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Index

A

Aachen, 38 , 44

Adiaphora (indifferent things), 62 , 99

Adrian VI, Pope, 62

Agatha, Saint (early Christian martyr), 114

Albrecht V, duke of Bavaria (r. 1550-1579): Corpus Christi supporter, 87 , 88 -89, 90 , 92 ;

counter-reforming measures, 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 -80;

and Martin Eisengrein, 106 , 107 , 120 -21;

promoter of saints' cults and pilgrimages, 97 , 159 -60, 161

Albrecht, Hans, 86

Altötting, 38 ;

Albrecht V's 1571 pilgrimage to, 159 -60;

Aventinus's chronicle about, 41 -42;

development of pilgrimage to, 26 -27, 38 ;

and Martin Eisengrein's Our Lady at Altötting , 110 -29;

"French Treasure," 55 ;

late medieval miracle books from, 31 , 32 -35;

pilgrimage's resurgence in Counter-Reformation, 158 , 159 , 160 , 164 , 217 ;

Reformation in vicinity of, 72 , 110 , 111 , 230

Amulets, 20 , 57 , 146

Anabaptists, 70

Andechs, 224 ;

in Counter-Reformation, 164 , 203 -9;

late medieval cult, 39 -41, 116

Apocalypticism: and eschatology, 149 , 189 ;

implied denial of, in Counter-Reformation literature, 229 ;

late medieval, 34 , 35 , 49 , 58 , 129 ;

Reformation, 142

Apostolic succession, 140 , 179 , 187 , 195 , 210 , 211

Apparitions, 123 , 135 , 148 , 212 , 213 -16

Arianism, 29 , 93 , 109 , 114

Aswin (medieval count of Bogenberg), 221

Auer, Ferdinand, 219 n5

Augsburg: counter-reformers' work in, 86 , 119 -20;

imperial city, 17 -18;

prodigy market, 148 , 149 ;

Reformation, 61 , 70 -71, 146 , 158

Augustine, Saint (bishop of Hippo), 4 , 29 , 97 , 108

Aventinus, Johannes, 27 , 41 -42, 43 , 111 , 129 -30

B

Bach, Hermann, 32 n28, 103

Bajuwaren (early medieval tribe), 41 , 111 , 112 , 113 , 114 , 129 , 195

Bakhtin, Mikhail, 156 -57

Barnberg, 53

Baptism, 109 , 110 ;

and prebaptismal exorcism, 99

Baradin, Daniel, 161 n6

Basil (Church father), 108

Bavaria: Christianizafion of, in literary works, 41 , 113 -14, 195 , 206 , 210 ;

cities in, 17 -18;

Corpus Christi in, 80 , 85 -91;

and Counter-Reformation policies of Wittelsbach state, 75 , 77 -80, 161 -65;

and early modern literary treatment as Holy Land, 228 , 231 ;

and nobel fronde (1564), 76 ;

Peasants' War in, 18 -19;

and Protestantism, 69 -74;

rural mentality in, 19 -21;

Wittelsbach administration of, 15 -17

Begging, 48

Beghards, 105

Beguines, 105 , 151

Behem, Hans, 49 , 50

Benefices, 79 , 111

Benno, Saint, 62 -63, 181 -91

Bernard of Clairvaux, 35

Bernhausen, Anna yon (demoniac), 119 , 122 -26, 135 , 145

Bettbrunn, 103 , 164 , 191 -94, 200 -202, 230 ;

and Johannes Engerd's Holy Savior at Bettbrunn , 195 -99

Biblical narrative, 93 , 98 , 111 -14, 188 -89, 195 , 200 -201, 205

Bleeding Host. See Eucharist: desecration of host

Bogenberg, 220 -21

Boguet, Henri, 151 n61

Booksellers, 76 -77

Borromeo, Charles, Saint, 118


234

Bossy, John, 115 n40, 117 -18

Brethren of the Free Spirit, 151

Brown, Peter, 3

Bucer, Martin, 61 , 62 , 63 , 109 , 133 , 134

Bugenhagen, Johannes, 141

Bullinger, Heinrich, 61 , 62

Burial: ad sanctos , 182 -83;

rites, 100 -101

Burke, Peter, 191

Bynum, Caroline, 23 n12, 178 n33

C

Calvin, John, 84 , 118

Calvinism: and Calvinists as desecrators of images in Catholic legends, 222 ;

