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INDEX

A

Abendroth, Wolfgang, 39 , 41

Ackermann, Nathan, 136

Addison, Joseph, 127

Adler, Mortimer, 72

Adorno, Gretel, 207 , 211 , 212 , 218

Adorno, Theodor W., 4 -5, 9 , 11 , 25 , 46 n. 8, 58 , 69 , 72 , 75 , 81 , 124 , 125 , 129 , 139 , 140 , 156 , 224 , 240 , 244 , 245 , 253 , 254 ;

on art, 121 , 123 , 128 , 168 , 171 , 186 -87, 196 -97, 252 ;

and Benjamin, 67 , 68 , 183 -84, 204 , 206 , 218 -19;

on Critical Theory, 215 ;

on cult of personality, 188 , 189 ;

on culture industry, 185 -88, 189 , 195 -96;

and emigration from Germany, 204 , 208 ;

and Flaschenpost metaphor, 63 , 66 , 148 , 210 n. 4, 237 , 241 ;

on Hegel's system, 184 ;

and Kracauer, 184 , 203 , 204 , 205 , 206 , 207 ;

on Lowenthal's study of popular biography, 188 , 214 -15;

and postwar Germany, 2 , 189 -90, 195 , 212 -14;

on progress, 242 ;

on Schönberg, 210 -11;

on Sibelius, 72 -73, 130 , 185 ;

as specialist in music, 71 , 72 , 120 , 183 , 192 , 197 -98, 208 , 210 -11;

on Wagner, 167 , 183

—Works:

"Culture and Administration," 194 ;

"Culture Industry Reconsidered," 193 , 195 -96;

Dialectic of Enlightenment , 77,109 , 183 , 185 , 186 , 195 , 208 , 211 , 252 -53;

"The Fetish-Character in Music and the Regression of Hearing," 122 ;

"Fragments on Richard Wagner," 183 ;

Introduction to the Sociology of Music , 197 ;

"Reflections from Damaged Life," 190 .

See also Authoritarian Personality, The

Advisory Board for Jewish Refugees from Eastern Europe (Beratungsstelle für Ostjüdische Flüchtlinge), 20 , 22 -23, 203

Africa, U.S. policy toward, 91 , 92

Alcan Press (Paris), 56 , 57 , 74

Alternative , 68

American Jewish Committee, 89 , 135 , 137

American Jewish Labor Committee, 82

American Journal of Sociology , 135

Americans for Democratic Action, 158

Anti-Semitism, 78 , 102 -3, 185 , 186 ;

in America, 30 -31, 32 , 89 , 97 -98, 136 ;

in Eastern Europe, 22 ;

in Germany, 27 -29, 30 , 31 -32, 45 , 259 -60, 267 ;

history of, 32 ;

and stereotypes of Jews, 23 , 32 -33, 37 , 102 ;

studies


270

on, 82 , 89 , 135 -36, 211

Archiv für die Geschichte des Sozialismus und der Arbeiterbewegung (Archive for the History of Socialism and the Workers' Movement), 63

Arendt, Hannah, 68 , 219

Aron, Raymond, 55

Art, 253 ;

as creative protest, 13 , 124 -25, 171 -73, 258 ;

and fascism, 123 , 124 ;

and ideology, 168 , 171 , 196 ;

and leisure, 125 -26;

and marginality, 170 -74;

and mass culture, 10 , 13 , 122 -28, 138 , 167 -68, 176 -77, 186 -88, 240 , 251 -57;

and society, 121 -28;

and utopianism, 122 -23, 128 , 172 , 173 , 196 .

See also Literary reception; Literature; Mass culture

Assimilationism, Jewish, 19 , 203 , 223

Austria, 26 , 100 -101

Authoritarian Personality, The (Adorno et al.), 136 -37, 139 , 185 , 211

Authority, research on, 70 , 73 . See also Authoritarian Personality, The; Studien über Autorität und Familie

B

Baader, Franz von, 13 , 113 , 118 , 204 , 220

Balzac, Honoré de, 44 , 168

Bamberger, Ludwig, 33

Barbusse, Henri, 34

Baudelaire, Charles, 218 , 219 , 227

Baumgart, David, 220

Bavaria, 28 , 74

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 210 , 254

Bendix, Reinhard, 144

Benedict, Ruth, 82

Benjamin, Walter, 25 , 50 , 111 , 118 , 121 , 148 , 156 , 197 , 206 , 247 , 266 ;

and Adorno, 67 , 68 , 183 -84, 204 , 206 , 218 -19;

on art and fascism, 123 , 124 ;

describes history as written by victors, 118 , 125 , 228 , 258 ;

and emigration from Germany, 224 -25;

in France, 224 , 225 ;

and Frankfurter Zeitung , 224 , 226 ;

and Institute of Social Research (Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung ), 67 -69, 150 , 209 , 217 -19, 222 , 224 -25;

and Judaism, 229 , 232 -33, 244 , 245 ;

on Lowenthal's literary reception study, 221 -22;

and marginality, 227 ;

and messianism, 223 , 229 , 231 -32, 233 , 244 , 245 ;

and neo-Kantianism, 223 , 231 -32;

and role of intellectuals, 224 , 225 -26, 227 , 230 , 231 ;

and surrealism, 216 , 217 , 225

—Works:

