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Chapter Nine— Prohibition versus Pluralism

1. Of San Francisco's hotels standing in 1980, none in any rank with residential use was built after 1930; Scott Dowdee, "Final Run of San Francisco continue

Data," unpublished printouts used in Dowdee, "The Incidence of Change in the Residential Hotel Stock of San Francisco." [BACK]

2. Gromme, "Case Picture of Housing in a Slumless City," 37-38. On 1939 data, see SFHACC, Second Report , 8. [BACK]

3. "Ups and Downs of the Hotel Business for the Past 21 Years," Hotel World Review: 75th Anniversary Edition (New York: Ahrens Publishing Company, 1950): 38; Boomer, Hotel Management; McKowne, "Hotels in Wartime," 26. McKowne was the president of the Hotels Statler Company, the first company to build large new wartime hotels with an overt emphasis on convention and military trade. [BACK]

4. CSS, "Life in One Room," 9; "Conversion of Dwellings for War Housing," American City (March 1942): 39; National Housing Agency, "Increase Housing Accommodations and Property Values to Serve War Workers" (Washington, D.C.: NHA pamphlet, 1942); Jane Marx, wartime rooming house resident on Russian Hill, interviewed in New York City, October 22, 1988. [BACK]

5. Howard B. Myers, "Defense Migration and Labor Supply," Journal of the American Statistical Association 37, 217 (1942): 69-76. On young men, see Mary Skinner and Alice Scott Nutt, "Adolescents Away from Home," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 236 (November 1944): 51-59, quotation on 56. On racial districts, see Arnold Hirsh, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983). [BACK]

6. Cohn, "Architecture of Convention Hotels," 1-10. On rent controls, see Siefkin, The City at the End of the Rainbow . For an industry summary on conventions in hotels, see Donald E. Lundberg, The Hotel and Restaurant Business (Chicago: Institutions and Volume Feeding Magazine, 1970): 53ff.; on problems of conventions in older hotels, see "The Statler Idea in Hotel Planning and Equipment," Architectural Forum 27 (November 1917): 115. [BACK]

7. The Day the Earth Stood Still , Julian Blaustein, producer (Twentieth Century Fox). Meyerowitz, "Holding Their Own," 192. On reduced ethnic matching, see Mostoller, "A Single Room," 191-216, and ASPO, "Rooming Houses," 1-5. [BACK]

8. Maurice Groat, Studies in the Economy of Downtown San Francisco (San Francisco: Department of City Planning, 1963): 58-63; Paul F. Wendt, The Dynamics of Central City Land Values: San Francisco and Oakland, 1950-1960 (UC Berkeley: Institute of Business and Economic Research, 1961): 24. On the 1970s, see Hartman, The Transformation of San Francisco , 2-3. [BACK]

9. In the random sample of San Francisco hotel ownership, two generations of ownership was the usual maximum span of interest after 1940. The pattern of Tiburon inheritors selling South of Market property between 1942 and 1953 was notable (Tiburon is an elite suburb). [BACK]

10. Cliff Ellis, "Visions of Urban Freeways, 1930-1970" (Ph.D. dissertation, City and Regional Planning, UC Berkeley, 1990). On poor housing conditions near the bridge, see SFHACC, Real Property Survey, 1939 , 1:15. In the continue

census tract between Harrison and Berry streets, 55 percent of the buildings were listed in poor condition. [BACK]

11. The Chicago study is Hayner, "The Hotel." The Hotel Eddy stood at 1430 Eddy Street, near Webster, in the Western Addition. [BACK]

12. In many cities a legal loophole allowed rooming houses without parking until cities rewrote their zoning laws; ASPO, "Rooming Houses," 12. [BACK]

13. On referral, Gazzolo, "Skid Row Gives Renewalists Rough, Tough, Relocation Problems," 327-336; Shapiro, Community of the Alone , 150. [BACK]

14. Gazzolo, "Skid Row Gives Renewalists Rough, Tough, Relocation Problems." [BACK]

15. William Graebner, A History of Retirement: The Meaning and Function of an American Institution (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980): 215-234; Michael Barker, "California Retirement Communities" (Master's thesis, City Planning, UC Berkeley, 1965): 16, 135. [BACK]

16. On California, Wolch and Gabriel, "Development and Decline of Service-Dependent Ghettos." The hotel owner is Harold Weingarten, interviewed in New York City on March 17, 1986. The actual date of influx depends on the state; in California, the key years were 1969 to 1974. See also Julian Wolpert and Eileen Wolpert, "The Relocation of Released Mental Hospital Patients into Residential Communities," Policy Sciences 7 (1976): 31-51. [BACK]