Catholic polemics against, 109 , 112 , 150 , 178 , 188 ;

and doctrine of cessation of miracles, 136 n15;

in France, 84 , 122 ;

in Germany, 99 -101

Canisius, Peter: exorcist, 119 , 122 -26, 128 , 135 -36, 215 ;

Jesuit counter-reformer, 10 , 86 , 163

Carmelite Order, 219

Cathars, 115

Cathedral chapters, 78

Censorship, 6 , 76 -77

Chalice movement, 71 , 111

Charlemagne, 42 , 115 , 129

Charles V (German emperor), 67

Chartier, Roger, 5 n6, 104

Chatellier, Louis, 10 n11

Christ, 117 ;

late medieval worship of, 21 , 26 ;

miracles of, 108 -9, 110 , 188 , 189

Christian, William, 3 , 225 n19

Chronicles: about Altötting, 41 -42;

about Andechs, 39 -41;

critical of pilgrimage, 44 , 47 , 50 , 57 , 58 n33, 66 -67

Church Militant, 94 , 98 , 171

Clement (Church father), 108

Clergy, Catholic: as figures in pilgrimage book legends, 40 , 41 , 43 , 113 , 114 , 191 , 196 -98, 206 ;

and late medieval attempts to define cult, 50 -52, 85 -86, 209 -10;

Protestant denunciation of, 62 , 64 -65, 66 -67, 133 -36, 150 -55, 157 , 158 ;

and routinization of clerical charisma, 114 -15, 127 , 210 ;

Tridentine reform efforts, 77 , 78 -79

Clerical Council (Bavaria), 77

Cologne, 79 , 95 , 138 , 149

Comedy, as literary and processional plot, 81 , 171

Concubinage, 70 , 77 , 78 , 111

Confession, sacrament of: and Counter-Reformation changes, 117 -19, 126 , 127 ;

requirement of, in Bavaria, 77

Confraternities, 87 , 105 , 163 -64, 184 -85, 200

Consecration, rite of, 51 , 113 -15

Constantinople, 221 , 223

Corpus Christi, Feast of: Counter-Reformation celebration of, in Bavaria, 9 , 71 , 78 , 87 -90, 107 , 160 , 161 , 171 , 230 ;

in medieval France and England, 81 -85;

in medieval and Reformation-era Germany and Bavaria, 85 -87;

Johann Nass's defense of, 91 -94, 97 , 129

Council of Trent, 6 , 8 , 75 , 76 , 118 ;

on saintly veneration, 108

Cranach, Lucas (the Elder), 154 -55, 218

Cross, 127 , 145 , 203 ;

sign of, 214 , 215

Crusades, 230 -31

D

Dautersdorf, 224

Davis, Natalie Z., 84 n29, 102 n4

Decker, Adalbert, 219 n4

Deggendorf, 36 -37, 172 -81

Delumeau, Jean, 118

Devil, 68 ;

in Catholic propaganda, 109 , 110 , 119 -28, 140 -41, 145 , 167 , 168 , 178 , 188 , 189 ;

in Corpus Christi processions, 88 , 90 ;

in devil books (Teufelbücher ), 143 -44;

in prodigies, 149 -50;

in Protestant attacks on Catholic saints and pilgrimage, 11 , 61 , 63 , 66 -67, 131 , 133 -36, 151 ;

and scatology, 153 -55

Dieth (Bajuwaren duke), 41 , 112 , 113 , 114

Dillingen, 89 , 138

Dinkelsbühl, 61

Donatism, 29

E

Eberhardsklausen, 158

Eck, Johannes, 53

Eck, Simon, 75

Eder Press (Ingolstadt), 193 , 211

Education, 79 -80

Einsiedeln, 38

Eire, Carlos M. N., 61 n42

Eisengrein, Martin: A Christian Sermon Concerning Shrines , 107 -10;

as Counter-Reformation hero, 159 -60;

defender of Marian cult, 166 n5;

life and career, 105 -7, 192 ;

his Our Lady at Altötting and its influence, 10 , 11 , 110 , 111 -29, 130 -42, 194 , 211 -12, 214 -15, 221