Arcades Project, 218 , 224 ;

A Berlin Childhood Around Nineteen Hundred , 223 ;

"Books That Have Stayed Alive," 232 ;

"Goethe's Elective Affinities " (Goethes Wahlver-wandtschaften ), 205 , 207 , 226 , 266 ;

"Karl Kraus," 228 ;

"Left Melancholy," 226 , 227 ;

Liter-aturgeschichte und Literatur-wissenschaft," 220 ;

"On Art in the Era of Its Technical Reproducibility," 122 ;

"On the Concept of History," 229 -30, 231 ;

"On the Current Social Position of the French Author," 225 -26;

"The Paris of the Second Empire in Baudelaire," 218 ;

"Some Motifs in Baudelaire," 219 ;

"Storyteller," 219 ;

"Theses on the Philosophy of History," 220 , 233 ;

"Work of Art," 219

Berg, Alban, 211 , 253

Berkeley. See University of California, Berkeley

Bettelheim, Bruno, 135 , 136

Beveridge, William, 55

Bildungspolitik , 249


271

Biography, popular, 130 -33, 140 , 178 -80, 188

Bitburg, 2 , 3 , 4 , 267 . See also Germany, Federal Republic of: attitude of, toward World War II and Holocaust

Bloch, Ernst, 47 , 49 , 50 , 204 , 219 , 232 , 244 , 245 , 250 -51, 266 ;

and Critical Theory, 7 ;

and Soviet Union, 66

Blomster, W. V., 191 -92

Böhm, Franz, 102 -3

Böll, Heinrich, 258 , 259

Book clubs, 198 -99, 253 -54, 257 ;

and mass culture, 175 -77

Bouglé, Celestin, 56

Brandes, Georg, 118 , 165

Brecht, Bertolt, 102 , 191

Brill, Hans, 57

Buber, Martin, 20 , 21 , 112 , 219 , 232

Buckley, William F., 87 -88

Bukharin, Nikolai, 65

Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 119

C

Cambodia, invasion of, 152 , 153

Campanella, Tommaso, 115

Carneri, Bartholomäus von, 18 , 43

Center for Advanced Studies, Stanford University, 86 , 138

Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith (Zentralverein Deutscher Staatsbürger Jüdischen Glaubens), 19 , 113

Cervantes, Miguel de, 125 , 171 -72, 174 , 248

China, 25 , 113 , 114 ;

People's Republic of, 92 , 96

Christianity, 245 ;

and view of history, 244

Civil rights struggles, 151 , 153

Class consciousness:

European, contrasted with American, 98 -100;

and literature, 117 , 119 , 120

Cohen, Elliot, 135

Cohen, Hermann, 18 -19, 21 , 47 , 111 , 115 , 223 , 232

Cohn, Roy, 87 , 90

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 127 , 199 -200

Collier's, 132

Columbia University, 57 , 66 , 89 , 134 , 135

Commentary , 134 , 135

Committee on Un-American Activities, 94 , 151 . See also McCarthyism

Communism, and communist movement:

and art, 124 ;

contrasted to fascism, 66 -67;

criticism of, 42 , 241 ;

disillusionment with, 30 , 38 -39, 61 , 66 -67, 114 , 231 , 241 -42;

sympathy for, 35 , 88 -89 ;

in U.S., 39 .

See also German Communist Party; Marxism; Soviet Union

Corneille, Pierre, 116 , 124

Cornelius, Hans, 46 , 219

Critical Theory, 7 , 136 , 147 , 148 , 150 , 171 , 175 , 193 , 195 , 215 , 230 , 239 , 240 , 244 -46, 258 , 265 ;

described, 60 -63, 63 -65, 76 , 166 ;

language of, 71 ;

and Lowenthal, 4 -5, 60 -63, 63 -65, 238 , 262 , 264 ;

and Marxism, 64 -65, 76 ;

and praxis, 61 -62

Culture industry, 127 -28, 185 -86, 189 , 195 -96, 197 , 253 , 264 . See also Mass culture

D

Dahrendorf, Ralf, 147

Darwin, Charles, 18 , 43

Deconstructionism, 261

Descartes, René, 116

Diderot, Denis, 116

Dilthey, Wilhelm, 48 , 142 , 149


272

Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 44 , 119 , 120 , 131 , 177 , 221 -22

Drews, Jörg, 231

Dubiel, Helmut, 3 n.6, 7 , 10 , 240

Dumas, Alexandre, 176

Durkheim, Émile, 56 , 148

E

Eastern European Jews:

disdain toward, 20 , 23 , 25 , 203 ;

emigration of, 22 , 23 -24, 25

Ecological movement, 242 -43

Education at Berkeley (Select Committee on Education report), 151

Eichler, Willi, 249

Eisler, Hanns, 193 , 237

Elitism, 10 , 45 , 191 -92, 256

Empiricism, and empirical research, 70 , 73 -74, 133 , 135 , 140 , 143 , 147

Encyclopédie,116

England, 100 , 119 , 251 ;

literature and mass culture in, 126 , 127 , 138

Enlightenment philosophy, 115 -116, 118 , 251 ;

and Critical Theory, 65

Erd, Rainer, 7

Erhardt brigade, 36 n.4

Ethnomethodology, 142

F

Family, as agency of society, 73 . See also Studien über Autorität und Familie

Fascism, 59 , 66 -67, 76 , 157 , 241 , 256 ;

and American agitators, 134 , 186 ;

and art, 123 , 124 ;

and postmodernism, 264 ;

rise of, 27 , 28 -30, 53 -54, 55 -56, 76 -80;

and U.S. isolationism, 97 -98.

