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4 The History of Philosophy: Nietzsche and the History of Ontology

1. For instance, Grondin writes, in the context of a brief remark on the evolution of Heidegger's position: "Dans cet itinéraire, le rectorat n'aura sans doute été qu'un épisode (il rut en effet étonnament court, dont on aurait tort d'exagérer la portée philosophique, même si Heidegger lui-même a peut-être été le premier à se fourvoyer sur ce point." Jean Grondin, review of Martin Heidegger, Beiträge zur Philosophie and of Vom Wesen der Wahrheit , in Archives de philosophie 53, no. 3 (July-September 1990): 523. [BACK]

2. See Aubenque, "Encore Heidegger et le nazisme" (see chap. 2, n. 59), pp. 113-128, and Vietta, Heideggers Kritik am Nationalsozialisrnus und an der Technik (see chap. 1, n. 31). [BACK]

3. It is significant that Heidegger associates the purported failure to perceive the essence of National Socialism with a commitment to axiology, or values. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , trans. Mannheim (see chap. 1, n. 32), p. 199. This recalls Nietzsche's view of a transvaluation of values, which in turn suggests that Nietzsche may well have been ingredient in Heidegger's turning to real Nazism. [BACK]

4. Heidegger initially took a softer line on the conception of a Weltanschauung . In his initial lecture series, he depicted the Weltanschauung as the immanent task of philosophy and finally identical with philosophy on the one hand, and as the limit of philosophy on the other. See Martin Heidegger, Zur Bestimmung der Philosophie: Frühe Freiburger Vorlesungen, Kriegsnotsemester 1919 und Sommersemester 1919 , ed. Bernd Heimbüchel (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1987), p. 10. The volume includes lectures titled "Die Idee der Philosophie und das Weltanschauungsproblem" and "Phánomenologie und Wertphilosophie" and an abridged version of a course titled "Über das Wesen der Universität und des akademischen Studiums." [BACK]

5. "Only a God Can Save Us" (see chap. 1, n. 30), p. 274. [BACK]

6. Aubenque, "Encore Heidegger et le nazisme," p. 121. [BACK]

7. See Vietta, Heideggers Kritik am Nationalsozialismus und an der Technik , p. 50. [BACK]

8 This lecture series was given during the summer semester 1935. See Martin Heidegger, Einführung in die Metaphysik: Freibürger Vorlesung Sommersemester 1935 (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1953). [BACK]

9. See Martin Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymne "Andenken": Freibürger Vorlesung Wintersemester 1941/42 , ed. Curd Ochwadt (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1982), and Hölderlins Hymne "Der Ister " (see chap. 2, n. 146). [BACK]

10. Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein " (see chap. 3, n. 144). [BACK]

11. See Beda Allemann, Hölderlin und Heidegger (Zurich: Atlantis Verlag, 1956), and Else Buddeberg, "Heidegger und die Dichtung: Hölderlin," Deutsche Vierteljahrschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte 26, no. 3 (1952): 293-330. See also Michel Deguy, "Sur le commentaire heideggérien de Hölderlin," Tel Quel , no. 8 (1962): 57-65; Otto Poggeler, "Heidegger's Begegnung mit Hölderlin," Man and World 10 (1977): 13-61, and Paul de Man, ''Heidegger's Exegeses of Hölderlin," in Paul de Man, Blindness and Insight. Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Fiction (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983), pp. 246-266.

12. See Jaspers, Notizen zu Martin Heidegger (see chap. 3, n. 11), esp. § 47, pp. 75-76. Jaspers thought that Heidegger, as a result of the abandonment of science, and hence of metaphysics, was led finally to a form of irrationalism and gnosticism. See ibid., §§ 38 and 187, pp. 68, 208-209. [BACK]

11. See Beda Allemann, Hölderlin und Heidegger (Zurich: Atlantis Verlag, 1956), and Else Buddeberg, "Heidegger und die Dichtung: Hölderlin," Deutsche Vierteljahrschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte 26, no. 3 (1952): 293-330. See also Michel Deguy, "Sur le commentaire heideggérien de Hölderlin," Tel Quel , no. 8 (1962): 57-65; Otto Poggeler, "Heidegger's Begegnung mit Hölderlin," Man and World 10 (1977): 13-61, and Paul de Man, ''Heidegger's Exegeses of Hölderlin," in Paul de Man, Blindness and Insight. Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Fiction (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983), pp. 246-266.

12. See Jaspers, Notizen zu Martin Heidegger (see chap. 3, n. 11), esp. § 47, pp. 75-76. Jaspers thought that Heidegger, as a result of the abandonment of science, and hence of metaphysics, was led finally to a form of irrationalism and gnosticism. See ibid., §§ 38 and 187, pp. 68, 208-209. [BACK]

13. See Heidegger, Being and Time , § 44, "Dasein, Disclosedness, and Truth." [BACK]

14. This essay first appeared in 1964. See Heidegger, On Time and Being , trans. Stambaugh (see chap. 1, n. 11), pp. 55-73. [BACK]

15. Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein ," p. 1.

16. Ibid. [BACK]

15. Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein ," p. 1.

16. Ibid. [BACK]

17. See "Only a God Can Save Us," p. 277. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

18. This theme recurs in almost exactly the same terminology three times. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein, " pp. 50, 58, 226.

19. See ibid., p. 213.

20. See ibid., p. 252.

21. See ibid., p. 294.

22. See ibid., p. 226: "... denn die Götter sind geflohen, wer der Mensch ist, wissen wir nicht."

23. See ibid., p. 30.

24. See ibid., p. 40.

25. See ibid., p. 51

26. See ibid., p. 74.

27. See ibid., p. 76.

28. See ibid., p. 116.

29. See ibid., pp. 121-122.

30. See ibid., p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibid., p. 237.

33. Ibid., p. 255.

34. See ibid., p. 284.

35. Ibid., p. 294. [BACK]

36. For a statement of the idea of the poet as divinely inspired, see Ion , 534e: "By this example, above all, it seems to me, the god would show us, lest we doubt, that these lovely poems are not of man or human workmanship, but are divine and from the gods, and that the poets are nothing but interpreters of the gods, each one possessed by the divinity to whom he is in bondage." Ion , trans. Lane Cooper, in The Collected Dialogues of Plato including the Letters , ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns (New York: Pantheon, 1961), p. 220. For the more developed critique of this view, see Republic , book 10. [BACK]

37. According to Szilasi, with the exception of Hegel and Schelling no other important philosopher spent so much time interpreting other thinkers. See W. Szilasi, M. Heideggers Einfluss auf die Wissenschaften (Bern, 1949), pp. 73ff., cited in Löwith, Siimtliche Schriften (see Introd., n. 12), 1:196. [BACK]

38. According to Heidegger, Hegel's history of philosophy is and will remain the only philosophical history until philosophy is forced to think historically. See Martin Heidegger, Nietzsche (see n. 143 below), vol. 2, The Eternal Recurrence of the Same (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1984), p. 186. [BACK]

39. The widely accepted Young Hegelian view of the end of philosophy in Hegel's thought, a claim which Hegel never makes, is formulated by Heine in a famous passage. "Our philosophical revolution is concluded; Hegel has closed its great circle." Heinrich Heine, Religion and Philosophy in Germany: A Fragment , trans. John Snodgrass (1882; reprint, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986), p. 156. [BACK]