Eisenstein, Elizabeth, 5 -6

Elijah, bones of, 110

Emser, Hieronymus, 63 n43, 187

Engerd, Johannes, 192 -203

England, 46 , 81 -82, 84 , 85

Entries, royal, 83


235

Equine processions, 230 , 231

Erasmus, Desiderius, 64 , 105

Erfurt, 47

Erhard, Saint, 59 -60

Ernst "Omnia" (Wittelsbach bishop and archbishop), 79 , 106

Eschatology, 149 , 189

Ettal, 38

Eucharist: Catholic defense of, 91 -94, 97 , 129 , 176 , 178 , 180 ;

and Corpus Christi, 9 , 71 , 78 , 81 -90;

desecration of host, 23 , 24 , 26 , 36 -38, 45 , 171 -81;

and eucharistic miracles, 40 , 179 , 196 -97;

Lutheran disputes about, 99 ;

Real Presence, 107 , 109 -10, 127 ;

and "rediscovered" hosts, 204 , 224

Eusebius (Church father), 108

Exorcism: as Catholic propaganda, 140 -41, 145 , 200 -201;

in consecration rite, 114 -15;

in France, 122 , 127 ;

and Fugger family, 119 -25;

Lutheran, 143 , 144 , 145 -46;

prebaptismal, 99

F

Fabris, Melchior de, 166 , 168

Fair Mary Pilgrimage. See Regensburg: Fair Mary pilgrimage

Feyerabend, Sigmund, 143 -44

Fiction, 1 , 227

Finucane, Ronald C., 3

Fischart, Johann, 138 -39, 154 , 157

Flochberg, 209 -16

Flugschriften. See Pamphlet literature

Framing, literary, 4 , 169 -70

France, 55 , 81 -85, 122

Francis II (king of France), 83

Franciscans, 231

Franck, Sebastian, 58 n33, 66 -67

Frankfurt: book fair, 131 , 132 , 137 , 141 ;

devil books, 143 -44

Frederick III (Palatine elector), 100

Frederick the Wise (Saxon elector), 62 , 63

Frei, Hans W., 112

Freising (Bavarian bishopric), 73 , 106 , 195 , 225 , 226

Fröschel, Sebastian, 141 n32

Fuggers of Augsburg, 119 -26, 223

Functionalism, 102 n4

Funerals, 100 -101

G

Geary, Patrick J., 3

Gebhard, Torsten, 26

George, duke of Saxony, 62

George, Saint, 87 -88

Gerung, Matthias, 68 -69

Goltwurm, Caspar, 67

Grafrath, 25 , 73 , 203

Graus, Frantisek, 2

Gregory of Tours, 114

Gretser, Jacob, 6 , 167 n15

Grimmental, 44 , 66 , 134

Gurevich, Aron, 92 n50

H

Hagiography, 94 -98. See also Saints, cult of the

Harmening, Dieter, 31 n26

Hartinger, Walter, 100 n1, 103 n5

Healing. See Thaumaturgy

Hebenstreit-Wilfert, Hildegard, 97 n63

Heilbronn, 219

Heilbrünnl, 224

Heiltumverzeichnis (relic catalogue), 207 -8

Helen, Saint (mother of Constantine), 116 , 203

Hocker, Jodok, 144

Hoffaeus, Paul, 119 , 120

Hohenwart, 107 , 116 , 203

Holy Sepulcher, 124 , 231

Hörger, Hermann, 162 n8

Hostienfrevel (Crimes against the Host). See Eucharist: desecration of host

Hsia, R. Po-Chia, 37 n37

Huber, Fortunatus, 221 -22

Hubmayer, Balthasar, 53 , 54 -56, 58 , 59 , 67 , 152

Humanism, attitudes toward saints and pilgrimage, 42 , 96 , 117 , 129 -30

Huss, John, 46 , 64 -65

Hussites, 109 , 115 , 222

I

Iconoclasm, 65 , 99 , 109 , 221 , 222 -23;

Bajuwaren, 112 , 113 ;