17. Blackburn, "Single Room Occupancy in New York City," 2.1-2.2. On human residue, see Siegal, Outposts of the Forgotten , 192. Erickson and Eckert, "The Elderly Poor in Downtown San Diego Hotels," compares three different economic strata of the SRO market and the sometimes uneasy relations between them. [BACK]

18. SFHACC, Second Report (1940): 12, 15-17; SFHACC, Third Report (1941): 9. In 1938, 73 percent of the clearance quota were demolished units; in 1940-41, 45 percent of the units were demolished. [BACK]

19. Gries and Ford, Slums, Large-Scale Housing, and Decentralization , 1-2, 41; on cheap hotels as the prime example of blight, see 18. The wording of the distinction here comes from John Ihlder, "Rehabilitation of Blighted Areas: The Part of City Planning," City Planning 6 (April 1930): 106-118, on 106. While the National Housing Act of 1936 merged the terms "blight" and "slum," the FHA administrators distinguished them. See also U.S. Congress, 75th (1938) Public #412, chap. 896, 1st sess., S. 1685, sect. 2; and U.S. Congress, 75th (1938), Public #424, chap. 13, 3d sess., H.R. 8730. [BACK]

20. San Francisco City Planning Commission, The Master Plan of San Francisco , 10. The same volume gives a long synopsis of the state's definition of blight. See also Philip V.I. Darling, "Some Notes on Blighted Areas," Planners' Journal 9, 1 (1943): 9-18. [BACK]

21. On earlier concerns, Lawson Purdy, The Districting of Cities , Publication 38 (New York: National Housing Association, June 1917): 7-8; on San Francisco, see SFHACC, Third Report (1941): 7-8; on the Western Addition continue

compared with the outlying Marina district, see Scott, "Western Addition Redevelopment Study," 5, 7, 10; on dilapidation, see San Francisco Office of the Mayor, Municipal Housing Survey of San Francisco (Sacramento: State Emergency Relief Administration, 1935): 19, for Tract 1. A summary of standards of the period is Allan A. Twitchell, "A Yardstick of Housing Needs," American City Magazine (June 1945). [BACK]

22. Scott, "Western Addition Redevelopment Study," 8. [BACK]

23. On World War II dormitories in California, see Sally Carrighar, "Dormitories in Transition," Architect and Engineer 152, 2 (February 1943): 15-25. Under Title IV of the Housing Act of 1950, HHFA provided low-interest loans for student dormitories at colleges with G.I. bill impacts. [BACK]

24. Revisions of 1937 to the National Housing Act set the structure for local authorities; see SFHACC, Second Report (1940): 12, 15-17; and "San Francisco Builds Low Rent Homes," Architect and Engineer 150, 1 (July 1942): 19-31. [BACK]

25. This process in San Francisco is reviewed in San Francisco City Planning Commission, The Master Plan of San Francisco , 1-5. [BACK]

26. The 1947 report is Scott, "Western Addition Redevelopment Study," 5-10, 25-28, 42-45. On "Negro removal," see Donald Canter, "How Negro Removal Became Black Renewal," City (October-November 1970): 55-59. For interpreting the professional dynamics of San Francisco planning in this period, I have relied on Greg Hise's interviews with Jack Kent (March 4, 1987) and James Redman McCarthy (March 11, 1987). [BACK]

27. The activity of the agency was revived with the appointment of Justin Herman as director; Hartman, Transformation of San Francisco , 15-24. [BACK]

28. On unit mix in the A-1 area, see "San Francisco Redevelopment Program: Summary of Project Data and Key Elements" (SFRA, January 1971): 18-19. On the waiting list and nonmention of hotels, San Francisco Inter-Agency Committee on Urban Renewal, "A Report on Housing in San Francisco" (San Francisco: The Committee, May 1967): 17. The thorough SFRACC study is E. M. Shaffran, "Relocation Survey Report: Western Addition A-2, Yerba Buena, and Hunters Point" (SFRA, 1967): VII-3. [BACK]

29. FORD, Slums and Housing , 2: 766-770. Ford felt the deficiencies in regard to single-room occupancy were "due primarily to the deflection of public interest and opinion from this problem to that of slum demolition and rehabilitation"; ibid., 1:337, 344-349. [BACK]

30. Bauer and McEntire, "Relocation Study, Single Male Population, Sacramento's West End," 11-12, 14-15. A 1953 cover letter by Joseph T. Bill, executive director of the redevelopment agency, indicates agency support for the scheme. See also, Journal of Housing (October 1959): 324, and Bancroft Library, Catherine Bauer Wurster papers, Carton 6; McEntire, "Population and Employment Survey of Sacramento's West End." [BACK]

31. "Tissue" and "scalpel" are from a 1960 issue of Architectural Forum; continue