See also National Socialism

Finley, M. I., 57 -58, 94

Fiske, Marjorie, 126 , 138

Flaschenpost metaphor ("message in a bottle"), 63 , 66 , 74 , 148 , 210 , 237 , 241

Flaubert, Gustave, 176

Foreign Affairs Committee (U.S. Senate), 90 -91

Foreign policy, U.S., 91 -98;

lack of tradition for, 83 , 96 -97;

as reactive, 94 , 95 , 96

Foreign Service, U.S., 85 -86, 92 , 93 ;

in postwar Germany, 104 -6

France, 22 , 119 , 251 , 264 ;

Benjamin in, 224 , 225 ;

intellectuals in, 225

Frank, Leonhard, 34

Fränkel, Ernst, 35 , 37

Frankenberg, G., 3 n.6

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung,259 , 267

Frankfurt School:

discovery of, in U.S., 149 ;

as a term, 190 , 239 .

See also Critical Theory; Institute of Social Research

Free Speech Movement, 151 , 153

Frenkel-Brunswick, Else, 137

Freud, Sigmund, 44 , 51 , 112 , 164 , 244

Friedeburg, Ludwig von, 147

Fromm, Erich, 50 , 72 , 73 , 131 , 133 ;

and emigration from Germany, 56 , 57 ;

on fascism, 77 -78;

and Institute for Social Research, 51 ;

and Judaism, 20 , 26 , 240 , 244 -45;

and psychoanalysis, 26 , 73 , 120

Fromm-Reichmann, Frieda, 26 , 50

Fuld, Werner, 67

G

Gassendi, Pierre, 116

General Student Parliament (Allgemeiner Studentenausschuß/ASTA), 35

Geneva, branch of Institute of Social Research established in, 54

George, Stefan, 47 , 227

German Communist Party (KPD), 35 , 37 , 39

German Democratic Republic, 1 n.1


273

German Pacifist Association (Deutscher Friedensverein), 34

German Socialist Student League (Deutscher Sozialistischer Studentenbund), 35 -36

Germany, Federal Republic of:

attitude of, toward World War II and Holocaust, 1 -3, 98 , 102 -3, 106 , 259 , 266 -67;

class consciousness in, 99 , 100 ;

left in, 257 , 258 -59, 260 ;

1980s literature in, 258 -60;

sociology in, 143 , 144 , 145 -46, 146 -48;

student movement in, 145 , 147 , 148 , 150 , 151 , 152 , 153 ;

and Wende, 260

Germany, postwar, and attitude toward World War II and Holocaust, 1 -3, 31 , 98 , 102 -3, 106 . See also Anti-Semitism: in Germany; German Democratic Republic; Germany, Federal Republic of

Gilbert, Felix, 82

Ginsburg, Golde. See Lowenthal, Golde Ginsburg

Glotz, Peter, 7

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 6 , 43 , 46 , 117 , 124 , 125 , 138 , 165 , 177 , 182 , 201 , 205 , 206 , 238 , 249 , 266

Goethe Gymnasium, 11 , 44

Goffman, Erving, 142

Goldsmith, Oliver, 126

Goldstein, Kurt, 58

Gorky, Maxim, 222

Gouldner, Alvin, 141

Gramsci, Antonio, 225

Grass, Günter, 173 -74, 258 -59

Great Soviet Encyclopedia,226 -27

Greece, 108

Green movement, 242

Greffrath, Matthias, 7 , 247

Grossmann, Henryk, 53 , 63 , 64 , 66

Grünberg, Carl, 52 , 53 , 54 , 63

Gumperz, Julian, 56

Gundolf, Friedrich, 47

Gutenberg Book Guild, 257

H

Habermas, Jürgen, 3 , 4 -5, 147 , 245 -46, 252

Habricht, Luise, 18 , 34 , 46

Haeckel, Ernst H., 18 , 43

Hampe, Karl, 47

Hamsun, Knut, 68 , 72 , 106 , 131 , 185 , 221 ;

Lowenthal on, 13 , 72 -73, 109 , 119 , 121 , 125 , 130 , 263 ;

reception of works of, 177 -78, 250

Handke, Peter, 258 , 259

Hartmann, Nicolai, 69

Harvard University, 145

Hegel, George Wilhelm Friedrich, 55 , 62 , 142 , 166 , 194 , 228 , 234 ;

Adorno on, 184 ;

on Don Quixote, 174

Heine, Heinrich, 112

Heissenbüttel, Helmut, 197 -98

Helvétius, Claude Adrien, 115 , 116

"Heroes" of production and consumption, 132 -33, 179 -80, 188

Herzfeld, Gottfried, 51

Hindenburg, Paul von, 131

Hirsch, Julian, 221

Historical materialism, 50 -51, 174 , 229 . See also Materialism

Hitler, Adolf, 29 , 31 , 34 , 149 , 158 , 164 , 167 , 204 , 212 . See also Fascism; National Socialism

Hitler-Stalin pact, 39 , 66

Holbach, Paul Henri Dietrich, 116

Holocaust:

and effects of terror, 135 ;

German attitude toward, 1 -3, 31 , 102 -3, 106 , 259 , 266 -67.