Calvinist, 84 , 87 , 90

Idolatry, 62 , 67 , 68 -69, 87 , 135 , 136 , 139 , 142

Images, 21 , 165 , 199 , 204 ;

in Catholic exorcisms, 127 , 145 ;

and legends of trial and triumph, 218 -23;

and lost and found legends, 224 -25;

in Lutheran piety, 90 n44;

and Marian cult, 26 ;

in Protestant propaganda, 65 , 68 -69

Immaculate Conception, 55 , 59

Incombustibility: in "Luther Myth," 95 , 147 ;

as medieval miracle topos, 115

Incubation, 22

Indulgences, 20 -21, 62 , 68 , 70 , 160 , 173 -74, 192 ;

at Regensburg, 56 , 57 ;

at Wilsnack, 45 , 46 n7

Ingolstadt: Corpus Christi in, 86 ;

Counter-Reformation, 75 , 106 -7, 163 , 193 , 211 ;

territorial diet in, 76 ;

university, 11 , 53 , 107 , 192


236

Isseckemer, Jacob, 33 -35, 129

J

Jacquérie (French rebellion, 1359), 82

James, Mervyn, 81 n18, 84

Jerome (Church father), 108

Jerusalem, Holy Sepulcher in, 124

Jesuits, 75 , 79 , 87 , 95 , 138 , 150 ;

attacks on, in Protestant propaganda, 131 , 134 , 135 -36, 152 , 153 -54;

and theater, 6 , 89 -90, 184

Jews, 110 ;

alleged crimes against the host, 23 , 36 -38, 171 -81;

expulsion from Regensburg, 52 -53, 55 , 56 , 60 , 66 , 67 ;

"Jewish Sow" (Judensau ), 156 ;

ritual murder, 152 , 177

John of Capistrano, 49

Jubilee Year (1575), 161

K

Kantorowicz, Ernst, 83 n25

Karlstadt, Andreas, 61

Kelchbewegung. See Chalice movement

Kempis, Thomas à, 91

Kern, Jacob, 53 -54, 56

Kirchenführer , 2

Kösslarn, 89

Krafft, Peter, 51

Kyhler, Benigno, 228

L

Laberberg, 51

Laon, 122

Laurentian litany, 123 , 127 , 136

Le Goff, Jacques, 147

Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel, 118

Legends: and Counter-Reformation, 11 , 169 -71;

importance at late medieval shrines, 7 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 36 -43;

of lost and found images and relics, 203 -9, 223 -25;

and Rauscher's denunciation of medieval Church exempla, 151 -52;

of suddenly revealed shrines, 42 -43, 209 -16, 225 -26;

of trial and triumph, 23 -24, 110 -16, 171 -202, 218 -23

Leipzig, 148

Leonhard, Saint, 25

Leucht, Valentin, 97 n64, 179 , 180

Liminality, 167

Literacy, 4 -5, 194

Loreto, Holy House of, 38 , 120 , 121 , 123 , 124 , 161 , 223

Louis the Bavarian (German emperor, r. 1314-1347), 38 , 39 , 173 , 177 , 183

Louvain, 95 , 138

Loyola, Ignatius, 167

Luther, Martin: assessment of late medieval saintly devotion, 60 -64, 105 , 133 , 134 ;

in Catholic propaganda, 109 , 141 ;

Table Talk , 150 ;

Testament , 154 -55;

view of human nature, 118

Lutheranism, 107 ;

attitudes toward saints, 64 -69, 94 -95;

in Bavaria, 70 -71, 72 , 73 , 106 ;

Catholic polemics against, 109 , 110 , 140 -41, 144 , 145 , 178 , 188 ;

and competition with Calvinism, 99 -100, 132 ;

and "Luther Myth," 147 , 158 ;

and polemics against Catholic clergy, 151 -55, 157 -58

Lykosthenes, Conrad, 148 n52

M

Magyars, 115 , 116 , 129

Mainz, 138

Marbach, Johann, 131 -42, 146 , 149 , 150 , 157 , 212

Maria-Ort, 222 -23

Mariahilfbild , 218 -19

Mariology and Mary. See Virgin Mary

Martyrologies, 94 -97, 98 , 101 , 139

Maximilian I, duke of Bavaria (r. 1598-1651), 77 , 80 , 161 , 162 , 182 , 183 , 205

