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Two— Latin American Feminism and the Transnational Arena

1. Teresa de la Parra, Tres conferencias (Bogotá: 1930). [BACK]

2. Karen Offen, "Toward an Historical Definition of Feminism" (Paper presented for the Western Association of Women Historians, May, 1985); Francesca Miller, "Problems and Concerns of Women in Latin America: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives," Conference Group in Women's History Newsletter (Winter 1976). [BACK]

3. De la Parra, Tres conferencias . [BACK]

4. Francesca Miller, "The International Relations of Women of the Americas," The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History (Fall 1986): 174. [BACK]

5. Asunción Lavrin, "The Ideology of Feminism in the Southern Cone, 1900-1940," Latin American Program Working Papers 169 (Washington, D.C.: Wilson Center, Smithsonian Institution, 1986). [BACK]

6. Congreso Femenino Internacional (Buenos Aires: 1910). [BACK]

7. Teresa González Fanning, "Educación doméstica y social de la mujer," Congreso Femenino Internacional , 280. [BACK]

8. Ibid. [BACK]

9. J. María Samame, "La democracia y la personalidad política de la mujer," Congreso Femenino Internacional , 374. [BACK]

10. "The Second Pan American Scientific Congress," Bulletin of the Pan American Union 45, 8 (December 1915): 762. [BACK]

11. There is good reason for this ideological diversity, which within the Pan American Women's Central Committee in the 1920s ranged from Wilsonian democrat to Trotskyite. I suggest that it is inherently related to the historical development of a feminist critique of society in the American states. For example, María del Carmen Feijóo writes of the Argentine feminists, "Puede considerarse con certeza que es a partir de 1890 cuando se empiezan a desarrollar de manera sistemática los esfuerzos dirigidos al esclarecimiento de la cuestión femenina y los primeros intentos organizativos. En nuestro pais, son las anarquistas quienes se anticipan en las discusión sistemática del problema" ( La Vida de Nuestro Pueblo 9, Las Feministas [1982]: 7). See also K. Lynn Stoner, "From the House to the Streets: Women's Movement for Legal Change in Cuba, 1898-1958" (Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1983); Shirlene Soto, The Mexican Woman: A Study of Her Participation in the Revolution , 1910-1940 (Palo continue

Alto, Calif.: R & E Research Associates, 1979); Alicia Moreau de Justo, El socialismo y la mujer (Buenos Aires: Editorial La Vanguardia, 1931). [BACK]

12. "Delegates to the Pan American Conference of Women," Bulletin of the Pan American Union 54, 4 (April 1922): 350-351. See also "A Permanent Pan American Association of Women" (n.p., n.d.), Alice Park Collection, Archives of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford University. [BACK]

13. Bertha Lutz, Homenagem das Senhoras Brasileiras a Illustre Presidente da União Inter-Americana de Mulheres (Rio de Janeiro: 1926). [BACK]

14. James Brown Scott, The International Conferences of American States, 1889-1928 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1931), vii. [BACK]

15. Papers of the Comité de las Americas de la Liga Internacional de Mujeres de la Paz y Libertad, 1947, Archives of the Hoover Institution. [BACK]

16. CIM Inter-American Commission of Women , 1928-1973 (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat, Organization of American States, 1974), 1. [BACK]

17. The Equal Rights Treaty was drafted by Alice Paul of the National Woman's Party of the United States and presented to the Havana Conference by Doris Stevens. [BACK]

18. "Declaration of Lima in Favor of Women's Rights, 1938," CIM Inter-American Commission of Women , 1928-1973, ID. [BACK]

19. Alice Park, 1928 diary, Alice Park Collection, Archives of the Hoover Institution. [BACK]

20. Papers of the Comité de las Americas. [BACK]

21. Scott, International Conferences , 507. [BACK]

22. Ibid. [BACK]

23. Uncollated MS, Doris Stevens Collection, Arthur and Elizabeth Schlessinger Archives of the History of Women, Radcliffe College. [BACK]

24. Scott, International Conferences , 507. [BACK]

25. Ibid. [BACK]

26. "The Second Pan American Scientific Conference," Bulletin of the Pan American Union 45, (December 1915): 762. [BACK]

27. Nelly Merino Carvallo, editorial, Mujeres de América 1, 5 (September-October 1933). ix. I am grateful to Gwen Kirkpatrick for providing me with a number of copies of this journal. [BACK]

28. Three women were members of national delegations. [BACK]

29. Scott, International Conferences , 507. [BACK]

30. Pro Paz was organized by "asociaciones femeninas y estudantiles" in Argentina; the signatories of the petition included many men's and women's associations, as well as individuals. Ibid. [BACK]

31. Ibid. [BACK]

32. Mary Louise Pratt, "Women, Literature, and National Brotherhood," this volume. Pratt addresses the ideas put forth by Benedict Anderson in Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). Anderson proposes viewing the nation as "an imagined political community, imagined both as inherently limited and sovereign." [BACK]

33. "Declaration of Lima," cited in CIM Inter-American Commission of Women 1928-1973 , 10. [BACK]

34. The declaration was drawn up and presented by the Mexican delegation to continue

the Inter-American Commission of Women. Ward M. Morton, in his study, Woman Suffrage in Mexico (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1962), states that in anticipation of their victory in securing suffrage ''the jubilant [Mexican] feminist organizations urged the delegation to the Eighth Pan American Conference in 1938 to take advantage of Mexico's progress toward women's rights by submitting a declaration on the subject" (37). The Mexican women's hopes were to founder as Congress buried the amendment that would have given them suffrage; it was not secured until 1953. [BACK]

35. Doris Stevens Collection, Radcliffe College. [BACK]

36. Ibid. [BACK]

37. Charter of the United Nations. [BACK]

38. Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security, Petropolis, Brazil, 1947. [BACK]

39. The Rio Treaty served as the blueprint for NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). [BACK]

40. Papers of the Primer Congreso Interamericano de Mujeres, 1947, Collection of Alicia Moreau de Justo, Montevideo, Uruguay. I am grateful to Janet Greenberg for providing this document. [BACK]

41. Ibid. [BACK]

42. Ibid. [BACK]

43. The reason the Guatemalan government particularly welcomed the women was in celebration of the overthrow of the Ubico dictatorship and establishment of civil liberties, including freedom of speech, under the administration of Juan José Arévalo. break [BACK]

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