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1. Paul de Man, Blindness and Insight (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), p. 31. break [BACK]

2. Frank Lentricchia, After the New Criticism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), p. xii. [BACK]

3. Robert Greer Cohn, "Mallarmé on Derrida," The French Review 61 (1988): 884-89, at p. 888. [BACK]

4. Paul de Man, Allegories of Reading: Figural Language in Rousseau, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Proust (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), p. 47. See below, p. 225. [BACK]

5. De Man, Blindness and Insight, p. 185. [BACK]

6. Terry Eagleton, Literary Theory: An Introduction (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983). I review Eagleton's presentation in chapter 4. [BACK]

7. Lentricchia, After the New Criticism, p. 293. [BACK]

8. Claude Bremond, Logique du récit (Paris: Seuil, 1973). [BACK]

9. Allan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today's Students (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987), p. 379. [BACK]

10. See below, pp. 222-23. [BACK]

11. John Macquarrie, Principles of Christian Theology (New York: Scribners, 1966), p. 105. [BACK]

12. Signs of the Times, ed. Stephen Heath, Colin MacCabe, and Christopher Prendergast (Cambridge: Granta, 1971), p. 48. [BACK]

13. See, for example, Robert Greer Cohn, "Derrida at Yale," New Criterion 4, no. 9 (May 1986): 82—84. Cohn says that Derrida "leans heavily on Nietzsche, Heidegger, Blanchot, and, not least, Mallarmé" (p. 83). [BACK]

Chapter One— Flight from Eden: Myths about Myths about Language in Modern Times

1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Oeuvres complètes (Paris: Pléiade, 1964), 3:148. [BACK]

2. Rousseau, Essai sur l'origine des langues (Paris: Bibliothèque du Graphe, 1970), p. 506. [BACK]

3. Rousseau, Essai sur l'origine des langues, p. 505. [BACK]

4. Eugenio Coseriu, "L'arbitraire du signe: Zur Spätgeschichte eines aristotelischen Begriffes," Archiv für die neueren Sprachen, 204 (1967-68): 81-112. [BACK]

5. Viktor Shklovsky, "Potebnja," in Poètika: Sborniki po teorii poèticeskogo * jazyka (Petrograd, 1919), pp. 3-6. [BACK]

6. Jakobson, "Retrospect," in Selected Writings (The Hague: Mouton, 1971- ), 1:631-33. [BACK]

7. Shklovsky, "Potebnja," pp. 5-6. [BACK]

8. Michel Foucault, Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines (Paris: Gallimard, 1966), p. 248; English translation, The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (New York: Vintage, 1973), p. 235. All translations from Foucault are mine. [BACK]

9. Foucault, Les mots et les choses, pp. 309, 315; The Order of Things, pp. 296, 304. [BACK]

10. Foucault, Les mots et les choses, pp. 317, 318; The Order of Things, pp. 306, 307. break [BACK]

11. Edmund Husserl, Logische Untersuchungen, 5th ed. (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1968), 2:105; English translation, Logical Investigations, trans. J. N. Findlay (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970), 1:333. [BACK]

12. Husserl, Logische Untersuchungen, 2:23; Logical Investigations, 1:269. [BACK]

13. Roman Ingarden, Das literarische Kunstwerk, 3d ed. (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1965), p. 104; English translation, The Literary Work of Art, trans. George G. Grabowicz (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1973), p. 100. [BACK]

14. Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Signes (Paris: Gallimard, 1960), pp. 112-14; English translation, Signs, trans. Richard C. McCleary (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1964), pp. 89-91. [BACK]

15. Jacques Derrida, De la grammatologie (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1967), p. 102; English translation, Of Grammatology, trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974), p. 69. All translations from Derrida are mine. [BACK]

16. Derrida, De la grammatologie, p. 104; Of Grammatology, p. 71. [BACK]

17. Derrida, De la grammatologie, pp. 96-97; Of Grammatology, pp. 65-66. [BACK]

18. Cleanth Brooks, The Well Wrought Urn (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1947). [BACK]

19. W. K. Wimsatt, Jr., and Monroe Beardsley, "The Intentional Fallacy," Sewanee Review 54 (1946): 468-88, reprinted in W. K. Wimsatt, Jr., The Verbal Icon (Le xington, Ky.: University of Kentucky Press, 1954), pp. 3-18. [BACK]

20. Monroe Beardsley, Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1958). [BACK]

21. W. K. Wimsatt, Jr., and Cleanth Brooks, Literary Criticism: A Short History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 2:664. [BACK]

22. See especially "Discourse in the Novel" (1934-35), in Mikhail Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, ed. Michael Holquist (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981), pp. 259-422. [BACK]

23. E. D. Hirsch, Validity in Interpretation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967). [BACK]

24. Timothy Clark briefly mentions Derrida's distinction between literary and philosophical texts in "Being in Mime: Heidegger and Derrida on the Ontology of Literary Language," MLN 101 (1986): 1003-21. [BACK]

25. Aristotle, Poetics, 1451b. [BACK]

26. Herder, Werke, 5 vols. (Berlin and Weimar: Aufbau-Verlag, 1982), 2:132-33. [BACK]

27. M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition (London: Oxford University Press, 1953), p. 316. [BACK]

28. William Wordsworth, Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, in Prose of the Romantic Period, ed. Carl Woodring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961), p. 56. The sentence from the footnote is cited in Abrams, Mirror and the Lamp, p. 101. [BACK]

29. Wilhelm von Humboldt, Gesammelte Schriften, ed. Albert Leitzmann (Berlin, 1907; rpt. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1968), 7:193-202. [BACK]

30. Humboldt, Gesammelte Schriften, 7:44-46. break [BACK]

31. Humboldt, Gesammelte Schriften, 7: 86. [BACK]

32. Humboldt, Gesammelte Schriften, 7:90. [BACK]

33. Humboldt, Gesammelte Schriften, 7:93-94. [BACK]

34. Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, vol. 1, Language, trans. Ralph Manheim (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955), pp. 161-63. The work was published in German between 1923 and 1929. [BACK]

The Russian Tradition from Potebnia to Shklovsky, with Some Poets in Between

1. Victor Erlich, Russian Formalism: History—Doctrine (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955), pp. 23-26. [BACK]

2. Aage A. Hansen-Löve, Der russische Formalismus (Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1978), pp. 43-58. [BACK]

