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Chapter Three— Midpriced Mansions for Middle Incomes

1. Groth, "Forbidden Housing," Table IV-20, 331. [BACK]

2. See esp. Martin, "Boarding and Lodging," 148-180, and Williamson, The American Hotel , 17, 115. On Chicago in 1844, see Boorstin, "Palaces of the Public"; the boardinghouse figure in Chicago included people of lower incomes. [BACK]

3. Walt Whitman, "Wicked Architecture," Life Illustrated (July 19, 1856), reprinted in Emory Holloway and Ralph Adimari, comps., New York Dissected: A Sheaf of Recently Discovered Newspaper Articles by the Author of Leaves of Grass (New York: Rufus Rockwell Wilson, 1936): 92-98, 96, emphasis in the original. Whitman could include boarders and hotel guests together in his estimate partly because purpose-built boardinghouses and small hotels of the time so closely resembled each other. See also Barth, City People , 41-54. [BACK]

4. On comparisons with England, see Calhoun, A Social History of the Family , 3: 180, drawing on nineteenth-century travelers' accounts. On the prevalence of living in hotels from the 1840s to the 1860s, see McGlone, "Suffer the Children," 414-426. On temptation, see Flagg, "The Planning of Apartment Houses and Tenements," 89. See also J. Lebovitz, "The Home and the Machine," Journal of Home Economics 3, 2 (April 1911): 141-148. On almost any family, see Calhoun, A Social History of the Family , 3:239. [BACK]

5. The residence was the Tubbs Hotel. Beth Bagwell, Oakland: The Story of the City (Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1982): 118-123. [BACK]

6. For examples of this flux, particularly in reference to hotel residents, see Hamilton, Promoting New Hotels . [BACK]

7. Hayner, Hotel Life , 78, 105. [BACK]

8. In San Francisco, according to the U.S. decennial census, the number of continue

architects doubled between 1900 and 1910 owing to the reconstruction after the great fire of 1906. The number doubled again in the 1940s owing to the impacts of World War II. Comments on western architects following fires rely on research in progress by the architectural historian, Ronald L. M. Ramsay, Fargo, North Dakota. On Louis Sullivan, see Robert Twombly, Louis Sullivan: His Life and Work (New York: Viking, 1980). [BACK]

9. Interview with James E. Vance, Berkeley, California, November 2, 1982, discussing his neighbors and family in the greater Boston area before World War II. [BACK]

10. The observer is Trollope, North America , 484; on ease for renters versus lease and mortgage holders, see Abbott, The Tenements of Chicago, 1908-1935 , 327. [BACK]

11. The girl is quoted in Hayner, Hotel Life , 113; see also Williamson, The American Hotel , 12, 98. [BACK]

12. Harding's letter is quoted in Hayner, "The Hotel," 248. On Long, "Hotel that Inspired Novel Celebrates 95th Year," Topeka Capital-Journal (March 20, 1988): 8-C. [BACK]

13. "New First Lady is 'Human,' Has Sense of Humor," Chicago Tribune (August 4, 1923); Williamson, The American Hotel , 288. [BACK]

14. On Frankfurter, Judith Spektor interview, June 11, 1981; on Earl Warren, see Beacon, "Home Is Where the Hotel Is," 16. [BACK]

15. On Johnson, see Hank Burchard, "Presidents in Residence: Round Town Digs of Our Chief Executives," Washington Post Weekend Section (March 7, 1986): 4-7; for the others see Beacon, "Home Is Where the Hotel Is," 18. [BACK]

16. Sala, America Revisited , 345. Van Orman, A Room for the Night , 127, claims hotel life was as respectable as private house life, which McGlone and other historians dispute. [BACK]

17. On age of marriage in 1890, Andrew Truxal, Marriage and the Family in American Culture (New York: Prentice Hall, 1953): 183; Howard Chudacoff, "Newlyweds and Family Extension: The First Stage of the Family Cycle in Providence, Rhode Island, 1864-1865 and 1879-1880," in Tamara Hareven and Maris Vinovskis, eds., Family and Population in Nineteenth-Century America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978): 185. On hotel wives, McGlone, "Suffer the Children," 415-426, 456. [BACK]