See also Anti-Semitism; Fascism; Germany

Hölz, Max, 38

Honigsheim, Paul, 57

Horkheimer, Max, 11 , 27 , 41 , 46 n.8, 49 , 58 , 59 , 63 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 81 , 120 , 130 , 139 , 156 , 208 , 210 , 211 ,


274

Horkheimer, Max (continued )

214 , 219 , 222 , 224 , 229 , 240 , 244 , 248 , 253 , 254 ;

on criticizing Communism, 42 , 241 ;

and critique of ideology, 119 ;

and emigration from Germany, 54 , 56 , 57 ;

on fascism, 77 , 78 -79;

and Institute of Social Research, 3 -4, 51 , 52 -53, 55 , 59 , 164 ;

and postwar Germany, 2 , 3 -4;

predicts Hitler-Stalin pact, 66 ;

and religious symbolism, 62 , 232 -33, 245 ;

and student movement, 3 -4;

and Studies in Prejudice series, 136 , 137 ;

and "theory of the historical process," 69 , 74 -75;

on World War II, 159

—Works:

Anfänge der bürgerlichen Geschichtsphilosophie,53 ;

"Art and Popular Culture," 72 ;

Dämmerung,42 ;

Dialectic of Enlightenment,77 , 109 , 183 , 185 , 186 , 195 , 208 , 211 , 252 -53;

The Eclipse of Reason,211 ;

"Egoism and the Freedom Movement," 131 ;

"The Jews and Europe," 77 ;

"Traditional and Critical Theory," 61 , 230

Howe, Irving, 134

Hughes, H. Stuart, 82

Hugo, Victor, 119 , 170

Hungarian uprising, 85

Husserl, Edmund, 47 , 48 , 55 , 69 , 209

Huyssen, Andreas, 193 -94, 195

I

Ibsen, Henrik, 106 , 119 , 120 -21, 125 , 128 , 167 , 172 -73, 228 , 229

Idealism, 172 , 174 , 205 , 225 , 228 -29, 248 , 251 . See also Utopianism

Ideology, 158 , 186 ;

and art, 168 , 171 , 196 ;

critique of, 117 , 119 , 120 -21, 128 , 221 -22, 239 -40

"Idols" of consumption and production, 132 -33, 179 -80, 188

Imagination, and mass culture, 175 -77, 182 , 186 , 239 -40

Imperialism, 93 -98, 148

Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), 37 , 38

Individualism, 169 , 170 , 180 -81, 189 , 192 -93, 195 , 196 ;

and individuality as theme, 131 , 188

Institute of Social Research, 131 , 163 -64, 184 , 191 , 212 -13, 214 , 222 , 237 , 241 ;

affiliation of, with Columbia University, 57 , 66 ;

aids emigré intellectuals, 58 , 67 , 74 ;

and Benjamin, 67 -69, 150 , 209 , 217 -19, 222 , 224 -25, 230 ;

branches of, in Geneva, Paris, and London, 54 , 56 , 57 ;

collaborative efforts in, 72 -73, 185 , 208 -10, 243 ;

and conflict about Soviet Union, 66 ;

emigration of, 53 -54, 55 -57, 79 , 208 ;

on fascism, 27 , 29 -30, 55 -56, 59 , 76 -80;

fate of individual as theme of, 131 , 188 ;

as "German island" in U.S., 58 , 59 , 66 ;

Horkheimer as director of, 51 , 52 -53, 55 , 59 ;

independence of, 12 , 42 , 155 ;

and Jewish tradition, 112 ;

and labor movement, 39 -40, 63 ;

and Marxism, 3 -4, 26 , 41 , 55 , 150 , 194 ;

and psychoanalysis, 26 , 51 , 147 ;

reputation of, 55 , 59 -60, 149 .

See also Critical Theory; Frankfurt School; Zeitschrift für Sozial-forschung; and names of individual members of the Institute

Intellectuals, 255 ;

and labor movement, 37 , 39 -40, 63 , 248 ;

and politics, 37 , 42 -43.

See also Benjamin, Walter: and role of intellectuals

International Labor Office, 54

Iran, 95 , 155


275

Ireland, 98

Irrationalism, 258 , 259 , 262 -63, 264 , 265

Israel, 114

J

Jahoda, Marie, 136

Janowitz, Morris, 136

Jarrell, Randall, 181 -82

Jaspers, Karl, 40 , 47 , 48 , 49

Jay, Martin, 52 , 60 , 112 , 184 , 208

Jetztzeit, 223

Jewish Workers' Welfare Office (Jüdisches Arbeiterfürsorgeamt), 23 -24

Joyce, James, 128

Judaism, 50 , 111 -14;

and Institute of Social Research, 112 ;

and politics, 229 , 232 -33, 244 -45.