3. Some recent articles on Potebnia in the West are Joseph Bya, "Deux précurseurs du formalisme russe: Potebnja et Vesselovsky," Revue des langues vivantes 37 (1971): 753-65; Donatella Ferrari-Bravo, "Aleksandr Afanas'evic * Potebnja," Strumenti critici 42-43 (October 1980): 563-84; John Fizer, "Similarities and Differences in Oleksandr O. Potebnja's Theory of 'Internal Form' and Roman Ingarden's 'Stratum of Aspects,'" Minutes of the Seminar in Ukrainian Studies Held at Harvard 5 (1974-75): 32-35; John Fizer, "Potebnja's Views of the Structure of the Work of Art: A Critical Retrospective," Harvard Ukrainian Studies 6, no. 1 (1983): 5-24; Renate Lachmann, "Potebnja's Concept of Image," in Linguistic and Literary Studies in Eastern Europe, vol. 8, The Structure of the Literary Process, ed. Peter Steiner (Amsterdam: John Benjamin, 1982), pp. 297-319; Pirinka Penkova, "The Derivative Semantics of A. A. Potebnja (1835-1891)," Die Welt der Slaven 22 (1977): 126-34; Willem G. Weststeijn, "A. A. Potebnja and Russian Symbolism," Russian Literature 7 (1979): 443-64. [BACK]

4. For instance, Oleg P. Presnjakov, Poètika poznanija i tvorcestva:[tvorčestva] Teorija slovesnosti A. A. Potebni (The poetics of cognition and creation: A. A. Potebnia's theory of literature) (Moscow: Xudozestvennaja * literatura, 1980). [BACK]

5. John Fizer, Alexander A. Potebnja's Psycholinguistic Theory of Literature (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986). [BACK]

6. Aleksandr Afanas'evich Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk (Thought and language) (Kharkov, 1862; rpt. Kiev: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo Ukrainy, 1926), pp. 9-22. [BACK]

7. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, pp. 22-38. [BACK]

8. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, p. 11. [BACK]

9. Cassirer, Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, 1:166. [BACK]

10. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, p. 77. [BACK]

11. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, p. 77. [BACK]

12. Andrei Bely, "Mysl' i jazyk. Filosofija jazyka A. A. Potebni" (Thought and language. A. A. Potebnia's philosophy of language), Logos (Moscow) 2 (1910): 240-58. The quoted passage appears on p. 251. [BACK]

13. John Fizer talks about the analogy Potebnja makes between artworks continue

and words in Potebnja's Psycholinguistic Theory of Literature, pp. 19-23, 36- 37. [BACK]

14. Potebnia, Mysl' i jazyk, pp. 149, 143. [BACK]

15. Andrei Bely, Mezdu * dvux revoljucij (Between two revolutions) (Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo pisatelej, 1934), p. 377-78. [BACK]

16. Bely, Mezdu * dvux revoljucij, p. 376. [BACK]

17. Andrei Bely, Simvolizm (Symbolism; henceforth S) (Moscow, 1910; rpt. Munich: Fink Verlag, 1969), p. 484. [BACK]

18. Bely, Mezdu * dvux revoljucij, p. 211-12. [BACK]

19. I have written about Bely's theories in several places. See Steven Cassedy, "Toward a Unified Theory of the Aesthetic Object in Andrej Belyj," Slavic and East European Journal 28 (1984): 205-22; "Belyj, 'zaum',' and the Spirit of Objectivism in Modern Russian Philosophy of Language," in Andrej Belyj pro et contra: Atti del I Simposio Internazionale Andrej Belyj (Milan: Edizioni Unicopli, 1986), pp. 23-30; "Bely's Theory of Symbolism as a Formal Iconics of Meaning" and "Bely the Thinker," both in Andrey Bely: Spirit of Symbolism, ed. John E. Malmstad (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987), pp. 285-312 and 313-35, respectively. [BACK]

20. English translation in Selected Essays of Andrey Bely (henceforth SE ), ed. and trans. Steven Cassedy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985), p. 95. [BACK]

21. Aleksandr Afanas'evich Potebnia, Iz zapisok po teorii slovesnosti (Notes on the theory of literature) (Kharkov: M. Zil'berberg, 1905). [BACK]

22. Bely, "Mysl' i jazyk," pp. 248-49. [BACK]

23. Heinrich Rickert, Der Gegenstand der Erkenntnis: Einführung in die Transzendentalphilosophie (The object of cognition: Introduction to transcendental philosophy), 2d ed., rev. and enl. (Tübingen and Leipzig: Mohr, 1904). The book came out in Russian with the title and subtitle curiously reversed, as Vvedenie v transcendental'nuju filosofiju. Predmet poznanija (Kiev, 1904). [BACK]

24. See the translator's introduction to SE, pp. 18-52, 64-69. [BACK]

25. Andrei Bely, Pocemu * ja stal simvolistom i pocemu * ja ne perestal im byt' vo vsex fazax moego idejnogo i xudozestvennogo * razvitija (Why I became a symbolist and why I never ceased being one in all the phases of my intellectual and artistic development) (Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1982), pp. 1-2. [BACK]

26. Sergei Gorodetsky, "Nekotorye tecenija * v sovremennoj russkoj poèzii" (Some currents in contemporary Russian poetry), Apollon 5, no. 1 (1913): 46- 50, at p. 48. [BACK]

27. Aleksei Kruchenykh, "Deklaracija slova, kak takovogo" (Declaration of the word as such), in Manifesty i programmy russkix futuristov, ed. Vladimir Markov (Manifestos and programs of the Russian Futurists) (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1967), pp. 63-64. The quoted passage appears on p. 63. [BACK]

28. Velimir Khlebnikov, "O prostyx imenax jazyka" (On the simple names of language), in Sobranie socinenij * (Collected works) ed. Vladimir Markov (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1968-71), 3:203-6. [BACK]

29. Aleksei Kruchenykh, "Novye puti slova" (New ways of the word), in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 64-73, at p. 66. break [BACK]

30. Velimir Khlebnikov, "O sovremennoj poèzii" (On contemporary poetry), in Sobranie socinenij * , 3:222-24, at p. 222. [BACK]

31. Velimir Khlebnikov, "O stixax" (About verses), in Sobranie socinenij * , 3:225-27, at p. 226. [BACK]

32. Raymond Cooke discusses the problem of word and world in Khlebnikov in Velimir Khlebnikov: A Critical Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 73-74. He also cites Ronald Vroon on the subject. See Ronald Vroon, Velimir Xlebnikov's Shorter Poems: A Key to the Coinages (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983), p. 10. [BACK]