40. For instance, in a typical passage, Bochenski writes: "Heidegger is an extremely original thinker. The problem of his historical affiliations is not of primary concern here and we need only mention that he borrows his method from Husserl, that he is in many ways influenced by Dilthey, and that his general thesis is largely inspired by Kierkegaard." I. M. Bochenski, Contemporary, European Philosophy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1961). p. 161. For a more detailed study, see Walter Schulz, "Über den philosophiegeschichtlichen Ort Martin Heideggers," Philosophische Rundschau 1 (1953-54): 65-93, 211-232. [BACK]

41. See Martin Heidegger, Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus. Ein kritisch-positiver Beitrag zur Logik (Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1913). [BACK]

42. See Martin Heidegger, Die Kategorien- und Bedeutungslehre des Duns Scotus (Tübingen: Paul Siebeck, 1916). [BACK]

43. For recent discussion of Heidegger's treatment of Hegel, see Denise Souche-Dagues, Hégélianisme et dualisme: Réflexions sur le phénomène (Paris: Vrin, 1990), pp. 20-31. [BACK]

44. Löwith, who as Heidegger's student and later colleague knew him well,

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describes his relation to Kierkegaard as follows: "In dieser Suche nach dem Einen, was not tut und darum notwendig ist, orientierte sich Heidegger vor allem an Kierkegaard, mit dem er jedoch nicht verwechselt sein wollte, denn das Motiv und Ziel seiner Existentzialphilosophie war ja kein 'Aufmerksammachen aufs Christliche', sondern eine 'formale Anzeige' der weltlichen Existenz." Löwith, Mein Leben in Deutschland (see chap. 2, n. 8). p. 28. [BACK]

45. Löwith links Heidegger's interest in both Kierkegaard and Luther as follows (Löwith, Mein Leben in Deutschland , p. 30): "Aus Luther stammte auch das unausgesprochene Motto seiner Existenzialontologie: 'Unus quisque robustus sit in existentia sua' was sich Heidegger ohne den Glauben an Christus damit verdeutschte, dass er immer wieder betonte, es komme nur darauf an, 'dass jeder das macht, was er kann', auf 'das je eigene Sein-können' oder die 'existentielle Beschränkung auf die eigene, historische Faktizität.' Dieses Können nahm er zugleich als ein Müssen in Anspruch oder als 'Schicksal.' Er schrieb mir 1921: 'Ich mache lediglich, was ich muss und was ich für nötig halte, und mache es so, wie ich es kann—ich frisiere meine philosophische Arbeit nicht auf Kulturaufgaben für ein allgemeines Heute. Ich habe auch nicht die Tendenz Kierkegaards. Ich arbeite aus meinem "ich bin" und meiner geistigen, überhaupt faktischen Herkunft. Mit dieser Faktizitát wütet (sic!) das Existieren.'" [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

46. See Heidegger, Being and Time , §§ 19-21.

47. See ibid., § 43a.

48. See ibid., § 77.

49. See ibid., § 82.

50. See ibid., § 1, p. 2.

51. See ibid., § 6.

52. See ibid., p. 42.

53. Ibid., p. 43.

54. Ibid., p. 44. [BACK]

55. See Martin Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 24, Die Grundprobleme der Phánomenologie (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1989), "Nachwort des Herausgebers," p. 471. [BACK]

56. See Martin Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , trans. Albert Hofstadter (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982), § 6, p. 23. [BACK]

57. See Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , p. 35. These include Kant's thesis that being is not a real predicate, the medieval form of the Aristotelian view that the being of a being includes essence and existence, the modern ontological thesis that the basic ways of being include the being of nature or res extensa and the being of mind or res cogitans , and the logical thesis that all kinds of being can be discussed in terms of the "is" or copula. [BACK]

58. See Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , p. 37. [BACK]

59. See "Author's Preface to the Second Edition," in Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , trans. Churchill (see chap. 3, n. 29), p. xxiii. [BACK]

60. See Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , p. xxiii. [BACK]

61. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 45

62. See ibid., p. 49. [BACK]

61. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 45

62. See ibid., p. 49. [BACK]

63. See "Vorbemerkung zur dritten Auflage," in Martin Heidegger, Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1965), p. 8. This passage does not appear in the English translation, which was made from the second German edition. [BACK]

64. By the term "repetition" Heidegger roughly means "to rethink what was possible beyond what in fact took place," in his words "the disclosure of the primordial possibilities concealed in it." Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , p. 211. The concept of repetition is already present, in undeveloped form, in Being and Time . For instance, in a passage on the limitations of the positive sciences, particularly ethnology, Heidegger states that they cannot wait for philosophy, which needs to repeat ontologically what has already been accomplished ontically. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 76. For an application of the concept of repetition to the problem of being in general, see Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 36. [BACK]

65. For Cassirer's view of Heidegger's Kant interpretation, see Ernst Cassirer, "Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik: Bemerkungen zu Martin Heideggers Kant-Interpretation," Kant-Studien 36 (1931): pp. 1-26. [BACK]

66. See foreword to Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , pp. xii-xiii. [BACK]

67. See Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , § 35, "The Basic Originality of the Established Ground," pp. 201-208, and "Author's Preface to the Second Edition," p. xxv.

68. See ibid., p. 206.

69. See ibid., p. 207.

70. Ibid. [BACK]

67. See Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , § 35, "The Basic Originality of the Established Ground," pp. 201-208, and "Author's Preface to the Second Edition," p. xxv.

68. See ibid., p. 206.

69. See ibid., p. 207.

70. Ibid. [BACK]

67. See Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , § 35, "The Basic Originality of the Established Ground," pp. 201-208, and "Author's Preface to the Second Edition," p. xxv.

68. See ibid., p. 206.

69. See ibid., p. 207.

70. Ibid. [BACK]

67. See Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , § 35, "The Basic Originality of the Established Ground," pp. 201-208, and "Author's Preface to the Second Edition," p. xxv.

68. See ibid., p. 206.

69. See ibid., p. 207.

70. Ibid. [BACK]

71. See Alexandre Kojève, Introduction to the Reading of Hegel: Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit , trans. James H. Nichols, Jr. (New York: Basic Books, 1969). For Kojève's enormous influence on later French thought, or what Heidegger would call the "confirmation" of his textually arbitrary interpretation, see Vincent Descombes, Le même et l'autre. Quarante-cinq ans de philosophie française (1933-1978 ) (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1979). [BACK]

72. Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , p. xxv. [BACK]

73. For Kant's distinction between the letter and the spirit, see Kant, Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason , trans. Smith (see chap. 1, n. 12), B xliv, p. 37. For a recent, quasi-Heideggerian approach to the history of philosophy, see Jürgen Habermas, Zur Rekonstruktion des historischen Materialismus (Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 1976), p. 9. What Habermas here refers to as "reconstruction" is a version of Heidegger's view of the historical and philosophical approach, which excludes a philological approach. [BACK]

74. This is the reworked version of a lecture course delivered in the spring semester 1935. [BACK]

75. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 13. For another example, see Heidegger's remarks on the translation of energeia as actus in Heidegger, Nietzsche (see n. 85 below), 2:399,413. [BACK]

76. Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 13. [BACK]

77. For Quine's argument for the indeterminacy of translation, see his article "Ontological Relativity," in W. V. Quine, Ontological Relativity and Other Essays (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), pp. 26-68. [BACK]

78. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 176.