"clearing" is Scott, "Western Addition Redevelopment Study," 3; "attractive new city," San Francisco City Planning Commission, The Master Plan of San Francisco , 7-a. On Norfolk, see Gazzolo, "Skid Row Gives Renewalists Rough, Tough Relocation Problems," 331, who quotes Lawrence M. Cox, executive director of the Norfolk Redevelopment Authority. [BACK]

32. On San Diego, Mike Stepner, San Diego Planning Department, at the CGOPR conference. On invisibility, see Groth, "Non People." [BACK]

33. Gazzolo, "Skid Row Gives Renewalists Rough, Tough Relocation Problems," 327, 334. [BACK]

34. On area residents in the 1960s, see Schaffran, "Relocation Survey Report: South of Market Redevelopment Project," table 4; and Hartman, Yerba Buena , 92-98. On not keeping records, see San Francisco Department of City Planning, Changes in the San Francisco Housing Inventory 1960-1966 (San Francisco, 1967): 11. On genuine SFRACC attempts, Peter Theodore interview (August 25, 1981). [BACK]

35. For losses on New York's Upper West Side, see Shapiro, Communities of the Alone . [BACK]

36. Samples of the pioneering literature are Elaine Frieden, "Social Differences and Their Consequences for Housing the Aged," Journal of the American Institute of Planners 26, 2 (1960): 119-124 (based on Boston surveys begun in 1957); Shapiro, "Single Room Occupancy: Community of the Alone," 24-33, and Communities of the Alone (1971); Carroll Kowal, "The case for Congregate Housing," mimeographed paper for the Office of Problem Housing, New York City Housing and Development Administration, 1971; Nathaniel Lichfield, "Relocation: The Impact on Housing Welfare," Journal of the American Institute of Planners 27, 3 (1961): 199-203; Chester W. Hartman, "The Limitations of Public Housing: Relocation Choices in a Working Class Community," Journal of the American Institute of Planners 24, 4 (1963): 283-296; Emanuel Gorland, "Relocation Inequities and Problems Emergent as a Result of the 1970 Uniform Relocation Act," Journal of Housing 3 (1972): 137-138. [BACK]

37. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961); Herbert Gans, The Urban Villagers (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962); Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964). Other classics among the renewal critiques are Raymond Vernon, The Myth and Reality of our Urban Problems (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962); Scott Greer, Urban Renewal and American Cities (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1965); and John F. Bauman, Public Housing, Race, and Renewal: Urban Planning in Philadelphia (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987). [BACK]

38. A concise review of early debates between HUD and NAHRO is Byron Fielding, "Low Income, Single-Person Housing." [BACK]

39. U.S., 91st Congress, PL 91-646, Approved January 2, 1971, "Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970," bill no. S1 (84 U.S. Stat. 1894), sects. 202, 204. [BACK]

40. Hartman, The Transformation of San Francisco , 53-133, 205-209. TODCO was a successor organization to the original group, TOOR, Tenants and Owners in Opposition to Redevelopment. [BACK]

41. Paul, Rehabilitating Residential Hotels , 15-16. [BACK]

42. On 1970s losses, see J. Alter et al., "Homeless in America," in J. Erickson and C. Wilhelm, eds., Housing the Homeless (New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, 1986): 3-16. [BACK]

43. Eckert, Unseen Elderly , 58-59; Judith Spektor at the CGOPR conference; Hartman, Development: How to Fight It . [BACK]

44. The examples of landlord abuse were collected at the CGOPR conference in 1981; from a meeting of Berkeley, California, hotel activists in 1983; Judith Spektor's interview of May 8, 1984; and Hartman, Yerba Buena , 105. [BACK]

45. Trillin, "Some Thoughts on the International Hotel Controversy," 116-120; Grannan, "International Hotel"; Don Asher, "The hungry i," San Francisco Examiner Image Magazine (May 31, 1991): 12-23, 33. [BACK]

46. U.S. Senate, Single Room Occupancy: A Need for National Concern , iii-iv. [BACK]

47. See Coalition for the Homeless, Crowded Out: Homelessness and the Elderly Poor in New York City (New York: Coalition for the Homeless and the Gray Panthers of New York City, 1984); Peter Marcuse, "The Rise of Tenant Organization," in John Pynos, Robert Schaar, and Chester Hartman, eds., Housing Urban America (Chicago: Aldine, 1973). [BACK]

48. William Fulton, "A Room of One's Own," Planning 51, 9 (1985): 18-22. [BACK]

49. Dolbeare interview, March 11, 1987; Paul, Rehabilitating Residential Hotels , 5-9. [BACK]

50. Franck, "Overview of Single Room Occupancy Housing," 252-253; Patricia King, "Help for the Homeless," Newsweek (April 11, 1988): 58-59. [BACK]