33. Markov, Manifesty i programmy, p. 66. [BACK]

34. The phrase word as such, with one variation, appears as the theme or title of at least four important Cubo-Futurist manifestos, all reprinted in Markov, Manifesty i programmy : "Slovo kak takovoe" (The word as such), by Kruchenykh and Khlebnikov, pp. 53-58; an originally untitled manifesto by Kruchenykh and Khlebnikov, p. 59, containing the expression slovo kak takovoe and later unofficially given this title in the Markov collection and in Khlebnikov's collected works; "Bukva kak takovaja" (The letter as such), by Kruchenykh and Khlebnikov, pp. 60-61; and Kruchenykh, "Deklaracija slova, kak takovogo," pp. 63-64. I cited Bely's phrase above, p. 42. [BACK]

35. Viktor Shklovsky, "O poèzii i zaumnom jazyke" (On poetry and transrational language), first published in Sborniki po teorii poeticeskogo * jazyka (Collections on the theory of poetic language) (Petersburg, 1916), 1:1-15; reprinted in Poètika: Sborniki po teorii poeticeskogo * jazyka (Poetics: Collections on the theory of poetic language) (Petrograd, 1919), pp. 13-26, at p. 21. [BACK]

36. Shklovsky, "0 poèzii i zaumnom jazyke," in Poètika, p. 25. [BACK]

37. Viktor Shklovsky, "Potebnja," first published in Birzevye * vedomosti, December 30, 1916; reprinted in Poètika, pp. 3-6, at p. 4. [BACK]

38. Poètika, p. 5. [BACK]

39. Erlich, Russian Formalism, p. 23. [BACK]

40. Daniel Laferrière, "Potebnja, Sklovskij * , and the Familiarity/Strangeness Paradox," Russian Literature 4 (1976): 175-99. [BACK]

41. Viktor Shklovsky, "Iskusstvo kak priem" (Art as device), first published in Sborniki po teorii poèticeskogo * jazyka (Petersburg, 1917), 2:3-14; reprinted in Texte der russischen Formalisten, ed. Jurij Striedter (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1969-72), 1:2-35; English translation, "Art as Technique," in Russian Formalist Criticism: Four Essays, trans. Lee T. Lemon and Marion J. Reis (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965), pp. 3-24. [BACK]

42. Viktor Shklovsky, "Voskresenie * slova," a brochure (Petersburg, 1914); reprinted in Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:2-17; English translation, "The Resurrection of the Word," in Russian Formalism: A Collection of Articles and Texts in Translation, ed. Stephen Bann and John E. Bowlt (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1973), pp. 41-47. [BACK]

43. Shklovsky, "Voskresenie * slova," in Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:4. [BACK]

44. Potebnia, Iz zapisok po teorii slovesnosti, p. 208. [BACK]

45. Aleksandr Nikolaevich Veselovsky, "Iz istorii èpiteta," in Istoriceskaja * continue

poètika (Historical poetics) (Leningrad, 1940; rpt. The Hague: Mouton, 1970), pp. 73-92. [BACK]

46. Inge Paulmann, who wrote the footnotes to the second volume of the Striedter collection of formalist texts, has pointed out some of Shklovsky's borrowings from Veselovsky. See Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:418n. [BACK]

47. Veselovsky, "Iz istorii èpiteta," pp. 73-74. [BACK]

48. Shklovsky, "Potebnja," in Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:6. [BACK]

49. Veselovsky, "Iz istorii èpiteta," pp. 81-82. [BACK]

50. See, for example, Erlich, Russian Formalism, pp. 28-30, and Bya, "Deux prècurseurs," pp. 763. [BACK]

51. For the passage from the Iliad, see Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:6; Veselovsky, "Iz istorii èpiteta," p. 82; and Potebnia, Iz zapisok po teorii slovesnosti, p. 214. For "white hands," see Striedter, 2: 6; Veselovsky, p. 81; and Potebnia, p. 213. For "mucky mud," see Striedter, 2:4; Veselovsky, p. 74; and Potebnia, p. 212. [BACK]

52. Potebnia, Iz zapisok po teorii slovesnosti, p. 212. [BACK]

53. Roman Jakobson, "Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances," in Selected Writings (The Hague: Mouton, 1971- ), 2:239-59. See below, p. 123. [BACK]

Chapter Three— Mallarmé and the Elocutionary Disappearance of the Poet

1. Stéphane Mallarmé, Oeuvres complètes (henceforth OC ) (Paris: Pléiade, 1945), p. 257. [BACK]

2. Jacques Michon, Mallarmét Les mots anglais (Montreal: Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1978), p. 14. [BACK]

3. Edouard Gaède, "Le problème du langage chez Mallarmé," Revue d'histoire littéraire de la France 68 (1968): 54, 56, 57. [BACK]

4. See Gérard Genette, "Valéry et la poétique du langage," MLN 87 (1972): 600-615. [BACK]

Introduction: The Hidden God

1. Terry Eagleton, Literary Theory: An Introduction (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983). [BACK]

Chapter Four— How God Didn't Quite Die in France

1. Jean-Paul Sartre, Mallarmé: La lucidité et sa face d'ombre, ed. Arlette Elkaïm-Sartre (Paris: Gallimard, 1986). [BACK]

2. Foucault, Les mots et les choses, p. 317; The Order of Things, p. 306. See above, p. 28. [BACK]

3. Austin Gill, The Early Mallarmé, vol. 1, Parentage, Early Years and Juvenilia (Oxford: Clarendon, 1979), p. 55. The letter is quoted on p. 54. break [BACK]

4. L.-J. Austin, "Mallarmé et le rêve du 'Livre,'" Mercure de France 317 (1953): 81-108. [BACK]

5. Many critics have commented on Mallarmé's religious upbringing. A review of opinions up to the early 1970s may be found in Michael Danahy, "The Drama of Hérodiade: Liturgy and Irony," Modern Language Quarterly 34 (1973): 293 n. 4. Danahy lists several prominent Mallarmé scholars: Henri Mondor, L.-J. Austin, Kurt Wais, and Charles Mauron. A précis of scholarly opinion on Mallarmé and Christianity up to the late 1960s may be found in A. Muller, De Rabelais à Paul Valéry: Les grands écrivains devant le christianisme (Paris: Foulon, 1969), pp. 207—9. Paula Gilbert Lewis has written on the role of religion in Mallarmé's aesthetics in The Aesthetics of Stéphane Mallarmé in Relation to His Public (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1976). She discusses Mallarmé's early religious attitudes on pp. 22-23, referring to some of his juvenile compositions. A few other studies on the subject are Antoine Orliac, Mallarmé tel qu'en lui-même (Paris: Mercure de France, 1948), "La cathédrale symboliste," pp. 227-41; Austin Gill, "Mallarmé's Use of Christian Imagery for Post-Christian Concepts," in Order and Adventure in Post-Romantic French Poetry: Essays Presented to C. A. Hackett, ed. E. M. Beaumont, J. M. Cocking, J. Cruickshank (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1973), pp. 72-88; and Jewel Spears Brooker, "The Dispensations of Art: Mallarmé and the Fallen Reader," Southern Review 19 (1983): 17-38. [BACK]