Mayer, Anton, 23 n12, 208 n102

Medallions, pilgrimage, 57

Mediation, Catholic doctrine of, 108 -9, 136 , 140 , 145 -46, 215

Meissen, 62 -63, 181 , 187 , 188 , 189

Midelfort, Erik, 127 n75, 144

Miesbach, 162

Milichius, Ludwig, 143 n36

Miracles, 3 -4;

absence of clerical records at Bleeding Host shrines, 37 , 172 -73, 180 ;

and Counter-Reformation changes, 214 -15;

eucharistic, 40 , 179 , 196 -97;

importance of, in Counter-Reformation, 9 , 97 , 102 , 103 , 128 -29, 185 , 186 , 189 , 200 , 208 -9;

importance of, in later Middle Ages, 7 , 28 -30, 43 , 170 ;

and Johann Marbach's "miracles of faith," 136 -37, 157 ;

and Marian cult, 103 -4;

and printed miracle books, 31 , 32 , 33 -36;

prodigy press, 147 -50;

as product of biblical narrative and Catholic apostolic succession, 188 -89, 195 , 201 ;

Protestant assessment of, 62 , 63 , 64 -65, 66 , 67 , 133 , 135 , 136 , 137 ;

Reformation-era decline of, 72 -73, 203

Moloch (Canaanite fertility god), 69

Mont-Saint-Michel, 47

Moosburg, 107

More, Thomas, 81 -82

Mörlin, David, 202

Mühldorf, Conventicle of, 69

Munich, 18 , 40 ;

St. Benno's shrine in,


237

181 -91;

Clerical Council at, 77 ;

Corpus Christi in, 86 -89;

CounterReformation in, 161 , 163 , 164 ;

Protestantism in, 71

Musculus, Andreas, 143 n36

N

Nagel, Abraham, 209 -16

Nass, Johann: affiliations with other counter-reformers, 192 ;

Corpus Christi sermons, 91 -94, 97 , 129 ;

Counter-Reformation propagandist, 10 , 101 , 102 ;

defense of pilgrimage, 166 , 171

Necromancy, 135 -36

Neukirchen bei Heilig Blut, 103 , 221 -22, 231 -32

Niederachdorf, 224

Niklashausen, 44 , 49 -50, 57

Nolan, Mary and Sidney, 3

Nuremberg, 50 , 146

O

Obry, Nicole (demoniac), 122

Oettingen, county of, 211 , 213

Ortenburg, county of, 76

Ostendorfer, Michael, 59 , 69

Ottheinrieh, duke of the Upper Palatinate, 67 , 68

P

Palatine Electorate, 99 -100, 149

Palestine, 203

Pamphlet literature, 63 -64, 66 , 67

Pappus, Johann, 142

Passau, 107 , 195 , 232 ;

Bleeding Host shrine at, 37 -38, 174 , 176 , 177 , 180 , 208 ;

Mariahifbild , 218 -19, 225

Peace of Augsburg (1555), 99 -100

Peasants' Rebellion (England, 1381), 82

Peasants' War (1525), 18 -19, 70 , 142

Penance. See Confession, sacrament of

Pietà , 26

Pilgrimage: books, 1 , 9 -10, 168 -70, 226 -29;

Counter-Reformation changes in, 9 , 11 -12, 164 -68, 192 , 214 -15, 230 -32;

late medieval chroniclers' criticisms of, 44 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 57 , 58 , 61 ;

and literary treatment as pre-Christian worship, 113 , 114 , 195 , 210 ;

medieval development in Bavaria, 7 , 22 -27;

and pilgrims' occupations (Bettbrunn), 193 -94;

Protestant denunciation of, 8 , 60 -64, 66 -67, 68 -69.

See also Legends; Miracles; Shrines; and names of specific destinations

Poor souls, 68 , 120 -23, 126 -27, 136

Possession, demonic. See Exorcism

Prantl, Georg, 193

Prayers, 114 -15;

and connection to shrines, 124 ;

in exorcistic rituals, 127 , 144 , 145 , 146

Printing: and Counter-Reformation pilgrimage books, 168 , 170 , 185 -87, 190 , 192 , 193 n69, 217 -18;

and cultural developments, 6 -7;

of devil books, 143 -44;

and Frankfurt book fair, 132 -33;

of miracle books, 31 , 32 , 33 -36;

and prodigy market, 148 -49

Processions, 90 n44;

Corpus Christi, 80 -91, 107 ;

Counter-Reformation defense of, 117 , 165 -68;

equine, 230 , 231

Prodigies, printed, 147 -50

Protestantism: and appeal of Catholic shrines, 150 , 158 , 159 , 192 , 202 ;

attitudes toward printing, 5 -6;

in Bavaria, 8 , 69 -73, 106 , 110 , 217 , 230 .

