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xv

Note on Transliteration

Japanese names are shown with the surname first, followed by the given name, as is the practice in Japan. However, for individuals who were or are permanent U.S. residents or citizens of the United States, the given name precedes the surname.

Japanese writers who are known by their pen names are referred to in the text by their given names. For example, Ozaki Koyo[*] and Shimazaki Toson[*] are referred to as Koyo[*] and Toson[*] . Japanese terms that appear frequently and are integral to the text, such as seiko[*], ken, imin, and hi-imin, are italicized and translated only once when they appear initially.

Macrons for Japanese terms are used throughout the text, except for those in which common usage has eliminated them, such as Tokyo, Kobe, or Kyoto.

In the bibliography, Japanese surnames and given names of authors whose works are in Japanese are not separated by a comma. Surnames and given names of authors with Japanese names whose works are in English are separated by commas.


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