18. On 1855, see Edward H. Dixon, Scenes in the Practice of a New York Surgeon (New York: De Witt & Davenport, 1855): 209, quoted in McGlone, "Suffer the Children," 417. On furnishings equal to half the building cost, "Our Family Hotels." On 1928 costs, see UC-HC, Cost of Living Studies. 1. Quantity and Cost Estimate of the Standard of Living of the Professional Class ; the data were collected in 1925-26. [BACK]

19. Hayner, "The Hotel," 87, 123; Williamson, The American Hotel , 28. In San Francisco in 1929 and 1930, city directory advertisements for the Hotel continue

Harcourt listed prices of $6 to $10 a week. Weekly rates as low as 4.7 times the daily rate were reported for palace and midpriced hotels and 2.5 at rooming houses or cheap lodging houses. The key variables were number of staff and range of services. Groth, "Forbidden Housing," 464-466, 493 n. 104, gives several historical examples of weekly rates versus daily rates. [BACK]

20. The social worker is quoted in Barth, City People , 42; on the school-teachers, see Hayner, "The Hotel," 123. [BACK]

21. Harper's Weekly , "Decline and Fall of Hotel Life" (1857): 274. [BACK]

22. Gilman, "A Possible Solution of the Domestic Service Problem"; on an Adamless Eden, see Herrick, "Cooperative Housekeeping." On a hundred fires, "Cooperative Housekeeping at Last," Good Housekeeping 32 (1901): 490-492; see also Hayden, The Grand Domestic Revolution . [BACK]

23. On mental rovers, see Hayner, "The Hotel," 81, 84-87, 234; and Hayner, Hotel Life , 7. On Seattle, see Hayner, Hotel Life , 3, 35, 67, 86-89, 99-100, 103. The journalist is Williamson, The American Hotel , 127. [BACK]

24. Louis Wirth, The Ghetto (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1928): 257-258; the Chicago Beach Hotel percentage is from Hayner, "The Hotel," 234. See also Hayner, Hotel Life , 33, 125, 147-148. [BACK]

25. On O'Neill, see Arthur Gelb and Barbara Gelb, O'Neill (New York: Harper and Row, 1974); O'Neill and his wife, Carlotta, did live at San Francisco's Fairmont Hotel for a year in 1944. On guests at San Francisco's Palace Hotel, see Lewis and Hall, Bonanza Inn , 267-318. On New York, Harold Weingarten interview, March 17, 1986. [BACK]

26. Williamson, The American Hotel , 4, 275; Hayner, Hotel Life , 97-98; Zorbaugh, Gold Coast and Slum , 37, 70; Lewis, Work of Art , 132-134; theatrical hotels are given a special symbol in American Travel and Hotel Directory Company, American Travel Book and Hotel Directory [The Blue Book, a short-lived competitor to the Red Book], 9th ed. (Baltimore: ATHD Co., 1923). [BACK]

27. Williamson, The American Hotel , 269, 273, 292; see F. Marion Crawford's Dr. Claudius on the Brevoort Hotel, which was still standing in 1930. [BACK]

28. On Willa Cather, see E. K. Brown, Willa Cather: A Critical Biography (New York: Avon Books, 1953): 228. Like Cather herself, her character of Thea in Song of the Lark lived in a seedy hotel in Union Square when she first moved to New York. On Arendt and Mann, interview with Reeda Yacker, publicity consultant for the Windermere Hotel, May 29, 1987, who based her information on research by Rena Appel. Mann reputedly wrote Buddenbrooks while at the Windermere; his daughter and her husband lived a few blocks up the street; on Ferber, see Hayner, "The Hotel," 120; on Chaplin and Winchell, "Landmark L.A. Hotel Closes," San Francisco Examiner (January 4, 1989): A-7. [BACK]

29. Promotional brochure for Eighteen Gramercy Park South, an 18-story hotel (Corsa Collection, New York Historical Society). [BACK]