See also Lowenthal, Leo: and Judaism; Messianism; Mysticism; Utopianism: Jewish

Jüdische Lehrhaus, 21 -22, 219 , 232

Jüdisches Wochenblatt,113

Jüdische Wochenzeitung (Jewish Weekly), 24

Jung, Carl, 69

K

Kafka, Franz, 128 , 130 , 223 -24

Kahn-Freund, Otto, 44

Kaiser, Georg, 249

Kant, Immanuel, 46 , 231 , 254

Kantianism, 48 , 50 , 115 , 251 . See also Neo-Kantianism

Kapp Putsch, 36 , 39

Karanikolos (president of German Socialist Student League), 35 -36

Kartell-Convent der Verbindungen Deutscher Studenten Jüdischen Glaubens (KC; Syndicate of Organizations of German Students of the Jewish Faith), 19

Kästner, Erich, 62 , 227

Kautzsch (president of University of Frankfurt; art historian), 36 -37, 46

Keller, Gottfried, 117 , 119 , 165

Kinkel, Walter, 18 , 46 , 111 , 115

Kirchheimer, Otto, 81 , 134

Klages, Ludwig, 69

Kluke, Paul, 52

Knoeringen, Waldemar von, 249

Kohl, Helmut, 2 , 260

König, René, 147

Konkursbuch,259 , 260 , 263

Korsch, Karl, 38

KPD. See German Communist Party

Kracauer, Siegfried, 9 , 20 , 28 , 49 , 219 ;

and Adorno, 184 , 203 , 204 , 205 , 206 , 207

Krahl, Hans-Jürgen, 192 -93

Kraus, Karl, 59 , 183 -84, 228

Kuhn, Thomas, 146

Kulturpolitik,249 -50, 255

L

Labor movement, 37 , 39 -40, 61 , 63 , 248

La Mettrie, Julien Offroy, 116

Lassalle, Ferdinand, 111

Lazarsfeld, Paul, 132 , 133 , 138 , 140

League for Popular Lectures (Bund für Volksvorlesungen),117 , 248

Lederer, Emil, 47

Leisure, 187 ;

and art, 125 -26;

industry, 252

Lenin, V. I., 96

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 249 , 251

Levinson, Daniel, 137

Liberal Democratic Party (Germany), 29

Liberalism, 33 -34, 77 , 97 , 119 , 178 , 223 , 243

Liberal People's Party (Freisinnige Volkspartei; later, Staatspartei), 33

Liebknecht, Karl, 35 n.3


276

Lindner, Burkhardt, 229

Literary reception, theory of, 120 , 168 , 177 -78, 221 -22

Literature:

and analysis of society, 117 , 118 -19, 120 -21, 121 -22, 129 , 165 -66, 167 -68;

and class consciousness, 117 , 119 , 120 ;

and mass culture, 10 , 13 .

See also Art; Biography; Literary reception; Marginality; Mass culture; Sociology of literature

London:

Institute of Social Research establishes branch in, 56 ;

postwar, 100

London School of Economics, 54 -55

Lope de Vega, 124

Lowenthal, Golde Ginsburg, 19 -20, 26 , 50 , 206 , 207

Lowenthal, Leo:

and Center for Advanced Studies, 86 , 138 ;

collected works of, published, 6 , 9 ;

and Communism, 30 , 35 , 38 -39, 42 , 61 , 66 -67, 88 -89, 114 , 155 , 231 , 241 ;

and Critical Theory, 4 -5, 60 -63, 63 -65, 238 , 262 , 264 ;

early political development of, 33 -42;

edits Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung,14 , 58 , 69 , 208 , 218 , 243 ;

on elitism, 10 , 45 , 191 -92, 256 ;

and emigration from Germany, 53 -54, 55 -56, 57 , 156 ;

on Europe after World War II, 98 -108;

on fascism, 66 -67, 77 -80;

honors received by, 6 ;

on identification with "losers" of history, 13 , 25 , 118 , 125 , 158 , 172 , 258 ;

and Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), 38 , 39 ;

and Institute of Social Research, 14 , 29 , 52 , 112 , 140 , 163 -64;

intellectual development and education of, 11 -12, 18 -19, 43 -44, 46 , 47 -51, 58 -60, 115 , 142 , 163 -66;

and Judaism, 17 -26, 49 , 50 , 111 -14, 232 -33, 244 -45;

and labor movement, 37 , 39 -40, 63 ;

on left in U.S., 39 , 148 -49, 151 , 152 -53, 257 ;

and McCarthy/State Department investigations, 86 -89;

and Marxism, 25 , 26 , 41 , 47 , 48 , 50 , 64 -65, 76 , 117 , 150 , 168 ;

and military service, 44 -46;

and neo-Kantianism, 18 , 25 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 50 , 115 , 142 , 223 , 231 ;

and opposition to status quo, 25 -26, 40 -41, 59 , 62 , 164 , 241 , 266 ;

and People's Theater, 37 , 40 , 51 ;

and postmodernism, 5 , 257 -58, 261 -66;

and psychoanalysis, 25 , 26 , 49 , 50 -51;

and Social Democracy, 38 , 42 , 155 , 247 -49, 250 -51;

on sociology in the U.S., 140 -41, 141 -46;

and student politics, 35 -37, 40 , 114 , 151 , 265 ;

as teacher, 58 , 140 , 164 ;

at University of California, Berkeley, 86 , 138 , 141 , 150 -51, 152 -53, 238 ;

at University of Frankfurt, 35 , 36 -37, 46 -50;

at University of Heidelberg, 19 , 35 , 36 , 114 ;

on U.S. foreign policy, 83 , 91 -98;

on U.S. government service, 82 , 86 , 88 -90;

wartime employment of, 81 -83, 94 , 158 ;

and Zionism, 19 -20, 21 , 24 -25, 50 , 111 , 113 -14.