6. Mallarmé to Henri Cazalis, June 1866, in Stéphane Mallarmé, Correspondance, ed. Henri Mondor with Jean-Pierre Richard (Paris: Gallimard, 1959), p. 220. [BACK]

7. Mallarmé to Théodore Aubanel, July 16, 1866, Correspondance, p. 222. [BACK]

8. Mallarmé to Cazalis, May 14, 1867, Correspondance, pp. 240-41. [BACK]

9. Mallarmé to Cazalis, May 14, 1867, Correspondance, pp. 242-43. [BACK]

10. Pour un tombeau d'Anatole, ed. Jean-Pierre Richard (Paris: Seuil, 1961). [BACK]

11. Guy Delfel, L'esthétique de Stéphane Mallarmé, chap. 3, "Une religion esthétique," (Paris: Flammarion, 1951), pp. 79-109. [BACK]

12. Delfel, L'esthétique, p. 80. [BACK]

13. Delfel, L'esthétique, p. 93: "Je ne crois pas que Mallarmé ait jamais perdu la foi" ("I don't think Mallarmé ever lost his faith"). [BACK]

14. Delfel, L'esthétique, p. 88-89. [BACK]

15. Jean-Pierre Richard, L'univers imaginaire de Mallarmé (Paris: Seuil, 1961), p. 412. [BACK]

16. Cited in Richard, L'univers, p. 417. Richard quotes from a text where Mallarmé used the identical passage. See above, p. 72, for my earlier discussion. [BACK]

17. Mallarmé to Cazalis, May 14, 1867, Correspondance, pp. 243-44. [BACK]

18. Jacques Scherer, Le "Livre" de Mallarmé: Premiéres recherches sur des documents inédits (Paris: Gallimard, 1957). [BACK]

19. Scherer, " Livre " p. 152. The manuscript notes, which form the second part of Scherer's book, are paginated separately by means of a system that includes letters in addition to numbers. [BACK]

20. Two studies that were written before the publication of Scherer's book are Deborah A. K. Aish, "Le Rêve de Stéphane Mallarmé d'après sa correspon- soft

dance," PMLA 56 (1941): 874-84; and Austin, "Mallarmé et le rêve du 'Livre,' " 81-108. Jean-Pierre Richard devotes a brief section to the Livre at the end of L'Univers imaginaire de Mallarmé, pp. 565-74. A. R. Chisholm feels that there is no connection between Scherer's notes and Mallarmé's Grand Oeuvre, a point he argues in Mallarmé's "Grande Oeuvre" (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1962). A few other studies are Marianne Kesting, "Entwurf des absoluten Buches: Über Stéphane Mallarmé," in Vermessung des Labyrinths: Studien zur modernen Ästhetik (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1965), pp. 31-49; Josef Theisen, "Endzeit des Buches? Betrachtungen zu Mallarmé's Livre," Die neueren Sprachen 18 (1969): 365-72; and Virginia A. la Charité, "Mallarmé's Livre : The Graphomatics of the Text," Symposium 34 (1980): 249-59. La Charité argues more strongly than most against the existence of the Livre either as an unfinished project or as one of Mallarmé's actual texts. The best discussion of the Livre that I know of—one, incidentally, that does not take a position on the existence or nonexistence of the project, is Gerald L. Bruns, "Mallarmé: The Transcendence of Language and the Aesthetics of the Book," a chapter in his fascinating Modern Poetry and the Idea of Language (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974), pp. 101-17. See above, p. 196, for a discussion of Bruns. I myself have talked about the Livre in two articles. See Steven Cassedy, "Mallarmé and Andrej Belyj: Mathematics and the Phenomenality of the Literary Object," MLN 96 (1981): 1066-83; and "Mathematics, Relationalism, and the Rise of Modern Literary Aesthetics," Journal ofthe History of Ideas 49 (1988): 109-32. [BACK]

21. Lentricchia, After the New Criticism . Lentricchia makes this point especially forcefully in chapter 4, "Uncovering History and the Reader: Structuralism," pp. 102-54. [BACK]

Chapter Five— Icon and Logos, or Why Russian Philosophy Is Always Theology

1. Andrzej Walicki, A History of Russian Thought from the Enlightenment to Marxism, trans. Hilda Andrews-Rusiecka (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1979). [BACK]

2. N. O. Lossky, History of Russian Philosophy (New York: International Universities Press, 1951). [BACK]

3. Saint John of Damascus, On the Divine Images: Three Apologies against Those Who Attack the Divine Images (henceforth DI ), trans. David Anderson (Crestwood, N.Y.: Saint Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1980), p. 16. The Greek text of Saint John's Apologies may be found in Patrologiae Cursus Completus: Series Graeca (henceforth PG ), ed. J.-P. Migne (Paris, 1857-66), 94: 1227-1419. [BACK]

4. Icon and Logos: Sources in Eighth-Century Iconoclasm, ed. and trans. Daniel J. Sahas (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986), p. 178. [BACK]

5. Sahas, Icon and Logos, p. 179. [BACK]

6. Naftali Prat, "Orthodox Philosophy of Language in Russia," Studies in Soviet Thought 20 (1979): 1-21. [BACK]

7. Vladimir Solov'ev, Ctenija * o Bogocelovecestve * , in Sobranie socinenij * continue

(henceforth SS ) (Petersburg, 1877-81; rpt. Brussels: Foyer Oriental Chrétien, 1966), 3: 3-181. [BACK]

8. Vladimir Solov'ev, "Krasota v prirode" (1889), in SS, 6:33-74, at p. 41. [BACK]

9. Vladimir Solov'ev, "Obscij * smysl iskusstva," in SS, 6:75-90. [BACK]

10. Andrei Bely, "Emblematika smysla: Predposylki k teorii simvolizma," in S, pp. 49-143; English translation, "The Emblematics of Meaning: Premises to a Theory of Symbolism," in SE, pp. 111-97. [BACK]

