collapse sectionIntroduction

 collapse section1. A Client Government in Afghanistan
 collapse section1. The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
 Storming of the Presidential Palace
 A Poisoned Luncheon in the Presidential Palace
 President Amin’s Faith in his Soviet Comrades
 The Elimination of President Amin
 Occupation of other Military Centers
 The Defiant Attitude of the Ghazni Military Division
 Military Officers and the Invasion: An Evaluation
 collapse section2. Why Did the Soviet Union Invade?
 Rift in the Khalq Leadership
 Soviet Scheme for a New Afghan Government
 The Palace Plot
 Rift with the Soviet Union
 The Dilemma of Afghan Reformist Rulers
 Invasion without Invitation
 collapse section3. Under the Soviet Shadow
 Rule by surrogates
 The Sitam-e-Milli
 The Khalq and Parcham Factions
 The Parchamis during the Khalq Rule
 Babrak Karmal
 Karmal as a Ruler
 The Invisible Ruling Circle
 Empty Promises

 collapse section2. The Afghans Against the Invaders and the Client Government
 collapse section4. Islamic Resistance Organizations
 Islamic Radicalism
 Features of Islamic Radicalism
 The Islamic Movement in Afghanistan
 Unsuccessful Uprising and Split
 Attempts at Unity
 Shi’ite Resistance Groups
 collapse section5. Nationalist Resistance Organizations
 Afghan Jirga in Peshawar
 Afghan Jirga in Pishin
 Mohammad Zahir
 Leftist Resistance Groups
 collapse section6. Urban Uprisings and Their Suppression
 Prelude to Urban Uprisings
 Herat and Kandahar in Turmoil
 The Great Uprising of Kabul
 Student Uprisings
 collapse section7. Beginning of the Countrywide Armed Clashes
 A Government without Rural Territories
 Mujahideen as Local Rulers
 Public Concern
 Features of Military Confrontations
 Attempts at Controlling the Strategic Frontier Posts
 The First Soviet Expedition in Laghman
 The Changed Role of the Afghan Army
 collapse section8. A New Type of War Leader
 Traditional Political Leadership
 The Rise of Mullas as Leaders
 The Force of Jehad
 Suppression of National Culture
 The Political Significance of Weapons
 Public Concern

 collapse section3. The Politics of Confrontation and Suppression
 collapse section9. KhAD as an Agency of Suppression
 Khad in Action
 Prisoners of Pul-e-Charkhi
 Inmates’ Responses
 collapse section10. Military and Administrative Measures for Consolidation of the Government
 Recall of the Reserve Army
 Military Posts
 Relations with Frontier Tribes
 Administrative Measures
 collapse section11. Victory at Any Cost
 Security Measures for the City of Kabul
 Mujahideen’s Penetration of the city of Kabul
 Security Measures for the Land
 The Afghan Problem in International Forums
 The Unsuccessful Drive from City to Village
 collapse section12. Elimination of Opponents by Nonmilitary Means
 Alienation of the Pdpa
 Party Members Terrorized in Provincial Cities
 Party Members Terrorized in Kabul
 Terrorism and Intraparty Rivalry
 Party Conference Overshadowed by Terrorist Activities
 Murderous Society

 collapse section4. The Story of Genocide in Afghanistan
 collapse section13. Genocide Throughout the Country
 Features of Genocide in Afghanistan
 Russia at a Glance
 Problems Relating to Genocide in Afghanistan
 Early Instances of Genocide
 Mass Killings in Civic Gatherings and the Kidnapping of Women
 Killing along the Roads
 collapse section14. Genocide in Districts Around Kabul
 Massacre in Logar
 Massacre in Shamali
 Massacre in Panjsher
 Massacre in Paghman
 Chemical Warfare
 collapse sectionConclusion
 collapse sectionEpilogue, 1982-1994

  A. Political Organizations, Factions, and Unions
 collapse sectionB. Selected Biographical Sketches
 Amin, Hafizullah (1929-79)
 Badakhshi, Tahir
 Baryalay, Mahmud
 Baw’ess, Abharuddin
 Daoud (Da’ud), Mohammad (1910-78)
 Gailani, Pir Sayyed Ahmad (1932-)
 Gulabzoy, Sayyed Mohammad (1951-)
 Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin (1948-)
 Karmal, Babrak (1929-)
 Khalis, Mawlawi Mohammad Yunus (1919-)
 Khybar, Mier Akbar (1925-78)
 Kishtmand, Sultan Ali (1936-)
 Laweq, Sulaiman
 Meesaq, Karim
 Mohammadi, Mawlawi Mohammad Nabi (1920-)
 Mojaddidi, Sibgatullah (1929-)
 Muhsini, Ayatullah Shaykh Mohammad Asif (1935-)
 Najibullah (1947-)
 Niazi, Ghulam Mohammad (1932-1978)
 Panjsheri, Dastagir (1933-)
 Rabbani, Burhanuddin (1940-)
 Rafi, Mohammad (1946-)
 Ratebzad, Anahita (1931-)
 Sarwari, Asadullah
 Sayyaf, Abd Al-rab Rasul (1947-)
 Taraki, Nur Mohammad (1917-79)
 Watanjar, Aslam (1946-)
  C. Afghan Refugees in Pakistan
  D. Telephone Conversation Between Kosygin and Taraki
 collapse sectionSelect Bibliography
 Books and Booklets
  About the Author

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