See also Art; Biography; Critical Theory; Mass culture; Sociology of literature

—Works:

"Biographical Fashion," 130 -32;

"Biographies in Popular Magazines," 130 , 132 -33;

"The Concession Law in Poland," 113 ;

"The Demonic," 47 , 49 , 50 , 113 , 204 ;

Erzählkunst und Gesellschaft,116 -18, 119 ;

"The German Language as Reflected by Social Developments," 248 ;

"The Individual in Individualistic Society," 119 ;

"Judaism and the German Spirit," 111 ;

"Judaism and Jewishness in Recent


277

German Philosophy," 112 ;

"Kunt Hamsun (1860-1952)," 72 -73, 119 , 121 , 122 , 130 , 185 ;

"The Lessons of China," 25 , 113 -14;

Literature and the Image of Man,121 , 138 ;

Literature, Popular Culture, and Society,52 , 123 , 208 -9;

"On the Social Situation of Literature," 119 , 220 , 238 ;

"Power and Law in Rousseau's Philosophy of State and in German Idealist Philosophy," 115 ;

Prophets of Deceit,87 , 89 , 133 -35, 137 , 185 ;

"The Situation of the Jews in Poland," 113 ;

"Some Theses on Critical Theory and Empirical Research," 185 ;

"Terror's Atomization of Man," 134 -35

Lübbe, Hermann, 3 n.6

Lüdke, W. Martin, 7 , 228

Ludwig, Emil, 130 , 210 , 214

Lukács, Georg, 9 , 129 , 191 , 205 , 219 , 232 , 244 , 266 ;

and Critical Theory, 7 ;

on "Grand Hotel Abyss," 155 -56;

Theory of the Novel,25 -26, 50 , 131 , 165 , 191 , 207

Luxemburg, Rosa, 35 n.3

Lynd, Robert, 135

M

McCarthyism, 86 -91

Mahler, Gustav, 253 , 254

Maimonides, 111

Malik publishing house, 55

Mann, Thomas, 130

Mannheim, Karl, 40 , 46 -47, 53 , 208 , 209 , 225

Marburg neo-Kantian philosophical school, 18 , 46 , 47 , 150 , 223 , 231 . See also Neo-Kantianism

Marcuse, Herbert, 4 , 11 , 66 , 69 , 71 , 72 , 93 , 121 , 124 , 130 , 134 , 155 , 209 , 217 , 232 , 238 , 240 , 242 , 244 , 245 ;

on anti-Semitism, 27 ;

and emigration from Germany, 56 , 57 ;

on function of art in society, 122 -23, 128 ;

at Office of Strategic Services, 81 , 82 , 158 ;

on rise of fascism, 27 , 76 -77;

role of, in U.S., 139 -40, 149 ;

and technical philosophy, 71 ;

writes introduction to Prophets of Deceit,133

—Works:

"Affirmative Culture," 122 , 131 , 229 ;

"Philosophy and Critical Theory," 61

Marginality, 13 , 63 , 121 , 166 -67, 182 ;

and art, 170 -74

Marx, Karl, 64 , 65 , 89 , 111 , 112 , 142 , 157 , 164 , 168 , 191 , 193 , 231 , 244 ;

and Enlightenment philosophy, 115

Marx-Engels publishing house, 55

Marxism, 47 , 50 , 73 , 144 , 192 , 196 ;

and Critical Theory, 64 -65, 76 ;

and functionalism, 141 ;

and Institute of Social Research, 3 -4, 26 , 41 , 55 , 150 , 194 ;

and literature, 117 , 168 ;

and psychoanalysis, 26 , 50 -51, 64

Mass art, 123 , 127 .

See also Art; Mass culture

Mass culture, 134 , 163 , 174 -82, 193 , 208 ;

and art, 10 , 13 , 122 -28, 138 , 167 -68, 176 -77, 185 -88, 240 , 251 -57;

and imagination, 175 -77, 182 , 186 , 239 -40.

See also Culture industry

Massing, Paul, 31

Mass media, 83 , 137 , 140 , 239 -40, 254 -55;

in Norway, 107 -8;

study of, 83 -84

Maß und Wert,222 , 230

Materialism, 18 , 43 , 50 , 63 , 64 , 120 , 173 , 174 , 238 ;

and functionalism, 142 ;

and literary history, 116 , 118 .

