previous sub-section
Notes
next sub-section

5 The First Pattern Repeated "The Trouble Is with the Women"

1. Ritzenthaler, "Southwestern Chippewa"; Edward S. Rogers, "Southeastern Chippewa," in Trigger, Northeast , 760-71; Nancy Oestreich Lurie, Wisconsin Indians (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1982), 10, 20. [BACK]

2. Hall to Mr. and Mrs. Aaron Hall, 1 September 1845, SH. [BACK]

3. Wheeler to Selah B. Treat, 21 July 1852, ABC, 18.4.1, vol. 1, 265. [BACK]

4. Vinton et al., "Missionaries of the ABCFM," 1:391-95. [BACK]

5. Hall to Aaron Hall, 9 January 1832, SH; Hall and William Boutwell to David Green, Prudential Committee of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 11 May 1833, ABC 18.2.7, vol. 1, 74-77. [BACK]

6. Hall to Aaron Hall, 15 June 1832; Hall to Lydia Hall, 25 December 1832, SH. [BACK]

7. Quote from Hall to Lydia Hall, 15 June 1833; Hall to Aaron Hall, 22 June, 28 August 1833, SH; Hall journal, n.d. [October 1833?]. [BACK]

8. Hall to Laura Hall, 4 February 1835, SH. [BACK]

9. Hall to Laura Hall Mudget, 11 June 1839; Hall to Aaron Hall, 2 February 1842, SH. [BACK]

10. P. Chrysostomus Verwyst, O.F.M., Life and Labors of Rt. Rev. Frederic Baraga, First Bishop of Marquette, Mich., to Which Are Added Short Sketches of the Lives and Labors of Other Indian Missionaries of the Northwest (Milwaukee: M. H. Wiltzius, 1900), 174-200. [BACK]

11. Vecsey, Traditional Ojibwa Religion , 17. [BACK]

12. Hall to David Green, 2 September 1844, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 56; Lyle M. Stone and Donald Chaput, "History of the Upper Great Lakes Area," in Trigger, Northeast , 602-9; Hall to Lydia [Hall] Burbank, 5 May 1843, SH. [BACK]

13. Leonard H. Wheeler to David Green, 3 May 1843, ABC 18.3.7, vol. 2, 223.

14. Ibid. [BACK]

13. Leonard H. Wheeler to David Green, 3 May 1843, ABC 18.3.7, vol. 2, 223.

14. Ibid. [BACK]

15. Wheeler to Green, 22 March 1843, ABC 18.3.7, vol. 2, 220; Hall to Lydia Burbank, 5 May 1843, SH. [BACK]

16. Hall to Charles Mudget, n.d. [1846?]; Hall to Lydia Burbank, 30 November 1847, SH; Hall to David Green, 26 January 1846, 10 February 1847, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 60, 66; Vecsey, Traditional Ojibwa Religion , 154. [BACK]

17. Hall to Laura Mudget, 21 March 1851, SH.

18. Wheeler to Green, 5 September 1844, 30 June 1845, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 199, 210; Hall to Green, 18 March 1846, ibid., 62; Wheeler to Selah B. Treat, 29 December 1847, ibid., 205. [BACK]

17. Hall to Laura Mudget, 21 March 1851, SH.

18. Wheeler to Green, 5 September 1844, 30 June 1845, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 199, 210; Hall to Green, 18 March 1846, ibid., 62; Wheeler to Selah B. Treat, 29 December 1847, ibid., 205. [BACK]

19. Harriet Hall to Laura Mudget, 12 March 1850; Hall to Lydia Burbank, 14 January 1851, SH; Wheeler to Treat, 9 July 1851, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 220. [BACK]

20. Wheeler to Treat, 5 March, 14 July (quote) 1852, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 223, 229.

21. Hall, Annual Mission Report, 1850, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, Fl; Wheeler to Treat, 3 March 1853, ibid., 231; School Report, La Pointe, 30 June 1852, ibid., 5; Hall to Aaron Hall, 27 October 1852; Hall to Sister [?], 8 May 1853; Harriet Hall to Laura Mudget, 28 February 1855, SH. [BACK]