79. Ibid. [BACK]

78. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 176.

79. Ibid. [BACK]

80. See Martin Heidegger, Holzwege (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1950); Vortráge und Aufsátze (Pfullingen: Neske, 1954); Wegmarken (see chap. 3, n. 33). [BACK]

81. Volume 50 of the Gesamtausgabe includes the course on Nietzsche's metaphysics announced for 1941/42, which was never given, as well as "Einleitung in die Philosophie—Denken und Dichten," 1944/45. [BACK]

82. See Martin Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 43, Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst: Wintersemester 1936/37 ; vol. 44, Nietzsches metaphysische Grundstellung im abendlándischen Denken: Die Lehre yon der ewigen Wiederkehr des Gleichen: Sommersemester 1937 ; vol. 46, Nietzsche H: Unzeitgemásse Betrachtung: Wintersemester 1938-39 ; vol. 47, Nietzsches Lehre vom Willen zur Macht als Erkenntnis: Sommersemester 1939 ; vol. 48, Nietzsche, der europáische Nihilismus. H. Trimester 1940 ; vol. 50, Nietzsches Metaphysik , announced for winter semester 1941/42, but not given; Einleitung in die Philosophie—Denken und Dichten: Wintersemester 1944/45 . [BACK]

83. According to Vietta, between 1936 and the end of the war, Nietzsche was perhaps Heidegger's most important companion. See Vietta, Heideggers Kritik am Nationalsozialismus und an der Technik , p. 51. [BACK]

84. See Martin Heidegger, "Nietzsches Wort 'Gott ist tot,'" in Holzwege ; and "Wer ist Nietzsches Zarathustra," in Vortráge und Aufsátze . [BACK]

85. See Martin Heidegger, Nietzsche , 2 vols. (Pfullingen: Neske, 1961). [BACK]

86. See David Farrell Krell, "Analysis," in Martin Heidegger, Nietzsche , vol. 1, The Will to Power as Art , trans. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1979), p. 241. [BACK]

87. See Gay, Weimar Culture (chap. 2, n. 9), pp. 31, 49, 125. See also Ernst Bertram, Nietzsche: Versuch einer Mythologie (Berlin: Georg Biondi, 1918). For more discussion on the interest of the George-Kreis in Nietzsche, see Walter Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968), pp. 9-16 and 415-418. [BACK]

88. See Ernst Gundolf and Kurt Hildebrandt, Nietzsche als Richter unsrer Zeit (Breslau: F. Hirt, 1922); see also Kurt Hildebrandt, Nietzsches Wettkampf mir Sokrates und Plato (Dresden: Sibyllenverlag, 1922), and Kurt Hildebrandt, Wagner und Nietzsche: Ihr Kampf gegen das neunzehnte Jarhhundert (Breslau, 1924). [BACK]

89. See Wilhelm Windelband, A History of Philosophy , trans. James H. Tufts (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1958), p. 676. [BACK]

90. For an appreciation of the relation between Nietzsche and Spengler, see Paul Hühnerfeld, In Sachen Heideggers: Versuch über ein deutsches Genie (Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe), 1959, pp. 47-48: "Er [Spengler] gab Goethe und Nietzsche als die beiden Vorbilder an, denen er all verdanke. Aber es ist schwer, den weitsichtigen und weltmánnischen Einfluss des Weimaraners in Spenglers

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überpointiertem Buch [ Untergang des Abendlandes ] wiederzufinden (wenn man einmal von einigen Termini, wie zum Beispiel dem der 'Morphologie,' absieht). Und es ist ebenso schwer, in Spenglers Bemfihung etwas anderes zu spüren als das typische Missverstándnis, in dem sich das fin de siècle und das beginnende zwanzigste Jahrhundert Nietzsche gegenüber so kontinuierlich befand." Kaufmann suggests that Spengler accepts Nietzsche's denial of the unity of history but gives up Nietzsche's central point that the individual is not the pawn of the historical process. See Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist , p. 415. [BACK]

91. See Hans Vaihinger, Nietzsche als Philosoph (Berlin, 1902); and the chapter entitled "Nietzsche und seine Lehre vom bewusst gewollten Schein," in Die Philosophie des Als-Ob (Berlin, 1911). [BACK]

92. Georg Simmel, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche , trans. Helmut Loiskandl, Deena Weinstein, and Michael Weinstein (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1986). [BACK]

93. Krell ties these three approaches respectively to Bauemler, Klages, and Jaspers. See Heidegger, Nietzsche , vol. 1, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 241-243. [BACK]

94. Jaspers, who is the main representative of the existentialist reading of Nietzsche, also represents the Christian reading of his thought. See Karl Jaspers, Nietzsche und das Christentum (Hameln: Verlag der Bücherstube Fritz Seifert, n.d.). [BACK]

95. For a fuller discussion, see Eckhard Heftrich, "Nietzsche im Denken Heideggers," in Durchblicke (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1970). [BACK]

96. See Gadamer, Truth and Method (see chap. 1, n. 17), p. 228. [BACK]

97. See Pöggeler, Der Denkweg Martin Heideggers (see chap. 2, n. 69), p. 105 (1963ed.). See also Otto Pöggeler, Philosophie und Politik bei Heidegger (Freiburg and Munich: Karl Alber, 1972), p. 25. [BACK]

98. See Heidegger, Nietzsche , vol. 1, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 245-246. [BACK]

99. See Heidegger, Being and Time , pp. 308,317 n. 6, and 448. [BACK]

100. See Taminiaux, "La présence de Nietzsche dans 'Etre et temps' "(see chap. 1, n. 22), p. 73: "Seul le traitement réservé à Nietzsche a l'allure d'un geste univoque de réappropriation sans distance." [BACK]

101. See "Rectoral Address—Facts and Thoughts" (see chap. 2, n. 115), p. 474.

102. See ibid., pp. 484-485. [BACK]

101. See "Rectoral Address—Facts and Thoughts" (see chap. 2, n. 115), p. 474.

102. See ibid., pp. 484-485. [BACK]

103. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 36: "The task in hand is too crucial and at the same time too sobering. It consists first of all, if we are to gain a true grasp of Nietzsche, in bringing his accomplishment to a full unfolding." [BACK]

104. See her Nachwort to Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 44, Nietzsches metaphysische Grundstellung im abendlándischen Denken , pp. 252-254. This paragraph is based on her discussion. [BACK]

105. Cited in Heidegger, Nietzsches metaphysische Grundstellung , p. 254. [BACK]

106. See Was heisst Denken? (Ttibingen, 1954). This volume is available in translation as Martin Heidegger, What Is Called Thinking? trans. J. Glenn Gray (New York: Harper and Row, 1968). [BACK]

107. Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 44.

108. See ibid., pp. 43-44. For an explicit description of Suarez's role in systematizing and transmitting Aristotle's metaphysical views, which were originally stated in unsystematic fashion, see Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , pp. 79-80. [BACK]

107. Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 44.