11. Sergei Bulgakov, Filosofija imeni (henceforth FI) (Paris: YMCA-Presse, 1953). [BACK]

12. Sergei Bulgakov, "Was ist das Wort?" in Festschrift Th. G. Masaryk zum 80. Geburtstage, ed. Boris Jakowenko (Bonn: Friedrich Cohen, 1930), pp. 25-70. [BACK]

13. Pavel Florensky, Stolp i utverzdenie * istiny: Opyt pravoslavnof feodicei v dvenadcati pis'max (The pillar and ground of the truth: Essay in Orthodox theodicy in twelve letters) (Moscow, 1914; rpt. Westmead, Eng.: Gregg, 1970). Henceforth SU . "The pillar and ground" is not necessarily the most accurate translation of Florensky's title, which means something like "the pillar and assertion" or "the pillar and affirmation." Florensky took his title from a phrase in 1 Timothy 3:15, which reads "the pillar and ground" in the King James version. [BACK]

14. Pavel Florensky, Sobranie socinenij * (henceforth SS ), ed. N. A. Struve (Paris: YMCA Press, 1985-): 1:193-316. [BACK]

15. Pavel Florensky, "Stroenie slova," in Kontekst 1972: Literaturno-teo-reticeskie * issledovanija (Moscow, 1973), pp. 348-75. [BACK]

16. Florensky, "Stroenie slova," p. 351. [BACK]

17. Florensky, "Stroenie slova," p. 355. [BACK]

18. Florensky, "Stroenie slova," p. 352. [BACK]

19. Florensky, "Stroenie slova," p. 353. [BACK]

20. Hansen-Löve, Der russische Formalismus, p. 83n. [BACK]

21. Karl Eimermacher, "Zur Entstehungsgeschichte einer deskripriven Semiotik in der Sowjetunion," Zeitschrift für Semiotik 4 (1982): 1-34, at pp. 4-5. [BACK]

22. Katerina Clark and Michael Holquist, Mikhail Bakhtin (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984), p. 85. [BACK]

23. Clark and Holquist, p. 85. [BACK]

Chapter Six— Roman Jakobson, or How Logology and Mythology Were Exported

1. Roman Jakobson and Yury Tynianov, "Problemy izucenija * literatury i jazyka," Novyi Lef 12 (1928): 36-37. The translation I have used appears in Readings in Russian Poetics, ed. Ladislav Matejka and Krystyna Pomorska (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1971), pp. 79-81. [BACK]

2. Jakobson's account may be found in the "Retrospect" to volume 1 of his Selected Writings (henceforth SW ), p. 633. [BACK]

3. Roman Jakobson and Claude Lévi-Strauss, "«Les chats» de Charles Baudelaire," L'Homme 2 (1962): 5-21; reprinted in Questions de poétique, ed. Tzvetan Todorov (Paris: Seuil, 1973), pp. 401-19, at p. 414. break [BACK]

4. Roman Jakobson, "Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances" (1954), SW, 2:239-59. [BACK]

5. Roman Jakobson, "Novejsaja[Novej&scaronaja] russkaja poèzija," SW, 5:299-354. There is a French translation of selected parts of this essay, "La nouvelle poésie russe," in Questions de poétique, pp. 11-24. [BACK]

6. Gustav Shpet, Vnutrennjaja forma slova (The inner form of the word) (Moscow: GAXN, 1927). [BACK]

7. Elmar Holenstein, Roman Jakobson's Approach to Language: Phenomenological Structuralism, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976). [BACK]

8. Elmar Holenstein, "Jakobson and Husserl: A Contribution to the Genealogy of Structuralism," Human Context 7 (1975): 61-83, at p. 75. [BACK]

9. See above, p. 43. Potebnia uses the term in Mysl' i jazyk, p. 134. [BACK]

10. Holenstein, "Jakobson and Husserl," p. 75. [BACK]

11. Jonathan Culler, author of one of the principal English-language accounts of structuralism, wrote an essay in which he argued that structuralism has a logical point of departure in phenomenology because it always needs to take the human subject into account, even though its practitioners don't always seem to realize that. See Jonathan Culler, "Phenomenology and Structuralism," Human Context 5 (1973): 35-42. [BACK]

12. Roman Jakobson, "Co je poésie," Volné smery 30 (1933-34): 229-39; reprinted in Striedter, Texte der russischen Formalisten, 2:392-417; English translation in SW, 3:740-50. [BACK]

13. Roman Jakobson, "Vers une science de l'art poétique," written as a preface to Théorie de la littérature: Textes des formalistes russes, ed. Tzvetan Todorov (Paris: Seuil, 1966), pp. 9-13; reprinted in SW, 5:541-44, at p. 542. [BACK]

14. See, for example, a short piece by Jakobson called "One of the Speculative Anticipations: An Old Russian Treatise on the Divine and Human Word" (1955), SW, 2:369-74. [BACK]

Chapter Seven— Numbers, Systems, Functions—and Essences

1. Many of the ideas in Part III and Part IV have appeared in two of my articles. See Cassedy, "Mathematics, Relationalism"; and "Paul Valéry's Modernist Aesthetic Object," Journal of Aesthetics and An Criticism 45 (1986-87): 77-86. [BACK]

2. Ernst Cassirer, Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, vol. 3, The Phenomenology of Knowledge, trans. Ralph Manheim (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957), pp. 357-405. [BACK]

3. Immanuel Kant, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, "B" edition, p. 75; "A" edition, p. 51; English translation, Critique of Pure Reason, trans. Norman Kemp Smith (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965), p. 93. [BACK]

4. See Tony Rothman, "The Short Life of Evariste Galois," Scientific American 246 (1982): 136-49. The New York Times ran an amusing editorial on Rothman's deflation of the Galois story, April 4, 1982. [BACK]

5. Ernst Cassirer, "The Concept of Group and the Theory of Perception," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 5 (1944): 1-36. This is an English translation of an original French version, "Le concept de groupe et la théorie de continue

la perception," Journal de Psychologie (July-December 1938): 368-414. Cassirer also wrote a shorter and simpler version of this paper as a lecture, which he was working on the morning of the day of his death. The lecture is titled "Reflections on the Concept of Group and the Theory of Perception" and is published in Symbol, Myth, and Culture: Essays and Lectures of Ernst Cassirer, 1935-1945, ed. Donald Phillip Verene (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), pp. 271-91. [BACK]