20. Wheeler to Treat, 5 March, 14 July (quote) 1852, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 223, 229.

21. Hall, Annual Mission Report, 1850, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, Fl; Wheeler to Treat, 3 March 1853, ibid., 231; School Report, La Pointe, 30 June 1852, ibid., 5; Hall to Aaron Hall, 27 October 1852; Hall to Sister [?], 8 May 1853; Harriet Hall to Laura Mudget, 28 February 1855, SH. [BACK]

22. The Lac Court Oreilles and Red Cliff bands were from Wisconsin; the Keweenaw and Ontonagan bands from Michigan; and the Fond du Lac and Grand Portage bands from Minnesota. See Vecsey, Traditional Ojibwa Religion , 17-18. Henry C. Gilbert to George W. Manypenny, 24 April 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 13.

23. Wheeler to Treat, 31 July 1854, 3 January 1855, ibid., 237, 248.

24. Wheeler to Treat, 21 July 1857, ibid., 265. For conversions, see Wheeler to Treat, 19 March, 7 July 1855, ibid., 243, 248; Wheeler to R. Anderson, 17 February 1857, ibid., 264; Wheeler to Treat, 17 March 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 59.

25. Wheeler [to Treat], 3 January 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 248; Wheeler, First report of manual labor boarding school, 11 January 1860, ABC 18.3.1, vol. 2, 14; Wheeler to Treat, 11 August 1860, ibid., 6; Rhoda W. Spicer to Treat, 26 January 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 46.

26. A. P. Truesdell, quoted in S. G. Clark to S. L. Pomroy, 11 May 1858, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 19. David B. Spencer to Treat, 14 August 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 17; Edwin Ells to W. P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 18 January 1864, ibid., 21. [BACK]

22. The Lac Court Oreilles and Red Cliff bands were from Wisconsin; the Keweenaw and Ontonagan bands from Michigan; and the Fond du Lac and Grand Portage bands from Minnesota. See Vecsey, Traditional Ojibwa Religion , 17-18. Henry C. Gilbert to George W. Manypenny, 24 April 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 13.

23. Wheeler to Treat, 31 July 1854, 3 January 1855, ibid., 237, 248.

24. Wheeler to Treat, 21 July 1857, ibid., 265. For conversions, see Wheeler to Treat, 19 March, 7 July 1855, ibid., 243, 248; Wheeler to R. Anderson, 17 February 1857, ibid., 264; Wheeler to Treat, 17 March 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 59.

25. Wheeler [to Treat], 3 January 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 248; Wheeler, First report of manual labor boarding school, 11 January 1860, ABC 18.3.1, vol. 2, 14; Wheeler to Treat, 11 August 1860, ibid., 6; Rhoda W. Spicer to Treat, 26 January 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 46.

26. A. P. Truesdell, quoted in S. G. Clark to S. L. Pomroy, 11 May 1858, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 19. David B. Spencer to Treat, 14 August 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 17; Edwin Ells to W. P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 18 January 1864, ibid., 21. [BACK]

22. The Lac Court Oreilles and Red Cliff bands were from Wisconsin; the Keweenaw and Ontonagan bands from Michigan; and the Fond du Lac and Grand Portage bands from Minnesota. See Vecsey, Traditional Ojibwa Religion , 17-18. Henry C. Gilbert to George W. Manypenny, 24 April 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 13.

23. Wheeler to Treat, 31 July 1854, 3 January 1855, ibid., 237, 248.

24. Wheeler to Treat, 21 July 1857, ibid., 265. For conversions, see Wheeler to Treat, 19 March, 7 July 1855, ibid., 243, 248; Wheeler to R. Anderson, 17 February 1857, ibid., 264; Wheeler to Treat, 17 March 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 59.

25. Wheeler [to Treat], 3 January 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 248; Wheeler, First report of manual labor boarding school, 11 January 1860, ABC 18.3.1, vol. 2, 14; Wheeler to Treat, 11 August 1860, ibid., 6; Rhoda W. Spicer to Treat, 26 January 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 46.

