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Chapter Five Women Friends and Marriage Work

1. Arlie Russell Hochschild, "Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure," American Journal of Sociology 85 (1979): 551-75; and Hochschild, The Managed Heart (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983). [BACK]

2. Hochschild, "Emotion Work," 552, 561. [BACK]

3. Ibid., 562. [BACK]

4. Ibid. [BACK]

5. Ibid., 552, 566. [BACK]

6. Ibid., 569. [BACK]

7. On lax emotion work, see ibid., 567. [BACK]

8. For a power analysis, see Hochschild, Managed Heart, ch. 8. For functionalist analyses, see Talcott Parsons, "The American Family: Its Relation to Personality and Social Structure," in Family, Socialization, and Interaction Process, ed. Talcott Parsons and Robert E Bales (Gleneoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1955); and David R. Miller and Guy E. Swanson, The Changing American Family (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1958), 200-201. [BACK]

9. Jessie Bernard, The Future of Marriage (New York: Bantam Books, 1976), 28. [BACK]

10. Elizabeth Bott, Family and Social Network, 2d ed. (New York: Free Press, 1971). [BACK]

11. At the time of the interviews median earnings for full-time female workers were $12,001 (Janet L. Norwood, "The Female-Male Earnings

Gap: A Review of Employment and Earnings Issues," U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, report 673 [Washington, D.C., 1982], 9). [BACK]

12. Barbara R. Bergmann, The Economic Emergence of Women (New York: Basic Books, 1986), 230. [BACK]

13. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Poverty in the U.S.: 1985, ser. P-60, no. 158 (Washington, D.C., 1987), 111; Diana M. Pearce, "Farewell to Alms: Women's Fare Under Welfare," in Women: A 3d ed., ed. Jo Freeman (Palo Alto, Ca.: Mayfield, 1984), 508, 509; Bergmann, Emergence, chs. 6, 10. [BACK]

14. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage Divorce Remarriage (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), 82; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Child Support and Alimony: 1983, Current Population Reports, sen 3, no. 141 (Washington, D.C., 1985). [BACK]

15. Helen Koo and C. M. Suchindran, "Effects of Children on Worn-en's Remarriage Prospects," Journal of Family Issues 1 (1980): 505; and Paul C. Glick, "Remarriage: Some Recent Changes and Variations," Journal of Family Issues 1 (1980): 475-76. [BACK]

16. Barbara Ehrenreich, The Hearts of Men (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Anchor Press, 1983), ch. 7. [BACK]

17. See Stacey J. Oliker, "Abortion and the Left: The Limits of 'Pro-Family' Politics," Socialist Review 56 (March 1981): 71-95; and Deirdre English, "The Fear that Feminism Will Free Men First," in Powers of Desire, ed. Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983), 477-83. [BACK]

18. For findings that men are less expressive, see: John G. Allen and Dorothy M. Haccoun, "Sex Differences in Emotionality: A Multidimensional Approach," Human Relations 29 (1976): 711-22; Sandra Lipsitz Bern, Wendy Martyna, and Carol Watson, "Sex Typing and Androgyny: Further Explorations of the Expressive Domain," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34 (1976): 1016-23; Mirra Komarovsky, Dilemmas of Masculinity: A Study of College Youth (New York: W. W. Norton, 1976).----For findings that men are less empathetic, see: Martin L. Hoffman, "Sex Differences in Empathy and Related Behaviors," Psychological Bulletin 84 (1977): 712-22.----For findings that men disclose less on intimate topics, see: Paul C. Cozby, "Self-Disclosure: A Literature Review," Psychological Bulletin 79 (1973): 73-91; Brian S. Morgan, "Intimacy of Disclosure Topics and Sex Differences in Self-Disclosure," Sex Roles 2 (1976): 161-66; Sidney Jourard, The Transparent Self, (New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1971); Elizabeth J. Aries and Fern L. Johnson, "Close Friendship in Adulthood: Conversational Content Between Same-Sex Friends," Sex Roles 4 (1983): 1183-95; Komarovsky, Dilemmas.----For findings that men have fewer friendships of intimacy and emotional ex-

change, see: Barry Wellman, "Paid Work, Domestic Work, and Network," in Understanding Personal Relationships, ed. Steve W. Duck and Daniel Perlman (Beverly Hills, Ca.: Sage, 1985), 169-70; Lillian Rubin, Just Friends (New York: Harper and Row, 1985), 60; Mayta A. Caldwell and Letitia Anne Peplau, "Sex Differences in Same-Sex Friendships," Sex Roles 3 (1982): 721-32; Alan Booth, "Sex and Social Participation" American Sociological Review 37 (1972): 183-93; Marjorie Fiske Lowenthal and Clayton Haven, "Interaction and Adaptation: Intimacy as a Critical Variable," American Sociological Review 33 (1968): 20-30; Zick Rubin and Stephen Shenker, "Friendship, Proximity, and Self-Disclosure," Journal of Personality 46 (1978): 1-22; Michael R Farell and Stanley Rosenberg, "Male Friendship and the Life Cycle," paper presented at the American Sociological Association, 1977; see also Joseph H. Pleck, The Myth of Masculinity (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1981). [BACK]

19. Claude S. Fischer and Susan L. Phillips, "Who Is Alone: Social Characteristics of Respondents with Small Networks," in Loneliness: A Sourcebook of Theory, Research, and Therapy, ed. L. A. Peplan and D. Perlman (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982), 21-39; Harry T. Reis, Marilyn Senchak, and Beth Solomon, "Sex Differences in the Intimacy of Social Interaction: Further Examination of Potential Explanations," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48 (1985): 1204-17. [BACK]

20. Bernard, Future, 28; John Scanzoni, "Sex Roles, Economic Factors, and Marital Solidarity in Black and White Marriages," Journal of Marriage and the Family 37 (1976): 130-45; Gerald Gurin, Joseph Veroff, and Sheila Feld, Americans View Their Mental Health (New York: Basic Books, 1960), 101-10; Joseph Veroff, Elizabeth Douven, and Richard A. Kulka, The Inner American (New York: Basic Books, 1981), 24, 164, 175-78. [BACK]

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