6. Cassirer mentions Poincaré's theory in "The Concept of Group, p. 3. [BACK]

7. Roman Jakobson, "Verbal Communication," Scientific American 227 (September 1972): 72—80. This passage occurs on p. 72. [BACK]

8. Jakobson, "Verbal Communication," p. 76. [BACK]

9. Distinctive features are treated in Roman Jakobson and Morris Halle, "Phonology and Phonetics," in Jakobson, SW, 1:464—504, and, in the same volume of SW, "The Revised Version of the List of Inherent Features," 1:738-42. [BACK]

10. Ernst Cassirer, "Structuralism in Modern Linguistics," Word 1 (1945): 99-120. [BACK]

11. Jean Piaget, Le structuralisme (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1968); English translation, Structuralism, trans. Chaninah Maschler (New York: Basic Books, 1970). [BACK]

12. Michel Serres, Hermès ou la communication (Paris: Minuit, 1968). [BACK]

Chapter Eight— Descartes in Relational Garb

1. Ginette Mathiot, Je sais cuisiner (1932;rpt. Paris:Editions Albin Michel, 1965), p. 13. [BACK]

2. René Descartes, Discours de la méthode, ed. Etienne Gilson (1925;rpt. Paris: Vrin, 1976), pp. 18-19. [BACK]

3. In fact, the dean of American cookbook authors, Irma S. Rombauer, in the introduction to the Joy of Cooking, says, "To live we must eat." She goes on to discuss foods and nutrition, but there is nothing like the step-by-step logical progression of thought that we find in Mathiot. And Fannie Farmer, in The Fannie Farmer Cookbook, launches right into a lesson on the basic processes of cooking, without ever stopping to ask why we cook in the first place. See Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker, Joy of Cooking (1931; rpt. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967), p. 1;and Fannie Farmer, The Fannie Farmer Cookbook, 11th ed. (1869; rpt. Boston: Little, Brown, 1965), p. 3. [BACK]

4. Edmund Husserl, Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie (The Crisis of European sciences and transcendental phenomenology), ed. Walter Biemel, vol. 6 of Husserliana: Edmund Husserl, Gesammelte Werke, ed. H. L. Van Breda (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1962), p. 75; my translation. There is an English translation, by David Carr, The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1970). The quoted passage in Carr's translation appears on p. 73. [BACK]

5. Husserl, Krisis, p. 75; Crisis, p. 73. [BACK]

6. Descartes, Règles utiles et claires pour la direction de I'esprit en la re - soft

cherche de la vérité (Useful and Clear rules for the direction of the mind in the search for truth), translated into French by Jean-Luc Marion (The Hague: Martsinus Nijhoff, 1977), p. 6. [BACK]

7. Mallarmé to Francois Coppée, December 5, 1866, Correspondance, p. 234 (Mallarmé's emphasis). [BACK]

8. Mallarmé to Théodore Aubanel, July 28, 1866, Correspondance, p. 225 (Mallarmé's emphasis). [BACK]

9. Scherer, Le "Livre" de Mallarmé, 37-38 (A). [BACK]

10. Valéry's anecdote is cited in OC, pp. 1581—82. It is excerpted from Variété II (Paris: Nouvelle Revue Française, 1929), pp. 169-75. [BACK]

11. James A. Boon, From Symbolism to Structuralism: Lévi-Strauss in a Literary Tradition (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1972). See especially op. 155-58. [BACK]

12. Paul Valéry, Oeuvres (henceforth O ) (Paris: Pléiade, 1957-60), 2:25. The three periods are Valéry's. [BACK]

13. For an account of Valéry's education in mathematics, see Reiro Virtanen, "Paul Valéry's Scientific Education," Symposium 27 (1973): 362-78. Some of the same material appears in Virtanen's book, The Scientific Analogies of Paul Valéry, University of Nebraska Studies, n.s., no. 47 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1974). Some other studies of Valéry and mathematics are Albert Gaudin, "Paul Valéry et les mathématiques," French Review 19 (1946): 271-78; Jeannine Jallat, "Valéry and the Mathematical Language of Identity and Difference," Yale French Studies 44 (1970): 51-64; and Judith Robinson, "Language, Physics and Mathematics in Valéry's Cahiers," Modern Language Review 55 (1960): 519-36. [BACK]

14. Two important books on Valéry's Notebooks are Judith Robinson, L'analyse de l'esprit dans les Cahiers de Valéry (Paris: José Corti, 1963), and Nicole Celeyrette-Pietri, Valéry et le moi: Des Cahiers à l'oeuvre (Paris: Klinck-sieck, 1979). [BACK]

15. Valéry, Cahiers, 29 vols. (Paris: Centre National de le Recherche Scientifique, 1957-61), 24:762. This edition will be cited in the text as C . The passage is also in the two-volume edition of excerpts from the Cahiers, edited by Judith Robinson (Paris: Pléiade, 1973-74), 1:197. Henceforth citations of the Robinson edition will follow in brackets after the main citation. Valéry's punctuation in the Cahiers is odd. I've retained it as much as possible in my translations. Emphasis in these quotations is always Valéry's. [BACK]

16. For a series of perspectives on the System, see the essays collected in Paul Valéry 3 : Approche du «Système», ed. Huguette Laurenti, Revue des lettres modernes 554-59 (1979). [BACK]

17. Cited in Jean Hytier, La poétique de Valéry (Paris: Armand Colin, 1970), p. 37. [BACK]

Chapter Nine— How Numbers Ran Amok in Russia

1. Alexander Vucinich, Science in Russian Culture, 1861-1917 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1970), pp. 351-54. [BACK]

2. Vucinich, Science, pp. 354-55. break [BACK]

3. Andrei Bely, "Princip formy v èstetike," in S, pp. 175-94; English translation in SE, pp. 205-21. [BACK]

4. This figure is given in B. O. Unbegaun, Russian Versification (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956), p. 36. [BACK]

5. Roman Jakobson, "On Verse, Its Masters and Explorers," in SW, 5:569-601. [BACK]

6. Jakobson and Lévi-Strauss, "«Les chats» de Charles Baudelaire," pp. 401-19, at p. 414. [BACK]

7. The standard English-language work on Russian Futurism is Vladimir Markov, Russian Futurism: A History (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968). See also, specifically on Cubo-Futurism, Vahan D. Barooshian, Russian Cubo-Futurism 1910-1930: A Study in Avant-Gardism (The Hague: Mouton, 1974). [BACK]