26. A. P. Truesdell, quoted in S. G. Clark to S. L. Pomroy, 11 May 1858, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 19. David B. Spencer to Treat, 14 August 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 17; Edwin Ells to W. P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 18 January 1864, ibid., 21. [BACK]

22. The Lac Court Oreilles and Red Cliff bands were from Wisconsin; the Keweenaw and Ontonagan bands from Michigan; and the Fond du Lac and Grand Portage bands from Minnesota. See Vecsey, Traditional Ojibwa Religion , 17-18. Henry C. Gilbert to George W. Manypenny, 24 April 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 13.

23. Wheeler to Treat, 31 July 1854, 3 January 1855, ibid., 237, 248.

24. Wheeler to Treat, 21 July 1857, ibid., 265. For conversions, see Wheeler to Treat, 19 March, 7 July 1855, ibid., 243, 248; Wheeler to R. Anderson, 17 February 1857, ibid., 264; Wheeler to Treat, 17 March 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 59.

25. Wheeler [to Treat], 3 January 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 248; Wheeler, First report of manual labor boarding school, 11 January 1860, ABC 18.3.1, vol. 2, 14; Wheeler to Treat, 11 August 1860, ibid., 6; Rhoda W. Spicer to Treat, 26 January 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 46.

26. A. P. Truesdell, quoted in S. G. Clark to S. L. Pomroy, 11 May 1858, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 19. David B. Spencer to Treat, 14 August 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 17; Edwin Ells to W. P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 18 January 1864, ibid., 21. [BACK]

22. The Lac Court Oreilles and Red Cliff bands were from Wisconsin; the Keweenaw and Ontonagan bands from Michigan; and the Fond du Lac and Grand Portage bands from Minnesota. See Vecsey, Traditional Ojibwa Religion , 17-18. Henry C. Gilbert to George W. Manypenny, 24 April 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 13.

23. Wheeler to Treat, 31 July 1854, 3 January 1855, ibid., 237, 248.

24. Wheeler to Treat, 21 July 1857, ibid., 265. For conversions, see Wheeler to Treat, 19 March, 7 July 1855, ibid., 243, 248; Wheeler to R. Anderson, 17 February 1857, ibid., 264; Wheeler to Treat, 17 March 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 59.

25. Wheeler [to Treat], 3 January 1855, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 248; Wheeler, First report of manual labor boarding school, 11 January 1860, ABC 18.3.1, vol. 2, 14; Wheeler to Treat, 11 August 1860, ibid., 6; Rhoda W. Spicer to Treat, 26 January 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 46.

26. A. P. Truesdell, quoted in S. G. Clark to S. L. Pomroy, 11 May 1858, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 19. David B. Spencer to Treat, 14 August 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 17; Edwin Ells to W. P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 18 January 1864, ibid., 21. [BACK]

27. Wheeler to Treat, Annual Report, 15 August 1864, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 9; Wheeler to Treat, 21 July 1857, ABC 18.4.2, vol. 1, 265. [BACK]

28. Wheeler to Treat, 23 August 1861, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 60. [BACK]

29. Gary C. Anderson, "War (The Little Crow War of 1862 in Minnesota)," in Fixico, Anthology of Western Great Lakes Indian History , 353-406; Wheeler to William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 27 January 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 63.

30. Wheeler [to Treat?], Annual Report, 1 August 1865, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 10; Wheeler to Treat, Annual Report, 12 August 1863, ibid., 8.

31. Blatchford to Treat, 27 August 1868, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 42; Wheeler [in Beloit] to Treat, 10 October 1868, ibid., 104; Blatchford to Treat, 16 August 1869, ibid., [no number]; Wheeler [to Treat?], Annual Report, 1 August 1865, Annual Report, ibid., 10; Wheeler to Treat, 6 March 1866, ibid., 91.

32. Edwin Ells to Treat, 10 November 1868, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 22; Wheeler to Treat, 24 December 1869, 4 July 1870, ibid., 113. [BACK]

29. Gary C. Anderson, "War (The Little Crow War of 1862 in Minnesota)," in Fixico, Anthology of Western Great Lakes Indian History , 353-406; Wheeler to William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 27 January 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 63.

30. Wheeler [to Treat?], Annual Report, 1 August 1865, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 10; Wheeler to Treat, Annual Report, 12 August 1863, ibid., 8.

