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Chapter Four Friendship and Individuality

1. Robert Paine, "In Search of Friendship: An Exploratory Analysis in Middle-Class Culture," Man 4 (1969): 514; S. N. Eisenstadt, "Friendship

and the Structure of Trust and Solidarity in Society," in The Compact, ed. Elliott Leyton (Newfoundland: Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1974), 139-41. [BACK]

2. Georg Simmel, The Sociology of Georg Simmel, ed. Kurt H. Wolff (New York: Free Press, 1950), 138, 130. [BACK]

3. Talcott Parsons, "The American Family: Its Relation to Personality and Social Structure," in Family, Socialization, and Interaction Process, Talcott Parsons and Robert F. Bales (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1955), 3-21. [BACK]

4. Peter L. Berger, Facing Up to Modernity (New York: Basic Books, 1977), 76. [BACK]

5. Simmel, Sociology, 318-27. [BACK]

6. Ibid. [BACK]

7. Ibid., 138. [BACK]

8. Ibid. [BACK]

9. William F. Goode, "Why Men Resist," in Rethinking the Family, ed. Barrie Thorne (New York: Longman, 1982), 136-39. [BACK]

10. For sources maintaining that married men perceive fewer problems in marriage and are more satisfied with communication, see Jessie Bernard, The Future of Marriage (New York: Bantam Books, 1976), 28. [BACK]

11. Simmel, Sociology, 326. [BACK]

12. Claude S. Fischer, To Dwell Among Friends (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), pts. 3, 4; Robert Max Jackson, "Social Structure and Process in Friendship Choice," in Claude S. Fischer et al., Networks and Places (New York: Free Press, 1977), 59-78. [BACK]

13. Graham Allan, A Sociology of Friendship and Kinship (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1979), 51. [BACK]

14. Barry Wellman, "Paid Work, Domestic Work, and Network," in Understanding Personal Relationships, ed. Steve W Duck and Daniel Perlman (Beverly Hills, Ca.: Sage, 1985), 167-68; Nicholas Bahchuk and Alan P. Bates, "The Primary Relations of Middle-Class Couples: A Study in Male Dominance," American Sociological Review 28 (1963): 380. [BACK]

15. Ann Steuve and Laura Lein, "Problems in Network Analysis: The Case of the Missing Person," manuscript, Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, 1979. [BACK]

16. Robert O. Blood and Donald M. Wolfe, Husbands and Wives (New York: Free Press, 1960), 39; Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage Divorce Remarriage (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), 50-54. [BACK]

17. Jessica Benjamin, "The Oedipal Riddle: Authority, Autonomy, and the New Narcissism" in The Problem of Authority in America, ed. John

P Diggins and Mark E. Kann (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981), 208. [BACK]

18. Ibid., 207. [BACK]

19. Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978); for work on moral development in this tradition, see Carol Gilligan, In A Different Voice (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982). [BACK]

20. See Benjamin, "Oedipal Riddle," 208-10. [BACK]

21. Mirra Komarovsky, Blue-Collar Marriage (New York: Random House, Vintage Books, 1967), ch. 12; Miehael Young and Peter Willmott, Family and Kinship in East London (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1957), ch. 3; Carol B. Stack, All Our Kin (New York: Harper and Row, 1974), ch. 7; Robert Paine, "Search of Friendship," 508. [BACK]

22. Simmel, Sociology, 325. [BACK]

23. Ibid., 326. [BACK]

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