See also Calvinism; Lutheranism

R

Rabelais, François, 156 -57

Rabus, Johann, 192 ;

defense of Martin Eisengrein's Our Lady at Altötting , 10 , 137 -42, 145 , 212 ;

promoter of pilgrimage, 161 , 176 -78, 180

Rabus, Ludwig, 94 -95, 138 , 139

Rader, Matthäus, 6

Rasso, Saint, 25 , 73 , 203 , 206 , 207

Rauscher, Hieronymus, 151 -52, 175

Real Presence, 109 -20, 127

Regensburg: bishopric of, 51 , 195 , 197 -98, 225 ;

Counter-Reformation in, 79 , 86 , 220 ;

Fair Mary pilgrimage, 8 , 31 n27, 44 , 52 -61, 62 , 66 -67, 69 , 152 -53;

imperial city, 17 -18;

late medieval devotion in, 169 , 208

Regler, Balthasar, 220 -21

Reinburg, Virginia, 115 n40

Relics, 20 , 21 , 65 , 103 , 112 , 201 , 215 ;

at Altötting, 116 ;

at Andechs, 39 -41, 204 , 206 -8;

of St. Benno, 181 , 182 -83, 184 ;

at Bettbrunn, 199 ;

Counter-Reformation defense of, 108 -10, 218

Rentmeister (Wittelsbach state official), 16

Revolts: fear of, in early modern Bavaria, 162 -63;

late medieval, 47 -50, 82

Revolution of the Münster Prophets (1535), 142

Richildis, Saint, 203

Ritual murder, 150 , 152 , 152 , 177 , 188

Rome, as pilgrimage goal, 120 , 121 , 222 , 161


238

Rothenburg o. d. Tauber, 53

Rothkrug, Lionel, 3 , 22 n10, 230

Royal entries, 83

Rupert, Saint ("Bavarian apostle"), 41 , 113 , 114 , 115 , 116 , 195

S

Sacred landscape, 226 , 228

Saints, cult of the: canonization procedures, 191 ;

Counter-Reformation defense of, 95 -98, 109 -10, 140 ;

and exchanged miracles, 3 , 4 , 28 , 29 ;

humanist attitudes toward, 64 , 96 ;

as models for Protestant piety, 94 -95;

in pilgrimage broadsides, 217 -18;

Protestant attempts to expunge, 61 -69

Samuel (Old Testament figure), 135

Sancta Clara, Abraham à, 225 -26, 229

Sargent, Steven, 3

Sartorius, Johann, 178 -81

Satan. See Devil;

Exorcism

Saturn (Roman god), 69 n53

Scatology, 154 -56, 157

Scherer, Georg, 145

Scheyern, 231

Schmerzenmannsbild , 26

Schnaderbeck, Ambrosius, 202 n90

Schöffau, 38 -39

Scholasticism, 105 , 108 , 117 , 157

Schools, primary vs. seminary, 79 -80

Scribner, Robert, 19 , 65 , 90 n46, 95 n57

Scripture, 134 , 201

Sebastian, Saint (early Christian martyr), 114

Sedes sapientiae , 26

Sermons, 5 , 91 -94, 97 , 108 -10

Shrines: as antidote to Protestantism, 111 , 161 , 192 ;

in antiquity, 21 ;

Bavarian history of, 23 -27;

Counter-Reformation defense of, 108 -10, 165 -71, 214 -15;

European development, 7 , 21 , 22 ;

in Protestant propaganda, 62 -69, 133 -34.