31. Blatchford to Treat, 27 August 1868, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 42; Wheeler [in Beloit] to Treat, 10 October 1868, ibid., 104; Blatchford to Treat, 16 August 1869, ibid., [no number]; Wheeler [to Treat?], Annual Report, 1 August 1865, Annual Report, ibid., 10; Wheeler to Treat, 6 March 1866, ibid., 91.

32. Edwin Ells to Treat, 10 November 1868, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 22; Wheeler to Treat, 24 December 1869, 4 July 1870, ibid., 113. [BACK]

29. Gary C. Anderson, "War (The Little Crow War of 1862 in Minnesota)," in Fixico, Anthology of Western Great Lakes Indian History , 353-406; Wheeler to William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 27 January 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 63.

30. Wheeler [to Treat?], Annual Report, 1 August 1865, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 10; Wheeler to Treat, Annual Report, 12 August 1863, ibid., 8.

31. Blatchford to Treat, 27 August 1868, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 42; Wheeler [in Beloit] to Treat, 10 October 1868, ibid., 104; Blatchford to Treat, 16 August 1869, ibid., [no number]; Wheeler [to Treat?], Annual Report, 1 August 1865, Annual Report, ibid., 10; Wheeler to Treat, 6 March 1866, ibid., 91.

32. Edwin Ells to Treat, 10 November 1868, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 22; Wheeler to Treat, 24 December 1869, 4 July 1870, ibid., 113. [BACK]

29. Gary C. Anderson, "War (The Little Crow War of 1862 in Minnesota)," in Fixico, Anthology of Western Great Lakes Indian History , 353-406; Wheeler to William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 27 January 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 63.

30. Wheeler [to Treat?], Annual Report, 1 August 1865, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 10; Wheeler to Treat, Annual Report, 12 August 1863, ibid., 8.

31. Blatchford to Treat, 27 August 1868, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 42; Wheeler [in Beloit] to Treat, 10 October 1868, ibid., 104; Blatchford to Treat, 16 August 1869, ibid., [no number]; Wheeler [to Treat?], Annual Report, 1 August 1865, Annual Report, ibid., 10; Wheeler to Treat, 6 March 1866, ibid., 91.

32. Edwin Ells to Treat, 10 November 1868, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 22; Wheeler to Treat, 24 December 1869, 4 July 1870, ibid., 113. [BACK]

33. Michael C. Coleman, Presbyterian Missionary Attitudes Toward American Indians, 1837-1893 (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1985), 11-12; Gaius Jackson Slosser, "Walter Lowrie, Mission Organizer," Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 36 (1958): 3-18; Berkhofer, Salvation and the Savage , 172; Harold S. Faust, "The Growth of Presbyterian Missions to the American Indians During the National Period," Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 22 (1944): 82-123, 137-71. [BACK]

34. Baird to Lowrie, 22 October 1880, in American Indian Correspondence: The Presbyterian Historical Society Collection of Missionaries' Letters, 1833-1893 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979) (hereafter cited as AIC ), D:1:320. The following letters list converts and inquirers: [?] to Lowrie, 8 March 1884, AIC G:1:281; Wright to Ellinwood, 31 October 1885, AIC 2:2:104; Baird to Lowrie, 13 May 1878, AIC E:1:4; Baird to Lowrie, 27 September 1883, AIC G:1:170; Spees to Lowrie, 16 September 1884, AIC H:1:74; S. G. Wright to Lowrie, 24 September 1884, AIC H:1:77; Wright to Lowrie, 15 January 1885, AIC H:1:149; Spees, "Indian Mission Church Report," 5 October 1884, AIC H:1:226; Susie Dougherty to Lowrie, 2 January 1885, AIC H:1:145. [BACK]

35. Keiser, Lutheran Mission Work , 60, 64-69, 73-74. [BACK]

36. Wheeler to Treat, 31 July 1858, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 273; Wheeler to Treat, 13 August 1862, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 2, 7. [BACK]