30. Accounts (see Williamson, The American Hotel , 115, 283) mention el- soft

derly bachelors, spinsters, widows, and widowers as "hotel hermits" but without reporting their relative numbers. Hayner's Hotel Life (87) reports that people in Seattle hotel districts were, on the average, consistently older than apartment dwellers, but by no means were the elderly in the majority: 52 percent of the people in Seattle's hotel districts were between 25 and 44 years of age. [BACK]

31. Sinclair Lewis, Babbitt (New York: New American Library, 1961; originally published in 1922): 188. [BACK]

32. Hayner, Hotel Life , 70-71. [BACK]

33. Ford, A Few Remarks , 309. See also Hayner, Hotel Life , 62, 71. [BACK]

34. "Kate Smith, All-American Singer, Dies at 79," New York Times (June 18, 1986): A-1, B-10. [BACK]

35. For security precautions routinely taken in large hotels, see Boomer, Hotel Management , 280-283; for interviews, see Hayner, Hotel Life , 72. [BACK]

36. Condit, "Hotels and Apartments," 101-102, 108-109, 150-153, 219. On family hotels, "Our Family Hotels," 12. Hayner mentions the rows, many of which are still standing, in Hayner, "The Hotel," 71. [BACK]

37. Hayner, "The Hotel," 92, 224-225. [BACK]

38. Perelman, "Nathanael West," 161; note that Perelman is describing a 16-story residence club; see section on residence clubs, below. [BACK]

39. Ibid., 161-162. Benslyn, "Recent Developments in Apartment Housing in America," pt. 2, 543-547. [BACK]

40. The 12-room example is the Lamont, in San Francisco, built in 1911; its managers listed it as a rooming house in the 1930 city directory. [BACK]

41. Hayner, "The Hotel," 228-229. [BACK]

42. On service levels, Stone, "Hospitality, Hotels, and Lodging Houses," 475, and "Our Family Hotels," 12; on discriminating chambermaids, Hayner, "The Hotel," 192. In 1892, a leading 220-room family hotel in San Francisco had a staff of only 75 people. [BACK]

43. Williamson, The American Hotel , 56-57, 61-62. The first midprice claim for every room with a bath was the original Hotel Statler in Buffalo. [BACK]

44. Groth, "Forbidden Housing," 247-250. [BACK]

45. Hamilton, Promoting New Hotels , 48. [BACK]

46. Williamson, The American Hotel , 69, claims that America's first pushbuttons were hotel annunciators. [BACK]

47. Hayner, Hotel Life , 3-4, 71. [BACK]

48. Sexton, American Apartment Houses , 5. [BACK]

49. Architectural Forum: Apartment Hotel Reference Number , November 1924, 265. [BACK]

50. Hayner, "The Hotel," 225-226; Hayner, Hotel Life , 106-107. [BACK]

51. Hayner, "The Hotel," 74. [BACK]

52. Compare cases 19 and 24 with 1 and 3 in table 2, Appendix. On Chicago family, see Hayner, Hotel Life , 72-73. [BACK]

53. The 1930 ads quoted here are for the Cecil Hotel, at 545 Post, and the continue

Hotel Regent, at 562 Sutter. These ideal midpriced streets included the palace-ranked Canterbury. [BACK]

54. On the PPIE, see Burton Benedict, The Anthropology of World's Fairs: San Francisco's Panama Pacific International Exposition of 1915 (Berkeley: Lowie Museum of Anthropology, 1983). For accounts of the hotel connections for New York City's Crystal Palace exhibition (1850-1855), Chicago's Columbian Exposition (1893), and earlier conventions in San Francisco, see Williamson, The American Hotel , 45, 103, 124, and John P. Young, San Francisco: A History of the Pacific Coast Metropolis (San Francisco: S. J. Clarke, 1912), 2: 728-729. [BACK]