108. See ibid., pp. 43-44. For an explicit description of Suarez's role in systematizing and transmitting Aristotle's metaphysical views, which were originally stated in unsystematic fashion, see Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , pp. 79-80. [BACK]

109. Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 95. [BACK]

110. On this point, see the Beltráge zur Philosophie (see chap. 1, n. 26), "The Age of the World Picture" (see chap. 3, n. 138), and the "Letter on Humanism" (see chap. 1, n. 29). [BACK]

111. See Heidegger, Being and Time , pp. 94-95.

112. See ibid., p. 45. [BACK]

111. See Heidegger, Being and Time , pp. 94-95.

112. See ibid., p. 45. [BACK]

113. See Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics , p. 208. [BACK]

114. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 127. [BACK]

115. See Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , p. 49.

116. See ibid., p. 55.

117. Ibid., p. 76. [BACK]

115. See Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , p. 49.

116. See ibid., p. 55.

117. Ibid., p. 76. [BACK]

115. See Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , p. 49.

116. See ibid., p. 55.

117. Ibid., p. 76. [BACK]

118. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 250.

119. See ibid.

120. See ibid., p. 367.

121. See ibid., p. 369. [BACK]

118. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 250.

119. See ibid.

120. See ibid., p. 367.

121. See ibid., p. 369. [BACK]

118. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 250.

119. See ibid.

120. See ibid., p. 367.

121. See ibid., p. 369. [BACK]

118. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 250.

119. See ibid.

120. See ibid., p. 367.

121. See ibid., p. 369. [BACK]

122. For Sartre's view of Marx, see Sartre, Search for a Method (see chap. 3, n. 5), and Sartre, Critique de la raison dialectique (see chap. 2, n. 160). [BACK]

123. See G. W. E Hegel, The Difference between Fichte's and Schelling's System of Philosophy , trans. H. S. Harris and Walter Cerf (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1977). [BACK]

124. For a discussion of Hegel centered on the Differenzschrift , see Tom Rockmore, Hegel's Circular Epistemology (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1986). [BACK]

125. See Alfred Baeumler, "Nietzsche und der Nationalsozialismus," in Baeumler, Studien zur deutschen Geistesgeschichte (see chap. 3, n. 46), pp. 281-294. [BACK]

126. Carl August Emge, VB 6.4.1932, cited in Laugstien, Philosophieverháltnisse (see chap. 2, n. 25), p. 25. [BACK]

127. See Algermissen, Nietzsche und das Dritte Reich (see chap. 3, n. 45), pp. 3-4. This paragraph is based on this passage from his book. See also D. Gawronsky, Friedrich Nietzsche und das Dritte Reich (Bern, 1935). [BACK]

128. Cited in Algermissen, Nietzsche und das Dritte Reich, p. 3.

129. Cited ibid., p. 3.

130. Cited ibid. [BACK]

128. Cited in Algermissen, Nietzsche und das Dritte Reich, p. 3.

129. Cited ibid., p. 3.

130. Cited ibid. [BACK]

128. Cited in Algermissen, Nietzsche und das Dritte Reich, p. 3.

129. Cited ibid., p. 3.

130. Cited ibid. [BACK]

131. See Ludwig Klages, Die psychologischen Errungenschaften Nietzsches (Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1926). [BACK]

132. See Baeumler, Nietzsche, der Philosoph und Politiker (see chap. 3, n. 45 ). [BACK]

133. For a first acquaintance with the Nietzsche discussion in the Third Reich, see Alfredo Guzzoni, ed., Neunzig Jahre philosophische Nietzsche-Rezeption (Königstein, 1979); Wolfgang Müller-Lauter, Aufnahme und

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Auseinandersetzung: Nietzsche im 20. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1982); Algermissen, Nietzsche und das Dritte Reich ; Karl Löwith, Nietzsches Philosophie der ewigen Wiederkehr des Gleichen (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1956), ''Anhang: Zur Geschichte der Nietzsche-Deutung (1894-1954)," pp. 199-225. [BACK]

134. See Georg Lukács, The Destruction of Reason , trans. Peter Palmer (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1980), chap. 3, "Nietzsche as Founder of Irrationalism in the Modern Period," pp. 309-402. [BACK]

135. See Lukács, The Destruction of Reason , pp. 536-537. [BACK]

136. See Roderick Stackelberg. Idealism Debased. From Völkisch Ideology to National Socialism (Kent, Ohio: The Kent State University Press, 1981). [BACK]

137. See Cassirer, The Myth of the State (see chap. 2, n. 131). [BACK]

138. See Löwith, Nietzsches Philosophie der ewigen Wiederkehr des Gleichen , "Anhang: Zur Geschichte der Nietzsche-Deutung (1994-1954)," pp. 199-225. [BACK]

139. See Jaspers's letter to Oehlkers, 22 December 1945, in Ott, Martin Heidegger , p. 317. [BACK]

140. See Ott, Martin Heidegger , p. 186. [BACK]

141. Derrida, for instance, has made this point. Before listing Heidegger's mises en garde concerning Nietzsche, Derrida correctly states that Heidegger's study of Nietzsche is less simple than it is commonly thought to be. See Jacques Derrida, Éperons. Les styles de Nietzsche (Paris: Flammarion, 1973), p.60. [BACK]

142. See Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.; see n. 85). [BACK]

143. See Martin Heidegger, Nietzsche , trans. David Farrell Krell let al.], 4 vols. (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1979-1987). [BACK]

144. See Martin Heidegger, Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst, Wintersemester 1936/37 , ed. Bernd Heimbuchel (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1985), and Martin Heidegger, Nietzsches metaphysisiche Grundstellung im abendlándischen Denken: Die ewige Wiederkehr des Gleichen: Sommersemester 1937 , ed. Marion Heinz (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1986). [BACK]

145. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 5. [BACK]

146. The approach to Plato in terms of his unwritten dialogues has become popular in recent years. Two of the foremost examples of this approach in English are Whitehead and Findlay. See Alfred North Whitehead, "Mathematics and the Good," in A. N. Whitehead, The Interpretation of Science (Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1961), pp. 187-203, and John Findlay, Plato: The Written and Unwritten Dialogues (New York: Humanities Press, 1974). For the influential Tübingen School discussion, see K. Geiser, Platons ungeschriebene Lehre (Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Verlag, 1963), and H. J. Krämer, Arete bei Platon und Aristoteles: Zum Wesen und zur Geschichte der platonischen Ontologie (Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitátsbuchhandlung, 1959). [BACK]

147. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 3.

148. See ibid., p. 10.

149. Ibid., p. 17.

150. See ibid., p. 21.

151. See ibid., p. 10.

152. See ibid., p. 11.

153. See ibid., chap. 4, "The Unity of Will to Power, Eternal Recurrence, and Revaluation," p. 18-24. [BACK]

147. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 3.

148. See ibid., p. 10.

149. Ibid., p. 17.

150. See ibid., p. 21.

151. See ibid., p. 10.

152. See ibid., p. 11.

153. See ibid., chap. 4, "The Unity of Will to Power, Eternal Recurrence, and Revaluation," p. 18-24. [BACK]

147. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 3.

148. See ibid., p. 10.

149. Ibid., p. 17.

150. See ibid., p. 21.

151. See ibid., p. 10.

152. See ibid., p. 11.

153. See ibid., chap. 4, "The Unity of Will to Power, Eternal Recurrence, and Revaluation," p. 18-24. [BACK]

147. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 3.