See also Historical materialism

Maugham, Somerset, 182

Mayer, Hans, 14 , 193


278

Mead, George Herbert, 14 , 143

Mehring, Franz, 118 , 165 , 250

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 254

Merton, Robert, 133 , 140

"Message in a bottle." See Flaschenpost metaphor

Messianism, 49 , 114 , 204 , 223 , 229 , 231 , 232 , 244 -245

Meyer, Conrad Ferdinand, 119 , 120 , 165 , 221 , 222

Mitscherlich, Alexander, 2

Moeller van den Bruck, Arthur, 264

Molière, 116

Mommsen, Hans, 2

Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de, 116 , 126 , 251 -52

More, Thomas, 115

Mörike, Eduard, 118

Moses Mendlessohn Foundation, 112

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 253 , 254

Munch, Edvard, 107

Muscatine, Charles, 151

Mussolini, Benito, 149 , 158

Mysticism, 19 , 21 , 49 , 67 , 220 , 232

N

National Security Council (U.S.), 94 -95, 96

National Socialism (Nazism), 1 , 2 , 27 , 28 , 53 -54, 55 , 70 , 78 , 134 , 177 , 214 , 264 . See also Fascism; Hitler, Adolf

Natorp, Paul, 47 , 115

Nature, 32 -33, 109 -10, 173 , 185 , 242 , 245 , 263

Naumann, Friedrich, 33

Naumann, Hans, 28

Nazis. See Fascism; Hitler, Adolf; National Socialism

Nelson, Benjamin, 58

Neo-conservatism, 249 , 250 , 258

Neo-idealism, 142

Neo-Kantianism, 18 , 25 , 46 , 47 , 115 , 142 , 223 , 231 -32

Netherlands, 54

Neue Gesellschaft/Frankfurter Hefte,247

Neue Zeit, 178 , 247 , 250

Neumann, Franz, 27 , 29 , 35 , 37 , 64 , 78 , 81 , 158

New American Movement (NAM), 148

New Beginning group, 65

New criticism, 168

New German Critique,148 , 193

New Subjectivity, 259 , 263

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 183 -84, 191 , 200 , 263

Nobel, Rabbi N. A., 19 , 20 -21, 111 , 232 ;

festschrift for, 20 , 49

Norway, 106 -8, 121

O

Office of Strategic Services (OSS), 81 , 82

Office of War Information, 81 -83, 94

Oncken, Hermann, 47

P

Pacifism, 34

Palestine, 24 , 33 ;

Jewish settlement policy in, 25 , 113 -14

Parsons, Talcott, 148

Pascal, Blaise, 116 , 126 , 251 -52

Pater, Walter, 170

People's Theater (Volksbühne),37 , 40 , 51 , 247 , 248 -49

Pessimism, political, 154 , 155 -59, 237 , 241 -42, 245 -46, 257 -58, 260 , 265 -66

Peterson (Germanist; lectured on Goethe), 46

Phenomenology, 25 , 48 , 49 , 116 , 142

Piscator Theater, 55

Plessner, Helmut, 204

Pollock, Friedrich, 2 , 46 n.8, 52 , 64 , 69 , 72 , 77 , 81 , 134 , 158 , 164 , 211 , 240 , 244 ;

and economics, 71 , 120 ;

and emigration from Germany, 54 ,


279

56 , 57

Popularization of art, 255 -57. See also Art; Mass culture

Portugal, 108

Postmodernism, 5 , 257 -58, 261 -66

Pragmatism, 14 , 143 , 238

Proust, Marcel, 128

Psychoanalysis, 1 , 17 , 25 , 43 , 49 , 65 , 147 , 169 , 222 ;

and Judaism, 26 ;

and Marxism, 26 , 50 -51, 64

Public opinion, formation of, 84

Q

Quidde, Ludwig, 34

Quick, 259 , 267

R

Rabelais, François, 173

Racine, Jean-Baptiste, 124 , 125

Radio Free Europe, 85

Radio Liberation, 85

Raffael (French Marxist), 208

Reagan, Ronald, 2 , 153 , 251 , 266 , 267

Reception theory. See Literary reception, theory of

Reductionism, 48 , 49 , 169 , 177 , 192

Revolution, 157 , 159 , 231 , 240 ;

anticipation of, 40 , 47 ;

in Germany, 38 -39;

and role of proletariat, 61 , 265 ;

in Russia, 34 -35, 38 -39, 88 .

See also China; Soviet Union

Ribbentrop, Joachim von, 55

Richardson, Samuel, 126

Richter, Eugen, 33

Rickert, Heinrich, 47 -48, 142

Riesman, David, 133

Romanticism, 109 , 125 , 127 , 165 , 170

Rosenzweig, Franz, 20 , 21 , 49 , 112 , 205 , 219 , 232

Russia. See Revolution: in Russia; Soviet Union

S

Sade, Marquis de, 208

Sanford, Nevitt, 137

Saturday Evening Post,132

Scheler, Max, 69

Schiller, Friedrich, 126 , 228 , 249 , 251

Schmidt (Polizeirat), 23 , 37

Scholem, Gershom, 68 , 217 , 220 , 223 , 224 , 231 , 232

Schönberg, Arnold, 210 -11, 254

Schönflies (German mathematician), 46

Schopenhauer, Arthur, 18 , 43 , 44 , 115 , 191

Schorske, Carl, 82

Schreiber, Ulrich, 198

Schücking, Levin, 165

Schulpolitik,249

Schultz, Franz, 219

Shakespeare, William, 125 , 130 , 138 , 167 , 173 , 180 -81, 248

Shapiro, Meyer, 210

Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 119

Shine, David, 87 , 90

Sibelius, Jean, 73 , 130 , 185

Simmel, Georg, 142

Simon, Ernst, 20 , 21 , 22 , 24 , 113 , 114

Social democracy, 38 , 42 , 231 -32;

and Hamsun, 178

Social Democratic Party (SPD), 29 , 37 , 38 , 65 , 232 , 247 , 250 , 251

Sociology:

in Federal Republic of Germany, 143 , 144 , 145 -46, 146 -48;

in U.S., 140 -41, 141 -46

Sociology of literature, 122 , 129 , 131 , 163 -83, 238 , 239 , 261 ;

marginality of, 182 .

