was a name he adopted). This manifesto was originally published in 1912 and is reprinted in Vladimir Markov, Manifesty i programmy russkix futuristov (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1967), pp. 50—51; English translation in The Ardis Anthology of Russian Futurism, ed. Ellendea Proffer and Carl. R. Proffer (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ardis, 1980), p. 179. "Idite k cortu * " (Go to hell) also appears in Markov, pp. 80-81. [BACK]

10. Velimir Khlebnikov, "Vremja mera mira" (Time is the measure of the world), in Sobranie socineni * (Collected works), ed. Vladimir Markov (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1968-71), 3:435-55. [BACK]

11. Khlebnikov, "Vremja mera mira," 3:446—47. The quotation from Leibniz is actually a paraphrase of a passage in On the Universal Science: Characteristic (Scientia Generalis. Characteristica ), section 14; see Monadology and Other Philosophical Essays, trans. Paul Schrecker and Anne Martin Schrecker (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965), p. 14; original published in Die philosophischen Schriften von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, ed. C. J. Gerhardt (Berlin, 1875-90), 7:200. [BACK]

12. Khlebnikov, "Vremja mera mira," 3:447. [BACK]

13. Khlebnikov, SS, 3:158; English translation in Snake Train: Poetry and Prose, ed. Gary Kern, trans. Gary Kern et al. (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ardis, 1976), p. 192, and Collected Works of Velimir Khlebnikov, ed. Charlotte Douglas, trans. Paul Schmidt, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987), 1:358. [BACK]

14. Mallarmé, OC, p. 364. Tzvetan Todorov wrote about Khlebnikov's theories of numbers, letters, and words in an essay published back when few people were writing about Khlebnikov. See "Le nombre, la lettre, le mot," in Poétique de la prose (Paris: Seuil, 1971), pp. 197-211. Todorov also compares Khlebnikov with Mallarmé. Raymond Cooke devotes some pages to Khlebni- soft

kov's ideas about numbers and words in Velimir Khlebnikov: A Critical Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 99-103. [BACK]

15. David Burliuk, "Doitel' iznurennyx zab * ," in the miscellany Futuristy: Rykajuscij [Rykajuščij] Parnas (Futurists: Roaring Parnassus) (Petersburg, 1914). [BACK]

16. Nikolai Burliuk, "poeticeskie * nacala[načala" (Poetic principles), in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, p. 78. [BACK]

17. El Lissitzky, "Pro dva kvadrata," included in reduced reproduction in El Lissitzky: Life, Letters, Texts, ed. Sophie Lissitzky-Küppers (London: Thames and Hudson, 1968). [BACK]

18. Lissitzky-Küppers, El Lissitzky, plates 152-56. The project is described on pp. 86, 387. [BACK]

19. Serres, Hermès, p. 33. [BACK]

20. David Burliuk, "Kubizm" (Cubism), in Poscecina * obscestvennomu * vkusu] (A slap in the face of public taste) (Moscow, 1912), pp. 95-101; English translation in the extremely valuable book edited by John E. Bowlt, Russian Art of the Avant-Garde: Theory and Criticism, 1902-1934 (New York: Viking, 1976), pp. 69-77, at pp. 73, 75. [BACK]

21. Mikhail Larionov and Natal'ia Goncharova, "Lucisty * i buduscniki * . Manifest" (Rayonists and Futurists: A Manifesto), in Oslinyj xvost i misen * (Donkey's tail and target) (Moscow, 1913), pp. 9-48; reprinted in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 175-79; English translation in Bowlt, Russian Art of the Avant-Garde, pp. 87-91. The quoted passages appear on pp. 177-78 of the Markov edition and pp. 90-91 of the Bowlt translation. [BACK]

22. Sergei Bobrov, "Liriceskaja tema[Liriˇeskaja tema]" (The lyric theme), in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 98-106, at p. 103. [BACK]

23. Kazimir Malevich, Ot kubizma i futurizma k suprematizmu. Novyjzivopisnyj * realizm] (Moscow, 1916), pp. 9, 10, 17, 23, 28; English translation in Bowlt, Russian Art of the Avant-Garde, pp. 116-35, at pp. 122, 123, 127, 130, 133. [BACK]

24. Benedikt Livshits, "V citadeli revoljucionnogo slova," Puti tvorcestva * , no. 5 (1919); English translation by Vladimir Markov in Russian Futurism, p. 403 n. 27. [BACK]

25. Benedikt Livshits, Polutoroglazyj strelec (Leningrad, 1933), p. 49. This book has been translated by John E. Bowlt as The One and a Half-Eyed Archer (Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1977). The passage I have cited appears in Bowlt's translation on p. 57, although with a misprint. Bowlt's book has "mutual functional independence," undoubtedly for "mutual functional inter dependence." [BACK]

26. Linda Dalrymple Henderson, The Fourth Dimension and Non-Euclidean Geometry in Modern Art (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983). Chapter 5, "Transcending the Present: The Fourth Dimension in the Philosophy of Ouspensky and in Russian Futurism and Suprematism" (pp. 238-99), is specifically about Russia. Henderson treated the subject in her Ph.D. dissertation, "The Artist, 'The Fourth Dimension,' and Non-Euclidean Geometry, 1900- 1930: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (Yale University, 1975). See also her "The Merging of Time and Space: The 'Fourth Dimension' in Russia from Ouspensky to Malevich," Soviet Union 5 (1978): 171-203, presenting some of the continue

same material as chapter 5 of the book; and an early article on a related subject, "A New Facet of Cubism: 'The Fourth Dimension' and 'Non-Euclidean Geometry' Reinterpreted," Art Quarterly 34 (1971): 410-33. [BACK]

27. Aleksei Kruchenykh, "Novye puri slova" (New ways of the word), in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 66, 68. Cited in Henderson, Fourth Dimension, pp. 271-72. [BACK]

previous sub-section
next sub-section