See also names of specific shrines

Sigal, Pierre-André, 3

Simpert, Saint, 25

Sorcery, 140 ;

Protestant polemical charge against counter-reforming clergy, 134 -36, 141 , 152 -53

Sossau, 223

Staphylus, Friedrich, 106 , 141 n31

Sternberg, 44

Stolle, Konrad, 47 n9, 50

Strange births, 148 , 149 , 153 -54

Strasbourg, 154 ;

controversy over Martin Eisengrein's pilgrimage book, 131 , 137 , 138 ;

disputation on miracles, 142 ;

and uncertainties about Reformation there, 146 -47, 158

Straubing, 18 , 71 , 219

Strauss, Gerald, 12

Sumption, Jonathan, 3

Surius, Laurentius, 95 -98, 171

Swedes, as image desecrators, 219

T

Taxa, 225 , 226 , 229

Tentler, Thomas, 118

Thaumaturgy: and Bleeding Host, 37 , 172 -73, 180 ;

Counter-Reformation resurgence, 102 -3, 158 , 184 , 201 , 214 , 215 -16;

medieval saints', 3 -4, 20 , 22 , 24 -25, 28 -29;

Protestant reaction to, 136 , 144 , 150

Theater, Jesuit, 6 , 89 -90, 184

Theotokos , 26

Thomas, Keith, 19 , 102 n4

Tradition: in Counter-Reformation propaganda, 97 -98, 99 , 101 -2, 226 , 229 ;

in Protestantism, 99

Trexler, Richard, 169

Trier, 44

Trinity, 109 , 110

Truchseb von Waldburg, Cardinal Otto, 120 , 122 , 204

Tübingen, 106 , 138

Tumulus, saintly, 21 , 22 , 23

Tuntenhausen, 31 , 35 n34, 43 , 72 -73

Turner, Mary and Victor, 3 , 167

Tympe, Matthäus, 167 -68

U

Ulm, 138

Umritte (equine processions), 230 , 231

Universal canon, 1 , 227

Upper Palatinate, 67 -68, 100 -101, 191 -92

V

Venice, 82

Vestments, 78

Via, Johannes à, 97

Vienna, 106 , 107 , 145 , 153

Virgin Mary: at Altötting pilgrimage, 26 , 27 , 33 -35;

and Counter-Reformation piety, 163 , 164 , 165 ;

development of medieval cult, 22 , 24 ;

Martin Eisengrein's defense of, 112 -13, 114 , 115 , 117 , 166 n15;

importance of miracles to cult, 103 -4;

and legends of lost and found images, 224 -25;

and legends of trial and triumph, 218 -23;

Johann Marbach's polemic against Our Lady at Altötting , 134 -36;

and Abraham Nagel's Our Lady at Flochberg , 212 -16;

at Niklashausen, 49 -50;


239

Regensburg Fair Mary pilgrimage, 53 , 54 , 55 ;

at Taxa, 225 -26

Visual piety, 4 , 171 ;

and Eucharist, 9 , 23 , 85 , 90 , 91 , 92 -94, 173 ;

at Altötting, 116 -17, 129 ;

and relics, 199 , 208

Voragine, Jacopo da, 152 , 203

Votive gifts, 28 -29, 31 , 58 , 59 , 184 ;

of Albrecht V to Altötting Madonna, 159 -60

Vows, importance of, in pilgrimage, 28 , 215

W

Walker, D. P., 122 n58, 136 n15

Wandell, Lee, 90 n46

War of the Landshut Succession, 15 , 27 , 55

Wars of Religion (France), 84

Weissenregen, 222

Widmann, Enoch, 152 -53

Wilhelm IV, duke of Bavaria (r. 1508-1550), 17 , 75

Wilhelm V, duke of Bavaria (r. 1579-1598), 77 , 162 , 162 , 176 , 182

Willer, Georg, 132

Wilsnack, 44 , 45 -48, 57 , 64 , 65

Wilson, Stephen, 3

Wintzer family, 212 -26

Wisch, Barbara, 90 n44

Witchcraft, 134 -36, 140 , 141 , 151 , 152 -53, 167

Wittelsbach dynasty. See Albrecht V, duke of Bavaria;

Ernst "Omnia";

Louis the Bavarian;

Maximilian I, duke of Bavaria;

Wilhelm IV, duke of Bavaria;

Wilhelm V, duke of Bavaria

Wittenberg, 138

Witzel, Georg, 96

Würzburg, 50 , 52

Z

Zapalac, Kristin, 90 n46

Zika, Charles, 51 n20, 85

Zwingli, Ulrich, 61 , 62


241

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