148. See ibid., p. 10.

149. Ibid., p. 17.

150. See ibid., p. 21.

151. See ibid., p. 10.

152. See ibid., p. 11.

153. See ibid., chap. 4, "The Unity of Will to Power, Eternal Recurrence, and Revaluation," p. 18-24. [BACK]

147. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 3.

148. See ibid., p. 10.

149. Ibid., p. 17.

150. See ibid., p. 21.

151. See ibid., p. 10.

152. See ibid., p. 11.

153. See ibid., chap. 4, "The Unity of Will to Power, Eternal Recurrence, and Revaluation," p. 18-24. [BACK]

147. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 3.

148. See ibid., p. 10.

149. Ibid., p. 17.

150. See ibid., p. 21.

151. See ibid., p. 10.

152. See ibid., p. 11.

153. See ibid., chap. 4, "The Unity of Will to Power, Eternal Recurrence, and Revaluation," p. 18-24. [BACK]

147. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 3.

148. See ibid., p. 10.

149. Ibid., p. 17.

150. See ibid., p. 21.

151. See ibid., p. 10.

152. See ibid., p. 11.

153. See ibid., chap. 4, "The Unity of Will to Power, Eternal Recurrence, and Revaluation," p. 18-24. [BACK]

154. Heidegger's discussion is highly selective. It picks out Baeumler and Jaspers among all the many interpreters, and it is further limited to two works only: Baeumler, Nietzsche, der Philosoph und Politiker , and Karl Jaspers, Nietzsche: Einführung in das Verstándnis seines Philosophierens (Berlin and Leipzig: Walter de Gruyter, 1936). Significantly, he fails to take into account Jaspers's book on Nietzsche and Christianity as well as the many other writings by Bauemler in this domain. [BACK]

155. The relation to the Nazi party is a significant factor. Ott reports that in 1936, Baeumler served as a Heidegger expert for the evaluation of Heidegger's personality by the Rosenberg Amt. See Ott, Martin Heidegger , p. 253. [BACK]

156. See Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 21-22. Heidegger's objections to Bauemler's reading concern his interpretation of the idea of the eternal recurrence. Löwith further reports that Bauemler misinterpreted the will to power as the will as power. See Löwith, Mein Leben in Deutschland (see chap. 2, n. 8), p. 140. [BACK]

157. See Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 22-23. [BACK]

158. In a later passage in the lectures, which was omitted in the version published by Heidegger, he sharply attacks what he regards as Bauemler's clear misinterpretation of Nietzsche's doctrine of the will to power, which Bauemler allegedly tries merely to interpret away. See Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 44, Nietzsches metaphysische Grundstellung im abendliindlischen Denken , p. 229. [BACK]

159. As concerns Jaspers, see, e.g., Richard Lowell Howey, Heidegger and Jaspers on Nietzsche: A Critical Examination of Heidegger's and Jaspers's Interpretations of Nietzsche (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973). See also Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist , p. 34. [BACK]

160. See Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 23

161. See ibid. [BACK]

160. See Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 23

161. See ibid. [BACK]

162. See Jaspers, Notizen zu Martin Heidegger (chap. 3, n. 11), §187, §38. [BACK]

163. "Die bisherige Verfálschung der Philosophie Nietzsches," in Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 43, Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst , p. 278. This passage contrasts oddly with Heidegger's friendly remarks in two letters to Jaspers greeting the news that Jaspers is working on a book on Nietzsche. See Letter 120, Martin Heidegger to Karl Jaspers, 1 July 1935, Freiburg i.B., in Briefwechsel 1920-1963 (see chap. 2, n. 27), pp. 157f. Heidegger writes in part (p. 157): "Irgendwer berichtet mir gelegentlich, dass Sie an einem Nietz-schebuch arbeiteten, so darf ich mich darüber freuen, wie sehr das Strömen bei Ihnen auch nach dem großen Werk anhált." See also Letter 122, Martin Heidegger to Karl Jaspers, Freiburg, 16 May 1936, p. 160: "In Rom, wo ich den beiliegenden Vortrag über Hölderlin hielt, erfuhr ich, dass Sie an einem Werk über Nietzsche arbeiten. Im Februar dieses Jahres hatte ich für den kommenden Winter eine Vorlesung über Nietzsches 'Willen zur Macht' angekündigt; meine erste sollte es werden. Nur Ihr Werk vorliegt, brauche ich diesen Versuch nicht zu machen; denn eben dies war meine Absicht, was Sie im Vorwort klar und

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einfach sagen: zu zeigen, dass es an der Zeit sei, vom Nietzsche-Lesen zur Arbeit überzugehen. Nun kann ich in der náchsten Stunde einfach auf Ihr Werk, das zudem für die Studenten erschwinglich ist, hinweisen. Und für den Winter werde ich eine andere Vorlesung wáhlen." [BACK]

164. For instance, at the beginning of the long discussion of the doctrine of the eternal return of the same, he comments negatively on Ernst Bertram's view in his book, Nietzsche: Versuch einer Mythologie (see n. 87). See Heidegger, The Eternal Recurrence of the Same , pp. 5-6. [BACK]

165. See Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 18. [BACK]

166. To take a single example, according to Moehling, Heidegger's Nietzsche lectures were "outspoken assaults upon the Nazis' attempts to assimilate Nietzsche into the pantheon of National Socialist forerunners." See Karl A. Moehling, "Heidegger and the Nazis," in Heidegger: The Man and the Thinker , ed. Thomas Sheehan (Chicago: Precedent, 1981), p. 38. [BACK]

167. See Walter Kaufmann, "Editor's Introduction," in Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power , trans. Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale, ed. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Vintage, 1968), pp. xii-xiv. [BACK]

168. "Nachwort" to Friedrich Nietzsche, Der Wille zur Macht , ed. Alfred Baeumler (Leipzig: Alfred Kröner Verlag, 1930). p. 699. [BACK]

169. On this point, see Kaufmann, "Editor's Introduction," p. xvi. [BACK]

170. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , pp. 36f.

171. See ibid., p. 57.

172. See ibid., pp. 39, 91.

173. See ibid., p. 175.

174. See ibid., p. 45.

175. See ibid., p. 36.

176. See ibid., pp. 16, 159-160. [BACK]

170. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , pp. 36f.

171. See ibid., p. 57.

172. See ibid., pp. 39, 91.

173. See ibid., p. 175.

174. See ibid., p. 45.

175. See ibid., p. 36.

176. See ibid., pp. 16, 159-160. [BACK]

170. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , pp. 36f.

171. See ibid., p. 57.

172. See ibid., pp. 39, 91.

173. See ibid., p. 175.

174. See ibid., p. 45.

175. See ibid., p. 36.

176. See ibid., pp. 16, 159-160. [BACK]

170. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , pp. 36f.

171. See ibid., p. 57.

172. See ibid., pp. 39, 91.

173. See ibid., p. 175.

174. See ibid., p. 45.

175. See ibid., p. 36.

176. See ibid., pp. 16, 159-160. [BACK]

170. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , pp. 36f.