37. Baird to John C. Lowrie, 14 July 1883, AIC G:1:111. [BACK]

38. Baird to Lowrie, 30 December 1876, AIC C:287. [BACK]

39. Baird to D. C. Mahan, U.S. Indian Agent, 30 March 1878, AIC E:1:33. [BACK]

40. Francis Spees, Monthly Reports, Odanah, 30 May, 30 June, 31 July, 30 September 1884, AIC H:1:122, 126, 125, 123; [Susie Dougherty?], Mission Report, Round Lake, [1885?], AIC 2:2:309. [BACK]

41. Minnie Ells to Ellinwood, 20 August 1886, AIC 2:2:153; Susie Dougherty to Lowrie, 1 October 1884, AIC H:1:82; Spees to Lowrie, 19 November 1884, AIC H:1:90. [BACK]

42. Baird to J. C. Lowrie, 9 December 1880, AIC 9:1:342; William H. Leed, Acting Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, to Baird, 15 April 1878, AIC D:1:126. [BACK]

43. Baird to Lowrie, 7 February 1883, AIC G:1:24. [BACK]

44. Baird to Lowrie, 24 October 1883, 4 March 1884, AIC G:1:192, 279. [BACK]

45. Spees to Ellinwood, 13 November 1885, AIC 2:2:107; Minnie Ells to Ellinwood, 30 November 1885, AIC 2:2:110; Edwin Ells to

Ellinwood, 10 December 1885, AIC 2:2:113; Blatchford to Ellinwood, 20 August 1886, AIC 2:2:155 (quote). [BACK]

46. Coleman, Presbyterian Missionary Attitudes , 14-15. [BACK]

47. Johanna E. Feest and Christina F. Feest, "Ottawa," in Trigger, Handbook , 772-86. [BACK]

48. Faust, "Growth of Presbyterian Missions," 159. [BACK]

49. Dougherty to Wells, 28 February 1839, AIC 7:3:22. For a group biography of Old School missionaries, see Coleman, Presbyterian Missionary Attitudes , 21-22. [BACK]

50. Ruth Craker, First Protestant Mission in the Grand Traverse Region , 2d ed. (Leland, Mich.: Leland Enterprise, 1935), 37, 45. [BACK]

51. Dougherty to Lowrie, [1838?], AIC 7:3:9. [BACK]

52. Dougherty to Daniel Wells, 18 February 1839, AIC 7:3:22. [BACK]

53. Dougherty to Wells, July 1839, AIC 7:3:30. [BACK]

54. Dougherty to Wells, 19 April 1842, AIC 7:3:70; Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 27 April 1842, 6 July 1843, AIC 7:3:71, 96. [BACK]

55. See, for example, Turner to Walter Lowrie, 29 July 1856, AIC 7:1:208; Guthrie to Walter Lowrie, 20 July 1857, AIC 7:2:12; Baird to J. C. Lowrie, 24 February, 27 September 1883; 8 March 1884; AIC G:1:35, 170, 281; Baird to J. C. Lowrie, 20 May 1880, AIC D:1:234. [BACK]

56. Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, n.d. [1859], AIC 7:2:82 1/2. [BACK]

57. Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 16 February 1859, AIC 7:2:83. [BACK]

58. Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 15 April 1859, AIC 7:2:89. Methodists established a mission in an Ottawa community at L'Anse in 1842-43 and actively tried to recruit new members from among those the BFM worked with; see Rev. Antoine Ivan Rezek, History of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette . . . , 2 vols. (Houghton, Mich.: N.p., 1907), 2:239. The following letters discuss the problem of Methodist competition: Porter to Lowrie, 26 June, 2 July 1861, AIC 7:4:96, 98; Dougherty to Lowrie, 21 March 1862, AIC 7:4:121. [BACK]

59. Dougherty to Mr. McKean, 25 September 1850, AIC 7:1:13. [BACK]

60. Kate McBeth, The Nez Perce Since Lewis and Clark (New York: Revell, 1908), 54-55, cited in Coleman, Presbyterian Missionary Attitudes , 105. [BACK]

61. Porter to Walter Lowrie, 12 December 1860, AIC 7:4:76. [BACK]

62. Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 12 January 1858, 4 January 1859, AIC 7:2:49, 80; Porter to Lowrie, 28 May 1861, AIC 7:4:93; Baird to John C. Lowrie, 5 July 1877, AIC C:336. [BACK]