See also Literature

South America, U.S. policy toward, 91 , 92 , 93

Southey, Robert, 199

Soviet Union, 94 , 96 , 227 ;

and death of Stalin, 91 -92;

disillusionment over events in, 30 , 38 -39, 61 , 66 -67, 231 , 241 , 265 ;

Marxism in, 65 ;

splits in Institute of Social Research


280

over, 66 ;

as target of Voice of America research, 83 .

See also Communism; Revolution

Spain, 108 ;

civil war in, 39

Spartakusbund (Spartacus League), 35

SPD. See Social Democratic Party

Spectator, 127

Spence (State Department employee), 88 -89

Spielhagen, Friedrich, 119 , 165

Stalin, Joseph, 66 , 91 -92

Stanford University, 86 , 138

Starnberg Institute, 9 , 10

State Department (U.S.), 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 88 -89, 90 , 91

Steele, Sir Richard, 127

Stendhal, 169 , 170 , 174 -75

Sternheim, Andries, 54

Sternheim, Carl, 249

Strauß, Botho, 258 , 259 , 260

Strauss, Leo, 112

Stravinsky, Igor, 129

Structural functionalism, 141 -42

Student movement, 93 , 194 -95, 265 ;

influenced by Horkheimer's works, 3 ;

in Federal Republic of Germany, 145 , 147 , 148 , 150 , 151 , 152 , 153 ;

in U.S., 145 , 150 -54;

in Weimar, 34 , 35 -37

Studien über Autorität und Familie (Studies on Authority and the Family), 73 -74, 137

Studies in Prejudice series, 77 , 133 , 135 -37

Subjectivity, 259 , 263

Surrealism, 216 , 263

Sweden, 106

Switzerland:

during Hitler period, 56 ;

Institute of Social Research branch in, 54 , 56 ;

psychoanalysis in, 26

Symbolic interactionism, 141 ;

Lowenthal on, 142

T

Tatler, 127

Telos,6 , 148 , 149 -50

Theory and practice, 61 -62, 65 , 164 , 174 , 192 , 195 , 241 , 243

Thomas, Albert, 54

Tiedemann, Rolf, 68 , 218

Tillich, Paul, 55

Tolstoy, Leo, 111 , 176

Trotskyism, 39 , 149

Trow, Martin, 144

Truman, Harry, 95

Tumult, 259 , 263

U

University of California, Berkeley, 86 , 138 , 141 , 145 , 150 -51, 152 -53, 238

University of Chicago, 57 , 145

U.S. Information Agency, 84 , 86 , 104 , 105

USPD. See Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany

Utopianism, 32 , 109 , 157 , 159 , 172 , 173 , 223 , 266 ;

and function of art, 122 -23, 128 , 172 , 173 , 196 ;

Jewish, 112 , 114 , 232 -33, 244 -45

V

"Value-free science," 163 , 164

Vietnam War, 93 , 153 -54

Voice of America, 83 -87, 137 , 158 ;

and Foreign Service, 85 -86;

in Germany, 104 ;

and McCarthy investigations, 87 -88, 90

Volksbühne. See People's Theater

Volksvorlesungen. See League for Popular Lectures

W

Wagner, Richard, 167 , 183 , 253

Wassermann, Jakob, 20

Watt, Ian, 127


281

Weber, Alfred, 46 , 47

Weber, Max, 46 , 47 , 142 , 147 , 148

Weil, Felix, 54

Wende, 260

Werckmeister, Otto Karl, 196

Wiesengrund, Oskar, 203 , 204

Wirkungsgeschichte (history of effects), 221 -22

Wissenschaftskolleg, 261

Wittfogel, Karl August, 63 , 66

Wolff, Christian von, 116

Women:

as revolutionary critics, 121 , 172 -73, 242 ;

rights of, 153 ;

suffrage for, 34

Wordsworth, William, 127

World War I, 34 , 44 -46, 164

World War II, 79 , 81 , 83 , 94 , 159 , 241 ;

creates demand for effective propaganda techniques, 140 ;

as military rather than ideological battle, 149 , 157 -58, 241

Wright Institute, 137

Y

Young Germany movement (Junges Deutschland), 118 , 165

Z

Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung,3 , 14 , 59 , 118 , 119 -20, 214 , 217 -18, 220 , 222 , 230 ;

collaborative editing of, 68 -69, 71 , 185 , 209 -10, 243 ;

founding of, 117 , 208 ;

as platform for Critical Theory, 60 , 69 , 71 , 166 ;

published in German in U.S., 12 , 185 , 219 ;

published in Paris, 56 , 57 .

See also Critical Theory; Institute of Social Research

Zionism, 19 -20, 24 -25, 50 , 67 , 111 , 113 -14

Zola, Émile, 44 , 222

Zweig, Stefan, 130 , 214


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