8. Gianni Vattimo, La fine della modernità (Milan: Garzanti, 1985), p. 10; English translation, The End of Modernity: Nihilism and Hermeneutics in Post-Modern Culture, trans. Jon Snyder (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), p. 2. This account of modernity is not Vattimo's own; it is the one he finds in Nietzsche and Heidegger. [BACK]

9. "Poscecina * obscestvennomu * vkusu" (A slap in the face of public taste), signed by David Burliuk, Aleksandr Kruchenykh, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Viktor Khlebnikov (Viktor was Khlebnikov's real name; Velimir was a name he adopted). This manifesto was originally published in 1912 and is reprinted in Vladimir Markov, Manifesty i programmy russkix futuristov (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1967), pp. 50—51; English translation in The Ardis Anthology of Russian Futurism, ed. Ellendea Proffer and Carl. R. Proffer (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ardis, 1980), p. 179. "Idite k cortu * " (Go to hell) also appears in Markov, pp. 80-81. [BACK]

10. Velimir Khlebnikov, "Vremja mera mira" (Time is the measure of the world), in Sobranie socineni * (Collected works), ed. Vladimir Markov (Munich: Fink Verlag, 1968-71), 3:435-55. [BACK]

11. Khlebnikov, "Vremja mera mira," 3:446—47. The quotation from Leibniz is actually a paraphrase of a passage in On the Universal Science: Characteristic (Scientia Generalis. Characteristica ), section 14; see Monadology and Other Philosophical Essays, trans. Paul Schrecker and Anne Martin Schrecker (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965), p. 14; original published in Die philosophischen Schriften von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, ed. C. J. Gerhardt (Berlin, 1875-90), 7:200. [BACK]

12. Khlebnikov, "Vremja mera mira," 3:447. [BACK]

13. Khlebnikov, SS, 3:158; English translation in Snake Train: Poetry and Prose, ed. Gary Kern, trans. Gary Kern et al. (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ardis, 1976), p. 192, and Collected Works of Velimir Khlebnikov, ed. Charlotte Douglas, trans. Paul Schmidt, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987), 1:358. [BACK]

14. Mallarmé, OC, p. 364. Tzvetan Todorov wrote about Khlebnikov's theories of numbers, letters, and words in an essay published back when few people were writing about Khlebnikov. See "Le nombre, la lettre, le mot," in Poétique de la prose (Paris: Seuil, 1971), pp. 197-211. Todorov also compares Khlebnikov with Mallarmé. Raymond Cooke devotes some pages to Khlebni- soft

kov's ideas about numbers and words in Velimir Khlebnikov: A Critical Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 99-103. [BACK]

15. David Burliuk, "Doitel' iznurennyx zab * ," in the miscellany Futuristy: Rykajuscij [Rykajuščij] Parnas (Futurists: Roaring Parnassus) (Petersburg, 1914). [BACK]

16. Nikolai Burliuk, "poeticeskie * nacala[načala" (Poetic principles), in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, p. 78. [BACK]

17. El Lissitzky, "Pro dva kvadrata," included in reduced reproduction in El Lissitzky: Life, Letters, Texts, ed. Sophie Lissitzky-Küppers (London: Thames and Hudson, 1968). [BACK]

18. Lissitzky-Küppers, El Lissitzky, plates 152-56. The project is described on pp. 86, 387. [BACK]

19. Serres, Hermès, p. 33. [BACK]

20. David Burliuk, "Kubizm" (Cubism), in Poscecina * obscestvennomu * vkusu] (A slap in the face of public taste) (Moscow, 1912), pp. 95-101; English translation in the extremely valuable book edited by John E. Bowlt, Russian Art of the Avant-Garde: Theory and Criticism, 1902-1934 (New York: Viking, 1976), pp. 69-77, at pp. 73, 75. [BACK]

21. Mikhail Larionov and Natal'ia Goncharova, "Lucisty * i buduscniki * . Manifest" (Rayonists and Futurists: A Manifesto), in Oslinyj xvost i misen * (Donkey's tail and target) (Moscow, 1913), pp. 9-48; reprinted in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 175-79; English translation in Bowlt, Russian Art of the Avant-Garde, pp. 87-91. The quoted passages appear on pp. 177-78 of the Markov edition and pp. 90-91 of the Bowlt translation. [BACK]

22. Sergei Bobrov, "Liriceskaja tema[Liriˇeskaja tema]" (The lyric theme), in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 98-106, at p. 103. [BACK]

23. Kazimir Malevich, Ot kubizma i futurizma k suprematizmu. Novyjzivopisnyj * realizm] (Moscow, 1916), pp. 9, 10, 17, 23, 28; English translation in Bowlt, Russian Art of the Avant-Garde, pp. 116-35, at pp. 122, 123, 127, 130, 133. [BACK]

24. Benedikt Livshits, "V citadeli revoljucionnogo slova," Puti tvorcestva * , no. 5 (1919); English translation by Vladimir Markov in Russian Futurism, p. 403 n. 27. [BACK]

25. Benedikt Livshits, Polutoroglazyj strelec (Leningrad, 1933), p. 49. This book has been translated by John E. Bowlt as The One and a Half-Eyed Archer (Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1977). The passage I have cited appears in Bowlt's translation on p. 57, although with a misprint. Bowlt's book has "mutual functional independence," undoubtedly for "mutual functional inter dependence." [BACK]

26. Linda Dalrymple Henderson, The Fourth Dimension and Non-Euclidean Geometry in Modern Art (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983). Chapter 5, "Transcending the Present: The Fourth Dimension in the Philosophy of Ouspensky and in Russian Futurism and Suprematism" (pp. 238-99), is specifically about Russia. Henderson treated the subject in her Ph.D. dissertation, "The Artist, 'The Fourth Dimension,' and Non-Euclidean Geometry, 1900- 1930: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (Yale University, 1975). See also her "The Merging of Time and Space: The 'Fourth Dimension' in Russia from Ouspensky to Malevich," Soviet Union 5 (1978): 171-203, presenting some of the continue

same material as chapter 5 of the book; and an early article on a related subject, "A New Facet of Cubism: 'The Fourth Dimension' and 'Non-Euclidean Geometry' Reinterpreted," Art Quarterly 34 (1971): 410-33. [BACK]

27. Aleksei Kruchenykh, "Novye puri slova" (New ways of the word), in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 66, 68. Cited in Henderson, Fourth Dimension, pp. 271-72. [BACK]