171. See ibid., p. 57.

172. See ibid., pp. 39, 91.

173. See ibid., p. 175.

174. See ibid., p. 45.

175. See ibid., p. 36.

176. See ibid., pp. 16, 159-160. [BACK]

170. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , pp. 36f.

171. See ibid., p. 57.

172. See ibid., pp. 39, 91.

173. See ibid., p. 175.

174. See ibid., p. 45.

175. See ibid., p. 36.

176. See ibid., pp. 16, 159-160. [BACK]

170. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , pp. 36f.

171. See ibid., p. 57.

172. See ibid., pp. 39, 91.

173. See ibid., p. 175.

174. See ibid., p. 45.

175. See ibid., p. 36.

176. See ibid., pp. 16, 159-160. [BACK]

177. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 18.

178. See ibid., p. 19.

179. See ibid., p. 18.

180. Ibid.

181. Ibid., p. 20. [BACK]

177. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 18.

178. See ibid., p. 19.

179. See ibid., p. 18.

180. Ibid.

181. Ibid., p. 20. [BACK]

177. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 18.

178. See ibid., p. 19.

179. See ibid., p. 18.

180. Ibid.

181. Ibid., p. 20. [BACK]

177. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 18.

178. See ibid., p. 19.

179. See ibid., p. 18.

180. Ibid.

181. Ibid., p. 20. [BACK]

177. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 18.

178. See ibid., p. 19.

179. See ibid., p. 18.

180. Ibid.

181. Ibid., p. 20. [BACK]

182. Heidegger, Being and Time, § 45, p. 278. See further "Time and Being," in Heidegger, On Time and Being , trans. Stambaugh (see chap. 1, n. 11), pp. 1-24. [BACK]

183. Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 43, Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst , p. 278.

184. See ibid., pp. 275-290 passim. For further mention of the crucial distinction between the Leitfrage , which designates all earlier metaphysical thought, including Heidegger's own initial position, and the Grundfrage , toward which Heidegger now turns, see, e.g., Heidegger, The Eternal Recurrence of the Same (see n. 38), par. 25, "The Essence of a Fundamental Metaphysical Position: The Possibility of Such Positions in the History of Western Philosophy," pp. 184-197 passim. [BACK]

183. Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 43, Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst , p. 278.

184. See ibid., pp. 275-290 passim. For further mention of the crucial distinction between the Leitfrage , which designates all earlier metaphysical thought, including Heidegger's own initial position, and the Grundfrage , toward which Heidegger now turns, see, e.g., Heidegger, The Eternal Recurrence of the Same (see n. 38), par. 25, "The Essence of a Fundamental Metaphysical Position: The Possibility of Such Positions in the History of Western Philosophy," pp. 184-197 passim. [BACK]

185. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 20; translation modified.

186. See ibid.

187. Ibid., p. 24. The translator's use of the word ''genuine" rather than "authentic" to translate " eigentlich " in this and other passages conceals rather than reveals the link between Heidegger's claim here and elsewhere to provide an authentic reading, which by implication differs in kind from others, and the concept of authenticity ( Eigentlichkeit ) in Being and Time .

188. Ibid. [BACK]

186. See ibid.

187. Ibid., p. 24. The translator's use of the word ''genuine" rather than "authentic" to translate " eigentlich " in this and other passages conceals rather than reveals the link between Heidegger's claim here and elsewhere to provide an authentic reading, which by implication differs in kind from others, and the concept of authenticity ( Eigentlichkeit ) in Being and Time .

188. Ibid. [BACK]

186. See ibid.

187. Ibid., p. 24. The translator's use of the word ''genuine" rather than "authentic" to translate " eigentlich " in this and other passages conceals rather than reveals the link between Heidegger's claim here and elsewhere to provide an authentic reading, which by implication differs in kind from others, and the concept of authenticity ( Eigentlichkeit ) in Being and Time .

188. Ibid. [BACK]

186. See ibid.

187. Ibid., p. 24. The translator's use of the word ''genuine" rather than "authentic" to translate " eigentlich " in this and other passages conceals rather than reveals the link between Heidegger's claim here and elsewhere to provide an authentic reading, which by implication differs in kind from others, and the concept of authenticity ( Eigentlichkeit ) in Being and Time .

188. Ibid. [BACK]

189. Derrida, who seems to suggest an opposition between metaphysics and nonmetaphysics, is wrong to attribute it to Heidegger. See Derrida, Éperons. Les styles de Nietzsche , p. 96. [BACK]

190. See Immanuel Kant, Prolegornena to Any Future Metaphysics , introd. Lewis White Beck (Indianapolis and New York: Library of Liberal Arts, 1950). [BACK]

191. This is the theme of Heidegger's brief meditation on the relation of the eternal return of the same and the will to power, which opens the second volume of the Nietzsche lectures. See "Die ewige Wiederkehr des Gleichen und der Wille zur Macht," in Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.; see n. 85), 2:7-29. The second volume opens with the following sentence, which provides a categorical statement of Heidegger's view (ibid., p. 7): "Kaum eine Spur von Recht besteht zunächst, Nietzsches Philosophie als die Vollendung der abendländischen Metaphysik in Anspruch zu nehmen; denn sie ist durch die Abschaffung der 'übersinnlichen Welt' als der 'wahren' eher schon die Absage an alle Metaphysik und der Schritt zu ihrer endgültigen Verleugnung." [BACK]

192. Any version of the claim to provide the authentic interpretation of a position is controversial. It is unclear whether Heidegger in fact "hears" or even "listens to" Nietzsche, into whose thought he may well "read" his own, in order to "find'' what he was seeking. Derrida, for instance, who is deeply sympathetic to Heidegger, is sufficiently suspicious of his reading of Nietzsche to evoke the problem of how to save Nietzsche from the possibility of a Heideggerian type of reading. See Derrida, Éperons , p. 32. Heidegger supports the perception of this danger in his scornful rejection of the idea of capturing Nietzsche's view in itself. See Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 43, Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst , p. 277: "Der 'wirkliche' Nietzsche 'an sich'—nein!" [BACK]

193. On this point, the unrevised lecture notes give an even clearer indication. See Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 43, Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst , p. 278, where he writes: " Nietzsche ist ein Übergang—das Höchste, was von einem Denker gesagt werden kann." [BACK]

194. It will be useful to follow the German original for this purpose. The English translation, which includes a variety of other Heidegger materials on Nietzsche but omits portions of the two-volume format of the version prepared by him for publication, differs significantly. Such differences include material not available in the original as well as material that it omits but which is available elsewhere. [BACK]

195. For a more detailed, but still not exhaustive, list of references to Nietzsche in Heidegger's writings, see Hildegard Feick, Index zu Heideggers "Sein und Zeit " (Tübingen: Niemeyer Verlag, 1968), p. 120. [BACK]

196. On the relation of art and truth, see his 1935 essay, "The Origin of the Work of Art," in Heidegger, Basic Writings , trans. Krell, pp. 143-188, esp. pp. 178-188. [BACK]

197. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 218; translation modified.

198. See Heidegger, The Eternal Recurrence of the Same , p. 205.

199. See ibid.

200. See ibid., p. 206. [BACK]

197. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 218; translation modified.

198. See Heidegger, The Eternal Recurrence of the Same , p. 205. [BACK]

197. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 218; translation modified.