63. Dougherty to Wells, July 1839, AIC 7:3:30. [BACK]

64. Dougherty to Schoolcraft, 4 September [1840], AIC 7:3:45; Dougherty to Wells, [1841], AIC 7:3:54; Maahkewenah et al. to Presbyterian Board of Missions, 26 October 1851, AIC 7:1:21; Indians of

Cross Village to the Presbyterian Board of Missions, [1853], AIC 7:1:85. [BACK]

65. Dougherty to Daniel Wells, 11 October 1848, AIC 7:3:161. [BACK]

66. Dougherty to Mr. McKean, 25 September 1850, AIC 7:1:13. The following discuss enrollment by gender: Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 25 December 1848, 1 May 1849, AIC 7:3:163, 166; Dougherty to Lowrie, 4 September 1850, AIC 7:1:7; Dougherty to P. Babcock, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Grand Traverse, 14 October 1850, AIC 7:1:8. [BACK]

67. Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 26 September 1853, AIC 7:1:91. [BACK]

68. Dougherty to Lowrie, 16 January 1854, AIC 7:1:108. [BACK]

69. Dougherty to Lowrie, 8, 22 December 1860; 6 December 1861 (quote); AIC 7:4:75, 78, 109. Attendance rosters were submitted irregularly; the following are representative: Annual Report [1844?], AIC 7:3:111—49 boys/23 girls; Dougherty to William A. Richmond, Acting Superintendent of Indian Affairs [1846?], AIC 7:3:136—44 boys/14 girls; Dougherty to P. Babcock, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Grand Traverse, 14 October 1850, AIC 7:1:8—20 boys/10 girls; Porter, School Report, 12 October 1854, AIC 7:1:19—30 boys/14 girls; Dougherty to Lowrie, 14 June 1861, AIC 7:4:95—15 boys/8 girls; Dougherty to Lowrie, 20 June 1861, AIC 7:4:125—16 boys/7 girls; Dougherty to Lowrie, 17 November 1862, AIC 7:4:139—14 boys/11 girls. [BACK]

70. Porter to Lowrie, 24 March 1853, AIC 7:1:59. [BACK]

71. Dougherty to Lowrie, 5 February 1853, AIC 7:1:55; Turner to Lowrie, 30 December 1853, 2 July 1856, AIC 7:1:106, 201; Turner to Lowrie, 10 September 1857, AIC 7:2:30. [BACK]

72. Guthrie to Lowrie, 1 January 1857, AIC 7:2:2. [BACK]

73. Turner to Lowrie, 10 September 1857, AIC 7:2:30. [BACK]

74. Turner to Lowrie, 20 September 1857, AIC 7:2:45; Guthrie to Lowrie, 22 September 1857, AIC 7:2:33. [BACK]

75. Gosegwad, Speaker [for Middle Village band?]/Robert Daily, interpreter to Executive Committee of Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, 5 January 1858, AIC 7:2:48. [BACK]

76. Turner to Lowrie, 5 January 1858, AIC 7:2:47. [BACK]

77. Rezek, History , 234-41; Verwyst, Life and Labors , 209-14. [BACK]

78. Guthrie to Walter Lowrie, 18 January 1856, AIC 7:1:185. Guthrie was writing to Lowrie from the Western Theological Seminary in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, following his visit to Little Traverse prior to moving to the station. [BACK]

79. Porter to Walter Lowrie, October 1853, AIC 7:1:99. Although Peter Dougherty apparently had arrived at some understanding

with the local priest, he too feared the pervasive influence of "the papists." [BACK]

80. Francis Spees to F. F. Ellinwood, 28 June 1885, AIC 2:2:78. [BACK]

81. Berkhofer, Salvation and the Savage , 59, 92-95; Coleman, Presbyterian Missionary Attitudes , 120. [BACK]

82. See Coleman, Presbyterian Missionary Attitudes , chap. 2, for a discussion of missionaries' expectations of the reception that Indians would give the missions. [BACK]

83. Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 22 March 1861, AIC 7:4:87; Dougherty, Report of School at Pine Grove [Omena], 6 February 1861, AIC 7:4:84; Dougherty to Lowrie, 11 August 1865, 9 January, 4 August 1866, AIC B:1:13, 15, 18. [BACK]