55. Williamson, The American Hotel , 28. [BACK]

56. Hayner, "The Hotel," 234. [BACK]

57. See Groth, "Forbidden Housing," 244-250. [BACK]

58. Ibid., 246-247; see also Zorbaugh, Gold Coast and Slum , 15, 40, 46, 57; on equivalent issues in 1850, see McGlone, "Suffer the Children," 41; for a late example of a successfully converted house, which with an addition had 54 rooms that accommodated 90 to 95 permanent guests (some of whom had been there 13 years in 1923), see Hayner, Hotel Life , 115, 147, 178. On the Berkshire, "Our Family Hotels," gives 1883 as its approximate construction date. [BACK]

59. C. W. Dickey, "The New Claremont Hotel," The Architect and Engineer of California 5, 2 (June 1906): 30-32. Dickey was the architect of the hotel. [BACK]

60. Ford, Slums and Housing , 341. [BACK]

61. Benslyn, "Recent Developments," pt. 2, 543-547; Ford, Slums and Housing , 764. [BACK]

62. Perelman, "Nathanael West," 161. [BACK]

63. "The Breaching of the Barbizon: A Bastion of Virtue and Beauty Goes Coed," Time (February 23, 1981): 122; the literary hotel is Perelman's Sutton Hotel. [BACK]

64. In 1907, for instance, Mrs. Laura Gashweiler built the Gashweiler Apartment House, four stories tall with 19 two-room units, stores on the first floor, an elevator, and steam heat. Mrs. Gashweiler and her daughter lived in the building and advertised it as a fine "family hotel." Next door, other developers built the 72-room Hotel Artmar (1911) and the Windeler Apartments (1915) with 62 efficiency units. These examples stand on the 400 block of Ellis, near Jones. See "Apartment House for Jones and Ellis Streets," San Francisco Chronicle (July 12, 1907), the city directory of 1911, and the building files of the Foundation for San Francisco's Architectural Heritage. [BACK]

65. Chicago advertisement quoted in Hayner, "The Hotel," 22. [BACK]

66. Warren, "What the Typical Apartment Hotel 'Looks Like,'" 406-409; Architectural Forum , Apartment Hotel Reference Number, 206, 221; Benslyn, "Recent Developments," pt. 2, 540; Hayner, Hotel Life , 66. See also, "To Cook or Not to Cook," Housing Betterment . [BACK]

67. Warren, "What the Typical Apartment Hotel 'Looks Like,'" 407, 409; Benslyn, "Recent Developments," pt. 2, 540, 542-543; Hayden, The Grand Domestic Revolution , 317. [BACK]

68. On early examples, Tucci, "Built in Boston," 101; Hayden, The Grand Domestic Revolution , 72-74; Carl W. Condit, The Chicago School of Architecture , 152. On design standards and guides, Alpern, Apartments for the Affluent , 18; Sexton, American Apartment Houses , 7; Architectural Forum , Apartment Hotel Reference Number 41, 5 (November 1924): 208; for less expensive types, Cash, Modern Type of Apartment Hotels Throughout the United States; the original survey cards for the SFHACC Real Property Survey (Bancroft Library) also show the full range of apartment hotel types. [BACK]

69. One source states that the revolving bed did not make its way to the East Coast until 1914; Beard, "Domestic Unit," 4. On early folding bed competitors and their use in hotels, see "The Holmes Wall Bed," Pacific Coast Architect (Portland, Oregon) 3, 4 (July 1912): 454; "The Murphy Bed," Pacific Coast Architect 3, 2 (July 1912): 455-456. See also, advertisement in Pacific Coast Architect 4 (November 1912): 90. Anne Bloomfield shared these sources with me before her own research was published. [BACK]

70. SFHA, First Report (1911): 48; Taylor, "Efficiency Planning and Equipment," 253-258. [BACK]

71. Rose, "Interest in the Living Arrangements of the Urban Unattached," 491. [BACK]

72. The listed figures are an excerpt from "Domicile Status of Families Classified by Occupation of Husband (Unbroken Families in One- and Multiple-Family Households)," Table XIII, Monroe, Chicago Families , 66. [BACK]

73. Monroe, Chicago Families , 64, 70-74, 226. [BACK]

74. Ibid., 78-79. [BACK]

75. Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Blithedale Romance (Boston: Ticknor, Reed and Fields, 1852): 525-528. [BACK]

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