199. See ibid.

200. See ibid., p. 206. [BACK]

197. Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 218; translation modified.

198. See Heidegger, The Eternal Recurrence of the Same , p. 205.

199. See ibid.

200. See ibid., p. 206. [BACK]

201. See Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.), 1:639.

202. See ibid., vol. 1, part 3, Der Wille zur Macht als Erkenntnis , "Nietzsches angeblicher Biologismus," pp. 517-526. [BACK]

201. See Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.), 1:639.

202. See ibid., vol. 1, part 3, Der Wille zur Macht als Erkenntnis , "Nietzsches angeblicher Biologismus," pp. 517-526. [BACK]

203. See Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.), 1:642.

204. See ibid., p. 656.

205. See ibid., vol. 2, Der europäische Nihilismus , pp. 31-256. The volume contains 481 pages, including the Inhalt and Übersicht . This discussion of European nihilism is available in translation under the title Nihilism . See Heidegger, Nietzsche (see n. 143), vol. 4, Nihilism , trans. Frank A. Capuzzi.

206. See, e.g., Hermann Rauschning, The Revolution of Nihilism: Warning to the West , trans. E. W. Dickes (New York: Alliance Book Corporation, Long-mans, Green and Co., 1939). Rauschning argues that National Socialism, which has no doctrine, leads to nihilism. See ibid., chap. 1: "The Road to Nihilism," pp. 3-58. See further Carl Schmitt, Political Romanticism , trans. Guy Oakes (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986). Schmitt argues, in a book published in 1919, in a striking anticipation of Heidegger's reading of Nietzsche, that a nihilism has been created by the death of the traditional concept of God. See ibid., pp. 58-59, 82, 91. [BACK]

203. See Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.), 1:642.

204. See ibid., p. 656.

205. See ibid., vol. 2, Der europäische Nihilismus , pp. 31-256. The volume contains 481 pages, including the Inhalt and Übersicht . This discussion of European nihilism is available in translation under the title Nihilism . See Heidegger, Nietzsche (see n. 143), vol. 4, Nihilism , trans. Frank A. Capuzzi.

206. See, e.g., Hermann Rauschning, The Revolution of Nihilism: Warning to the West , trans. E. W. Dickes (New York: Alliance Book Corporation, Long-mans, Green and Co., 1939). Rauschning argues that National Socialism, which has no doctrine, leads to nihilism. See ibid., chap. 1: "The Road to Nihilism," pp. 3-58. See further Carl Schmitt, Political Romanticism , trans. Guy Oakes (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986). Schmitt argues, in a book published in 1919, in a striking anticipation of Heidegger's reading of Nietzsche, that a nihilism has been created by the death of the traditional concept of God. See ibid., pp. 58-59, 82, 91. [BACK]

203. See Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.), 1:642.

204. See ibid., p. 656.

205. See ibid., vol. 2, Der europäische Nihilismus , pp. 31-256. The volume contains 481 pages, including the Inhalt and Übersicht . This discussion of European nihilism is available in translation under the title Nihilism . See Heidegger, Nietzsche (see n. 143), vol. 4, Nihilism , trans. Frank A. Capuzzi.

206. See, e.g., Hermann Rauschning, The Revolution of Nihilism: Warning to the West , trans. E. W. Dickes (New York: Alliance Book Corporation, Long-mans, Green and Co., 1939). Rauschning argues that National Socialism, which has no doctrine, leads to nihilism. See ibid., chap. 1: "The Road to Nihilism," pp. 3-58. See further Carl Schmitt, Political Romanticism , trans. Guy Oakes (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986). Schmitt argues, in a book published in 1919, in a striking anticipation of Heidegger's reading of Nietzsche, that a nihilism has been created by the death of the traditional concept of God. See ibid., pp. 58-59, 82, 91. [BACK]

203. See Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.), 1:642.

204. See ibid., p. 656.

205. See ibid., vol. 2, Der europäische Nihilismus , pp. 31-256. The volume contains 481 pages, including the Inhalt and Übersicht . This discussion of European nihilism is available in translation under the title Nihilism . See Heidegger, Nietzsche (see n. 143), vol. 4, Nihilism , trans. Frank A. Capuzzi.

206. See, e.g., Hermann Rauschning, The Revolution of Nihilism: Warning to the West , trans. E. W. Dickes (New York: Alliance Book Corporation, Long-mans, Green and Co., 1939). Rauschning argues that National Socialism, which has no doctrine, leads to nihilism. See ibid., chap. 1: "The Road to Nihilism," pp. 3-58. See further Carl Schmitt, Political Romanticism , trans. Guy Oakes (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986). Schmitt argues, in a book published in 1919, in a striking anticipation of Heidegger's reading of Nietzsche, that a nihilism has been created by the death of the traditional concept of God. See ibid., pp. 58-59, 82, 91. [BACK]

207. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 69.

208. See ibid., p. 223. [BACK]

207. See Heidegger, Being and Time , p. 69.

208. See ibid., p. 223. [BACK]

209. "What Is Metaphysics?" in Heidegger, Basic Writings , p. 105. [BACK]

210. See Heidegger, Basic Writings , pp. 105-106. Heidegger's opposition between being and nothingness is transformed by Sartre as the basis of his existential position. See Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness , trans. Hazel Barnes (New York: Washington Square Press, 1973). [BACK]

211. See Heidegger, Basic Writings , p. 110. [BACK]

212. See "Rectoral Address—Facts and Thoughts" (see chap. 2, n. 115), p. 474. [BACK]

213. Heidegger refers to Being and Time , § 38, pp. 223-224. [BACK]

214. Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 37; translation modified.

215. See ibid., pp. 38-39.

216. Ibid., p. 39; translation modified. [BACK]

214. Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 37; translation modified.

215. See ibid., pp. 38-39.

216. Ibid., p. 39; translation modified. [BACK]

214. Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 37; translation modified.

215. See ibid., pp. 38-39.

216. Ibid., p. 39; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

217. Heidegger, Nihilism , p, 4.

218. See ibid., pp. 59-60.

219. Ibid., p. 4.

220. Ibid., p. 5.

221. See ibid., p. 132.

222. See ibid., p. 123.

223. See ibid., p. 103.

224. See ibid., p. 136.

225. See ibid., p. 195.

226. Ibid., p. 196; translation modified. [BACK]

227. Krell argues for the replacement of " Geschehnis " by " Ereignis " beginning with chapter 20 of The Will to Power as Art but fails to perceive how that replacement is related either to the Beiträge , whose unpublished text he may not have known, or to the problem of the turning in Heidegger's thought. "Note that the 'event' of nihilism, cited four times in this and the following paragraphs, occasions perhaps the earliest 'terminological' use of the word Ereignis in Heidegger's published writings." Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , p. 156n. This observation is only correct if Heidegger's lecture courses are omitted. In fact, words such as " Ereignis '' and '' ereignen " occur much earlier in Heidegger's writings, beginning with his initial lecture series during the Kriegsnotsemester in 1919. See Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 56/57, Zur Bestimmung der Philosophie , ed. Bernd Heimbüchel (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1987), passim. [BACK]

228. See Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 37; Heidegger, Einführung in die Metaphysik (see n. 8), p. 28; Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 40, Einführung in die Metaphysik , par. 10, p. 40. [BACK]

