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Chapter Four— How God Didn't Quite Die in France

1. Jean-Paul Sartre, Mallarmé: La lucidité et sa face d'ombre, ed. Arlette Elkaïm-Sartre (Paris: Gallimard, 1986). [BACK]

2. Foucault, Les mots et les choses, p. 317; The Order of Things, p. 306. See above, p. 28. [BACK]

3. Austin Gill, The Early Mallarmé, vol. 1, Parentage, Early Years and Juvenilia (Oxford: Clarendon, 1979), p. 55. The letter is quoted on p. 54. break [BACK]

4. L.-J. Austin, "Mallarmé et le rêve du 'Livre,'" Mercure de France 317 (1953): 81-108. [BACK]

5. Many critics have commented on Mallarmé's religious upbringing. A review of opinions up to the early 1970s may be found in Michael Danahy, "The Drama of Hérodiade: Liturgy and Irony," Modern Language Quarterly 34 (1973): 293 n. 4. Danahy lists several prominent Mallarmé scholars: Henri Mondor, L.-J. Austin, Kurt Wais, and Charles Mauron. A précis of scholarly opinion on Mallarmé and Christianity up to the late 1960s may be found in A. Muller, De Rabelais à Paul Valéry: Les grands écrivains devant le christianisme (Paris: Foulon, 1969), pp. 207—9. Paula Gilbert Lewis has written on the role of religion in Mallarmé's aesthetics in The Aesthetics of Stéphane Mallarmé in Relation to His Public (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1976). She discusses Mallarmé's early religious attitudes on pp. 22-23, referring to some of his juvenile compositions. A few other studies on the subject are Antoine Orliac, Mallarmé tel qu'en lui-même (Paris: Mercure de France, 1948), "La cathédrale symboliste," pp. 227-41; Austin Gill, "Mallarmé's Use of Christian Imagery for Post-Christian Concepts," in Order and Adventure in Post-Romantic French Poetry: Essays Presented to C. A. Hackett, ed. E. M. Beaumont, J. M. Cocking, J. Cruickshank (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1973), pp. 72-88; and Jewel Spears Brooker, "The Dispensations of Art: Mallarmé and the Fallen Reader," Southern Review 19 (1983): 17-38. [BACK]

6. Mallarmé to Henri Cazalis, June 1866, in Stéphane Mallarmé, Correspondance, ed. Henri Mondor with Jean-Pierre Richard (Paris: Gallimard, 1959), p. 220. [BACK]

7. Mallarmé to Théodore Aubanel, July 16, 1866, Correspondance, p. 222. [BACK]

8. Mallarmé to Cazalis, May 14, 1867, Correspondance, pp. 240-41. [BACK]

9. Mallarmé to Cazalis, May 14, 1867, Correspondance, pp. 242-43. [BACK]

10. Pour un tombeau d'Anatole, ed. Jean-Pierre Richard (Paris: Seuil, 1961). [BACK]

11. Guy Delfel, L'esthétique de Stéphane Mallarmé, chap. 3, "Une religion esthétique," (Paris: Flammarion, 1951), pp. 79-109. [BACK]

12. Delfel, L'esthétique, p. 80. [BACK]

13. Delfel, L'esthétique, p. 93: "Je ne crois pas que Mallarmé ait jamais perdu la foi" ("I don't think Mallarmé ever lost his faith"). [BACK]

14. Delfel, L'esthétique, p. 88-89. [BACK]

15. Jean-Pierre Richard, L'univers imaginaire de Mallarmé (Paris: Seuil, 1961), p. 412. [BACK]

16. Cited in Richard, L'univers, p. 417. Richard quotes from a text where Mallarmé used the identical passage. See above, p. 72, for my earlier discussion. [BACK]

17. Mallarmé to Cazalis, May 14, 1867, Correspondance, pp. 243-44. [BACK]

18. Jacques Scherer, Le "Livre" de Mallarmé: Premiéres recherches sur des documents inédits (Paris: Gallimard, 1957). [BACK]

19. Scherer, " Livre " p. 152. The manuscript notes, which form the second part of Scherer's book, are paginated separately by means of a system that includes letters in addition to numbers. [BACK]

20. Two studies that were written before the publication of Scherer's book are Deborah A. K. Aish, "Le Rêve de Stéphane Mallarmé d'après sa correspon- soft

dance," PMLA 56 (1941): 874-84; and Austin, "Mallarmé et le rêve du 'Livre,' " 81-108. Jean-Pierre Richard devotes a brief section to the Livre at the end of L'Univers imaginaire de Mallarmé, pp. 565-74. A. R. Chisholm feels that there is no connection between Scherer's notes and Mallarmé's Grand Oeuvre, a point he argues in Mallarmé's "Grande Oeuvre" (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1962). A few other studies are Marianne Kesting, "Entwurf des absoluten Buches: Über Stéphane Mallarmé," in Vermessung des Labyrinths: Studien zur modernen Ästhetik (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1965), pp. 31-49; Josef Theisen, "Endzeit des Buches? Betrachtungen zu Mallarmé's Livre," Die neueren Sprachen 18 (1969): 365-72; and Virginia A. la Charité, "Mallarmé's Livre : The Graphomatics of the Text," Symposium 34 (1980): 249-59. La Charité argues more strongly than most against the existence of the Livre either as an unfinished project or as one of Mallarmé's actual texts. The best discussion of the Livre that I know of—one, incidentally, that does not take a position on the existence or nonexistence of the project, is Gerald L. Bruns, "Mallarmé: The Transcendence of Language and the Aesthetics of the Book," a chapter in his fascinating Modern Poetry and the Idea of Language (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974), pp. 101-17. See above, p. 196, for a discussion of Bruns. I myself have talked about the Livre in two articles. See Steven Cassedy, "Mallarmé and Andrej Belyj: Mathematics and the Phenomenality of the Literary Object," MLN 96 (1981): 1066-83; and "Mathematics, Relationalism, and the Rise of Modern Literary Aesthetics," Journal ofthe History of Ideas 49 (1988): 109-32. [BACK]

21. Lentricchia, After the New Criticism . Lentricchia makes this point especially forcefully in chapter 4, "Uncovering History and the Reader: Structuralism," pp. 102-54. [BACK]

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