Chapter Ten— The Being of Artworks

1. Roman Ingarden, Das literarische Kunstwerk, 2d ed. (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1960), p. 1; English translation, The Literary Work of Art: An Investigation on the Borderlines of Ontology, Logic, and Theory of Literature, trans. George G. Grabowicz (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1973), p. 3. [BACK]

2. Most of this analysis can be found in the concluding sections (115-17) of Baumgarten's Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus (Philosophical meditations on several matters pertaining to the poem); English translation, Reflections on Poetry, trans. Karl Aschenbrenner and William B. Holther (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1954), pp. 77-79. Section 116 is where Baumgarten introduces the term aesthetic to designate the "science of perception," or science that investigates the lower faculty. [BACK]

3. Waldemar Conrad, "Der ästhetische Gegenstand: Eine phänomenologische Studie," Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft 3 (1908): 71-118, 469-511; and 4 (1909): 400-455. Even the standard history of the phenomenological movement makes no mention of Conrad. See Herbert Spiegelberg, The Phenomenological Movement: A Historical Introduction, 2 vols. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1960). The standard full-length book on phenomenology and literature also contains no reference to Conrad. See Robert R. Magliola, Phenomenology and Literature: An Introduction (West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1977). [BACK]

4. Conrad, "Ästhetische Gegenstand," 3 (1908): 76. [BACK]

5. Conrad, "Ästhetische Gegenstand," 4 (1909): 452-54. [BACK]

6. See Roman Ingarden, "Phenomenological Aesthetics: An Attempt at Defining its Range," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 33 (1974-75): 257-69. Ingarden talks about Conrad on p. 258. [BACK]

7. Ingarden, Literarische Kunstwerk, pp. 121-33 (secs. 20-21); Literary Work of Art, pp. 117-27. [BACK]

8. Roman Ingarden, Untersuchungen zur Ontologie der Kunst (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1962). [BACK]

9. René Wellek, "The Mode of Existence of a Literary Work of Art," Southern Review 7 (1942): 735-54. [BACK]

10. René Wellek and Austin Warren, Theory of Literature (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949), chap. 12, "The Analysis of the Literary Work of Art," pp. 139-58. The discussion of Ingarden is on p. 152. [BACK]

11. Stephen Pepper, The Work of Art (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1955); George Dickie, Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis continue

(Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974); Nelson Goodman, Ways of Worldmaking (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1978); Arthur C. Danto, The Transfiguration of the Commonplace: A Philosophy of Art (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981). [BACK]

12. Martin Heidegger, "Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes," in Holzwege (Frankfurt-am-Main: Klostermann, 1950), pp. 7-68. [BACK]

13. Heidegger, "Ursprung," p. 39. See below, pp. 222-23, for the distinction between Being and being. [BACK]

14. Heidegger, Sein und Zeit (Halle: Niemeyer, 1927), p. 227. [BACK]

15. Heidegger, "Ursprung," p. 59. [BACK]

16. Heidegger, "Ursprung," p. 60. [BACK]

17. The phrase is featured, for example, in "Das Wesen der Sprache," in Unterwegs zur Sprache (Pfullingen: Neske, 1959), pp. 157-216. [BACK]

18. Heidegger, "Ursprung," pp. 61-62. [BACK]

19. See Bloom, Closing of the American Mind . [BACK]

Chapter Eleven— Being in the World and Being in Structures in Mallarmé and Valéry

1. Foucault, Les mots et les choses, p. 317; The Order of Things, p. 306. See above, p. 28. [BACK]

2. Bruns, Modern Poetry, p. 101. See above, p. 234, n. 20. [BACK]

3. Bruns, Modern Poetry, pp. 101-2, 117. [BACK]

4. Scherer, Le "Livre" de Mallarmé ; see above, pp. 94-95, and p. 234 n. 19 for an explanation of references to this book. [BACK]

Chapter Twelve— Into the World of Names and Out of the Museum

1. Andrei Bely, Peterburg (Petrograd, 1916; rpt. Letchworth: Bradda Books, 1967), p. 2. [BACK]

2. Bely, Peterburg, p. 55. [BACK]

3. Khlebnikov, SS, 3:158. [BACK]

4. Todorov "Le nombre, la lettre, le mot," pp. 209-10. [BACK]

5. E. J. Brown, Introduction to Snake Train: Poetry and Prose, ed. Gary Kern and trans. Gary Kern et al. (Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1976), pp. 11-26, at pp. 11-12. [BACK]

6. Cooke, Khlebnikov, pp. 176-83. [BACK]

7. The document appears in Markov, Manifesty i programmy, pp. 51-53. [BACK]

8. Markov, Manifesty i programmy, p. 173; English translation in Bowlt, Russian Art of the Avant-Garde, p. 81. [BACK]

9. Lissitzky-Küppers, El Lissitzky, p. 359. [BACK]

10. Lissitzky-Küppers, El Lissitzky, p. 362-63. [BACK]

Chapter Thirteen— Rilke's House of Being

1. Käte Hamburger, "Die phänomenologische Struktur der Dichtung Rilkes," in Philosophie der Dichter: Novalis, Schiller, Rilke (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1966), pp. 179-275, at p. 179. break [BACK]

2. Käte Hamburger, Rilke: Eine Einführung (Stuttgart: Klett, 1976), p. 15. Paul de Man, "Tropes (Rilke)," in Allegories of Reading, pp. 20-56, at p. 36. [BACK]

3. Hamburger, Rilke, pp. 18, 16, 17. [BACK]

4. Rainer Maria Rilke, Sämtliche Werke (henceforth Sämt. W ) (Frankfurt-am-Main: Insel, 1955), 1:690. [BACK]

5. Being-toward-death is the subject of the first chapter of the second part of Heidegger's Sein und Zeit, pp. 235-67. George Steiner, among others, has made the comparison between Rilke and Heidegger on this point. See George Steiner, Martin Heidegger (New York: Viking, 1978), p. 104. [BACK]

6. Rainer Maria Rilke, Auguste Rodin, in Sämt. W, 5:139-280. The work has been translated into English as Rodin, trans. Robert Firmage (Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1979). This edition includes black-and-white photoplates of many of Rodin's sculptures. [BACK]

7. Heidegger, "Wozu Dichter?", in Holzwege (Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, 1950), pp. 248-95. [BACK]

8. James Atlas, "The Case of Paul de Man," The New York Times Magazine, Aug. 28, 1988, p. 69. [BACK]

9. De Man, Allegories of Reading, p. 38. [BACK]

10. De Man, Blindness and Insight, p. 31. break [BACK]

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