229. See the parallel passages in Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , par. 20, and Nihilism , par. 29; Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.), vol. 1, Wahrheit im Platonismus und im Positivismus: Nietzsches Versuch einer Umdrehung des Platonismus aus der Grunderfahrung des Nihilismus , and vol. 2, Der europäische Nihilismus , chap. 5, "Das Sein als die Leere und der Reichturn"; Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 48, Nietzsche: Der europäische Nihilismus (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1986), "Schluss: Der vergessene Unterschied des Seins und des Seienden und das Ende der abendländischen Philosophie als Metaphysik," pars. 32-35. [BACK]

230. See Heidegger, Basic Writings , p. 208. For Heidegger's interpretation of the turning in his thought, see his preface to William Richardson, Heidegger: Through Phenomenology to Thought (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974), pp. viii-xxii. For a recent summary of discussion concerning the turning, see Thomä, Die Zeit des Selbst und die Zeit danach (see Introd., n. 6). pp. 459-465. Thomä denies the existence of a Kehre in Heidegger's thought. For a version of this view, see Lacoue-Labarthe, L'imitation des modernes (see chap. 2, n. 123). p. 236. For a detailed study of the turning in Heidegger's thought, see Jean Grondin, Le tournant dans la pensée de Martin Heidegger (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1987). See also Alberto Rosales, "Zum Problem der Kehre im Denken Heideggers," Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung , 1984: 241-262. According to Thomä, the term occurs for the first time in Heidegger's 1928 summer lecture series: "Diese temporale Analytik ist ( ...) zugleich die Kehre. " Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 26, Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Logik im Ausgang von Leibniz , ed. Klaus Held (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1978), p. 201 (Heidegger's emphasis), cited in Thomä, Die Zeit des Selbst und die Zeit danach , p. 458. [BACK]

231. See Karl Marx, Capital , ed. Friedrich Engels, trans. Samuel Moore and

Page 344

Edward Aveling (New York: International Publishers, 1967), 1:20. For a discussion of various forms of philosophical reversal, see Jean-François Mattéi, "Le chiasme heideggérien," in Dominique Janicaud and Jean-François Mattéi, La métaphysique à la limite (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1983), pp. 49-162. [BACK]

232. See Heidegger, Basic Writings , p. 208.

233. See ibid.

234. See chap. 5, "The Structure of the 'Major Work': Nietzsche's Manner of Thinking as Reversal [Umkehrung]," in Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 25-33, and chap. 20, "Truth in Platonism and Positivism: Nietzsche's Overturning [Umdrehung] of Platonism," ibid., pp. 151-161. [BACK]

232. See Heidegger, Basic Writings , p. 208.

233. See ibid.

234. See chap. 5, "The Structure of the 'Major Work': Nietzsche's Manner of Thinking as Reversal [Umkehrung]," in Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 25-33, and chap. 20, "Truth in Platonism and Positivism: Nietzsche's Overturning [Umdrehung] of Platonism," ibid., pp. 151-161. [BACK]

232. See Heidegger, Basic Writings , p. 208.

233. See ibid.

234. See chap. 5, "The Structure of the 'Major Work': Nietzsche's Manner of Thinking as Reversal [Umkehrung]," in Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 25-33, and chap. 20, "Truth in Platonism and Positivism: Nietzsche's Overturning [Umdrehung] of Platonism," ibid., pp. 151-161. [BACK]

235. See Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 29, 30.

236. See ibid., p. 210. [BACK]

235. See Heidegger, The Will to Power as Art , pp. 29, 30.

236. See ibid., p. 210. [BACK]

237. See Heidegger, Nietzsche (German ed.), 1:654. [BACK]

238. For an effort to correlate the turning in Heidegger's thought to his Nietzsche lectures, see Hannah Arendt, The Life of the Mind: Willing (New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978), "Heidegger's Will-not-to-will," pp. 172-194. Her interpretation of the turning as primarily a turn against the will to will is hardly plausible. It is plausible only if his turning is mainly directed against Nietzsche, whereas there is abundant evidence that (1) in Being and Time the connection of Heidegger's view with Nietzsche is not central; (2) in the course of these lectures, Heidegger took Nietzsche increasingly seriously; (3) in the attempt to think with Nietzsche against Nietzsche, Heidegger does not turn against Nietzsche, or even against the idea of the will to power, which he seeks to realize even against Nietzsche. [BACK]

239. I disagree with Grondin's thesis that the turning is a turning of Being, since there is an obvious turning in Heidegger's thought as a result of his reading of the turning of Being through Nietzsche's insight. See Grondin, Le tournant dans la penske de Martin Heidegger , p. 101. [BACK]

240. Heidegger, Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 39.

241. Ibid., pp. 38-39; translation modified. According to Heidegger, Nietzsche's failure to attain the true center is due to his stubborn adherence to a theory of values. See ibid., p. 199. [BACK]

240. Heidegger, Introduction to Metaphysics , p. 39.

241. Ibid., pp. 38-39; translation modified. According to Heidegger, Nietzsche's failure to attain the true center is due to his stubborn adherence to a theory of values. See ibid., p. 199. [BACK]

242. "Only a God Can Save Us" (see chap. 1, n. 30), p. 275. [BACK]

243. See Arendt, The Life of the Mind: Willing , p. 173. Pöggeler specifically disputes her claim that Nietzsche helped Heidegger to turn against Nazism. He argues it was precisely the study of Nietzsche and the pre-Socratics which led to the turn to National Socialism. See Otto Pöggeler, "Heidegger, Nietzsche, and Politics," in Heidegger and Politics , ed. Tom Rockmore and Joseph Margolis (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, forthcoming). [BACK]

244. See Aubenque, "Encore Heidegger et le nazisme" (chap. 2, n. 59) p. 121. [BACK]

245. See Heidegger, Basic Writings , pp. 27-28. [BACK]

246. See Vietta, Heideggers Kritik am Nationalsozialismus und an der Technik , chap. 4, "Heideggers Nietzsche-Lektüre: Kritik der Weltanschauungen und Nihilismusbegriff," pp. 48-68, esp. pp. 66-68. [BACK]

247. Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 42, Schelling: Vom Wesen der menschlichen Freiheit (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1988), pp. 40-41. Carl Ulmer called attention to this passage in Der Spiegel , 2 May 1977, p. 152. [BACK]

248. Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe , vol. 43, Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst , p. 193. Heidegger was apparently concerned with the relation between Nietzsche's aphorism about the death of God and atheism. He evokes this theme in the first series of Hölderlin lectures as well. See Heidegger, Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Der Rhein " (see chap. 3, n. 144), p. 95. [BACK]

249. Krell accepts, with reservations, the claim that there is a shift in tone but denies that there is a polemic with Nietzsche. See Heidegger, Nihilism , pp. 272-273. [BACK]

250. The controversy with Nietzsche is not confined to Nietzsche lectures. It is a main theme in the first part of the 1951/52 lecture series. See Heidegger, What Is Called Thinking? trans. Gray (see n. 106), passim, esp. p. 70. The controversy continues in later writings. It is present as an underlying theme in the subsequent analysis of technology which in part supposes a Nietzschean orientation. [BACK]

251. Heidegger, Nihilism , p. 196. [BACK]


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