51. On repair investments, Andy Raubeson, speaking at the CGOPR conference, and Judith Spektor interview (May 8, 1984); on inflation, Werner and Bryson, "A Guide to Preservation and Maintenance," pt. 1, 1003-1004. [BACK]

52. "Problem hotel" is a pseudonym for "welfare hotels" with heavy public assistance. Siegal, Outposts of the Forgotten , 17, uses the term "open" hotels for those with no lobby surveillance; the term "street hotel" is used by West Coast hotel activists. [BACK]

53. The street hotel description stems most from Siegal, Outposts of the Forgotten; Ehrlich, "St. Louis Downtown SRO Elderly," 8-11; Dorothy Place (Sacramento), Jan Tucker (Denver), Robert Ridgeway (Portland, Ore.), all at the CGOPR Conference; U.S. Senate, Single Room Occupancy , 43-46; Jim continue

Baumohl, interview on February 12, 1981, and from the hotel owners and residents' forum convened by Florence McDonald in Berkeley on February 26, 1981. [BACK]

54. A long and excellent review of conditions in California is Pinsky, "Motel People." Courtland Milloy, "At a Seedy Motel in Memphis, A Dream Goes Unrealized," Washington Post (January 21, 1986): 1. On Westchester, see Kessler, "Down and Out in Suburbia," 306-313. [BACK]

55. Cushing Dolbeare interview, March 11, 1987. [BACK]

56. HUD's Madeline Hastings, quoted in Fulton, "A Room of One's Own," 19. [BACK]

57. On FEMA, see Larry Maatz, "Quake Housing Money to Flow," San Francisco Examiner (February 24, 1990); Seth Rosenfeld, "Bay Area Wins More Quake Aid from U.S.," San Francisco Examiner (December 7, 1990). [BACK]

58. Livingston, of San Francisco's Reality House West (the Cadillac Hotel), at CGOPR. [BACK]

59. Judith Spektor interview, March 9, 1984. [BACK]

60. On the positive potential of management roles, see the account of Cadillac Hotel manager Sarah Kearny in Amy Linn, "Tenderloin Mercies," California Living Magazine section, San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle (March 25, 1984): 11-15; on profitability, see Siegal, Outposts of the Forgotten , 70. [BACK]

61. Paul, Rehabilitating Residential Hotels , 30. [BACK]

62. Judith Spektor interview, March 9, 1984. [BACK]

63. On Los Angeles, see Dave McCombs, "Two More SROs for Skid Row," Los Angeles Downtown News (January 1, 1990): 6. On San Francisco, see Andrew Ross, "Agnos Plans Six Hotels for Homeless," San Francisco Examiner (April 12, 1990). Gerald D. Adams, "S.F. Hotel to Convert to Homeless Housing," San Francisco Examiner (April 19, 1991): A-7. On Berkeley, see McCloud, "First in 40 Years." Howard Husock, "Boston, San Diego Show the Way," New York Times (January 21, 1989). [BACK]

64. McCloud, "First in 40 Years," 29. [BACK]

65. Davis Bushnell, "Too Soon for an Epitaph," Boston Globe (August 2, 1986): 37. Advertisement for El Cerrito Royale in El Cerrito, California, San Francisco Examiner (July 15, 1990). Frank James, "Elevating the High-Rise Life," Chicago Tribune (April 24, 1991): Sect. 5, 1, 5. [BACK]

66. Kevin Sessums, "Wild about Perry," Vanity Fair (July 1992): 149-152; the producer of "Beverly Hills 90210" is Aaron Spelling. [BACK]

67. A useful summary of both hotel and nonhotel experiments is Franck and Ahrentzen, New Households, New Housing . [BACK]

68. Peter Drier, "American Housing Policy: Past, Present, and Future," Catherine Bauer Lecture (panel discussion), College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, April 21, 1993. [BACK]

69. Jean T. Barrette, "Investing in Skid Row: An Interview with Alice Cal- soft

laghan," Hemisphere (November 1992): 19-20. Hemisphere is the in-flight magazine of United Airlines. [BACK]

70. Peter Salons, "American Housing Policy: Past, Present, and Future," Catherine Bauer Lecture (panel discussion), College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, April 21, 1993. [BACK]

71. Burki, "Housing the Low-Income Urban Elderly," 286; Marcuse, "Housing in Early City Planning," 153-177; Robert Goodman, "Excess Baggage: Professionalism and Alienation," in Goodman, After the Planners (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971): 114-142. [BACK]

72. Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, "A Significance of A&P Parking Lots or Learning from Las Vegas," Architectural Forum (March 1968). [BACK]

73. The HUD official is quoted in Stephens, Loners, Losers, and Lovers , 25. [BACK]

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