84. Dougherty to J. C. Lowrie, 18 February 1870, AIC B:2:14; Craker, First Protestant Mission , p. 45. [BACK]

85. Susie A. Dougherty to Ellinwood, 18 August 1885, AIC 2:2:86; Sela Wright to Ellinwood, 26 August 1885, AIC 2:2:88. The Dougherty sisters were supported by a $300 per annum stipend each from the Woman Synod Society of Wisconsin, Woman's Board of the Northwest; see Mission Report, Round Lake [1885], AIC 2:2:309. [BACK]

86. Mission Report, Round Lake [1885], AIC 2:2:309; S. G. Wright to F. F. Ellinwood, 26 August 1885, AIC 2:2:88. [BACK]

87. Anthony Maria Gachet, "Five Years in America (Cinq Ans en Amérique): Journal of a Missionary Among the Redskins, 1859," trans. Joseph Schafer, Wisconsin Magazine of History 18 (1934-35): 201, 195.

88. Ibid., 351-52. [BACK]

87. Anthony Maria Gachet, "Five Years in America (Cinq Ans en Amérique): Journal of a Missionary Among the Redskins, 1859," trans. Joseph Schafer, Wisconsin Magazine of History 18 (1934-35): 201, 195.

88. Ibid., 351-52. [BACK]

89. John C. Lowrie, A Manual of the Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (New York: William Rankin, Jr., 1868), 7. [BACK]

90. Baird to J. C. Lowrie, 2 March 1877, AIC C:310; Baird to Lowrie, 25 August 1883, AIC G:1:159 (quote). [BACK]

91. Porter to Lowrie, 31 October 1847, AIC 7:3:150. Coleman ( Presbyterian Missionary Attitudes , 16) has called the Presbyterians' missionary efforts an "awesomely ambitious cultural destruction and regeneration." He argues, however, that despite certain personal and social motivations, their approach was not a racist one and their goal was to save Indians rather than eliminate them. Berkhofer ( Salvation and the Savage , 10-15) is less generous in his assessment of missionary attitudes. [BACK]

92. Baird to John C. Lowrie, 30 December 1876, AIC C:287. [BACK]

93. Baird to John C. Lowrie, 22 October, 9 December 1880, AIC D:1:320, 341. [BACK]

94. Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 7 March 1854, AIC 7:1:114. [BACK]

95. Leonard Wheeler to David Greene, 23 January 1843, ABC 18.3.7, vol. 2, 219. [BACK]

96. Wheeler to Treat, 21 July 1857, ABC 18.4.1, vol. 1, 265. [BACK]

97. ''Indian School Papers,'' Foreign Missionary 18 (1859): 122-24, cited in Berkhofer, Salvation and the Savage, 42. [BACK]

98. Diane Barthel's study of native girls in French mission schools in Africa indicates that the students took themselves very seriously as role models of Western culture; see "Women's Educational Experience Under Colonialism: Toward a Diachronic Model," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 11, no. 1 (1985): 137-54. [BACK]

99. Baird to Dr. I. L. Mahan, 18 August 1876, AIC C:253. [BACK]

100. Spees to F. F. Ellinwood, 16 February 1886, AIC 2:2:130. [BACK]

101. Hilger, Chippewa Child Life , 55-58; Ruth Landes, Ojibwa Woman , passim. [BACK]

102. Bear River Quarterly School Reports: 31 March 1860—19 boys/17 girls; 30 June 1860—23 boys; 30 September 1861—23 boys/17 girls; 31 December 1861—20 boys/5 girls; 30 June 1863—17 boys/17 girls; [?] 1864—15 boys/6 girls; 2d quarter 1864—21 boys/9 girls; 3d quarter 1864—11 boys/5 girls; 31 December 1864—15 boys/7 girls ( AIC 7:4:48, 56, 65-66, 112, 156, 188, 193 [two entries], 199). [BACK]

103. Peter Dougherty to Walter Lowrie, 15 October 1856, AIC 7:1:216; Porter to Walter Lowrie, 3 January 1860, AIC 7:4:35. [BACK]


previous sub-section
Notes
next sub-section