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Chapter Two— Palace Hotels and Social Opulence

1. Wharton, The Custom of the Country , 4-5, 12, 27. [BACK]

2. Greeley is quoted in Williamson, The American Hotel , 116. On travelers' complaints that permanent residents filled the best rooms, see King, "The First-Class Hotel," 177; for an example, see Sala, "The Philosophy of Grand Hotels," 141. [BACK]

3. On servants in hotels, see Laffan, "Caravansaries," 176; on cost of servants in the West, see John S. Hittell, The Commerce and Industries of the Pacific Coast (San Francisco, 1882): 99. The Westward Ho! advertisement is in Lewis, Work of Art , 321. [BACK]

4. Phrases on hotels being built for crowds and notoriously public are from travel accounts written in 1837 and 1875, quoted in McGlone, "Suffer the Children," 420. [BACK]

5. On the Lick House, see Mazzi, "City from Frontier," 166, 168; most expensive hotels kept the American plan until at least 1900. In 1910, the three best hotels in San Francisco—the Fairmont, St. Francis, and Palace—were all still American plan. [BACK]

6. On hotels and the American spirit, see Trollope, North America , 43, and Sala quoted in Williamson, The American Hotel , 116. The local editor was Nat P. Willis in the New York City Weekly Mirror (December 7, 1844). On eating alone, see also Trollope, North America , 62. [BACK]

7. Trollope, North America , 42, 490-491; see also Williamson, The American Hotel , 202-207, and Sala, "American Hotels and American Food," 140. [BACK]

8. Williamson, The American Hotel , 208, 295. For San Francisco, see also Frances de Talavera Berger and John Parke Custis, Sumptuous Dining in Gaslit San Francisco (Garden City: Doubleday and Co., 1985). [BACK]

9. Mark Twain [Samuel Clemens], "'The Lick House Ball' and Other Fash- soft

ion Reviews," 32-44, in Franklin Walker, ed., The Washoe Giant in San Francisco (San Francisco: George Fields, 1938; original essays written in 1863-64): 37. [BACK]

10. The advertisement is from the 1910 Hotel Red Book , for San Francisco's St. Francis Hotel; for a sample of the social room photograph, see the "baronial bridge room" at the midpriced Olympic Hotel featured in the 1935 city directory for San Francisco. [BACK]

11. The guest is quoted in Boomer, Hotel Management , 13. On other privacy, see Hayner, Hotel Life , 72. [BACK]

12. Hayner, Hotel Life , 66, 71, 100. [BACK]

13. Laffan, "Caravansaries," 176. [BACK]

14. Hayner, "The Hotel," 30, 91, gives these prices for Chicago and notes the minimum at one fine hotel was $25 a week. [BACK]

15. Compare cases 1, 22, and 23 in table 2, Appendix. See also, "Hotel Life as It Is and Was," 449, and Hayner, Hotel Life , 72-73. [BACK]

16. On Palmer and Leiter, see Lloyd Wendt and Herman Kogan, Give the Lady What She Wants: The Story of Marshall Field and Company (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1952): 16-17, 70; on Higginson, see Douglass Shand Tucci, Built in Boston: City and Suburb, 1800-1950 (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1978): 103. [BACK]

17. Williamson, The American Hotel , 210; Van Orman, A Room for the Night , 55; Laffan, "Caravansaries," 178; and Mazzi, "City from Frontier," 166, 168. [BACK]

18. For families at the Palace, see Lewis and Hall, Bonanza Inn , 52, 64, 71, 118-123, 140, 216, 247-248; the editor was Fremont Older, editor of the Bulletin; see Walton Bean, Boss Ruef's San Francisco: The Story of the Union Labor Party, Big Business, and the Graft Prosecution (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967): 67. On the St. Francis, see Siefkin, The City at the End of the Rainbow . [BACK]

19. Williamson, The American Hotel , 274; the New York Times article appeared sometime before October 1, 1907, and the page is reprinted in Dorsey and Devine, Fare Thee Well , 139. [BACK]

20. On the Fairmont and the Mark Hopkins, interview with Gray Brechin, January 12, 1982. [BACK]

21. The figures on the Lick House come from the 1880 U.S. manuscript census. [BACK]

22. Mark Twain [Samuel Clemens], "Those Blasted Children" (1864), 18-19, in Franklin Walker, ed., The Washoe Giant in San Francisco (San Francisco: George Fields, 1938): 18-23. [BACK]

23. Sala, America Revisited , 344-345. [BACK]

24. For more on children's facilities, see "The Kindergarten in Hotels," Hotel Monthly 3, 22 (January 1895): 12; "When the Apartment Hotel Builds continue

Playground Parkways in the Air," Fashions of the Hour ,School Number (1922); J. O. Dahl, "When Does a Play Room Become a Profitable Investment?" Hotel Management (November 1925); Hayner, "The Hotel," 92, 100, 145; Hayner, Hotel Life , 129-130. The special classes (a French school) were a feature of the Fairmont in San Francisco; see Siefkin, The City at the End of the Rainbow . The McAlpin's women's and children's floor had a playroom, an outdoor playground, and a library, in addition to a large lounge and a hairdressing parlor. [BACK]

25. The Blue Book (San Francisco: Theodore J. Hoag, 1929): 550-551. [BACK]

26. Thompson, Eloise . [BACK]

27. Edmund White, A Boy's Own Story (New York: Plume Books of the New American Library, 1982): 70-72, 77-78. [BACK]

28. Hayner, Hotel Life , has an entire chapter on hotel children, 119-131. See also a section in Hayner, "The Hotel," 129-133. The history of hallways as play spaces is reinforced by William Robertson and W. F. Robertson, Our American Tour  . . . 1869 (Edinburgh: Privately printed, 1871): 8-9. [BACK]

29. On early hotels in Europe, see W. C. Firebaugh, The Inns of Greece and Rome and a History of Hospitality from the Dawn of Time to the Middle Ages (Chicago, 1923); Henry P. Maskell and Edward W. Gregory, Old Country Inns of England (London, 1912); and Walter Ison, "Pleasure Gardens and Hotels," in Ison, The Georgian Buildings of Bath from 1700 to 1830 (London: Faber and Faber, 1948): 92-98. [BACK]

30. King, "First-Class Hotel," 173-175, 178-179; Williamson, The American Hotel , 8-9; Boorstin, "Palaces of the Public," 134-147. [BACK]

31. King, "First-Class Hotel," 177. A later example of such a complaint is in Sala, "The Philosophy of Grand Hotels," 141. [BACK]

32. Williamson, The American Hotel , 13, 16, 23-24, 28; Boorstin, "Palaces of the Public," 136-137; interview with Richard Penner, July 1982. On sharing rooms and beds with strangers, see King, "First-Class Hotel," 186, and Van Orman, A Room for the Night , 19, 22, 38. [BACK]

33. King, "First-Class Hotel," 173-188; Boorstin, "Palaces of the Public," 140. [BACK]

34. See also Boorstin, "Palaces of the Public," and Williamson, The American Hotel . One of the many general histories of palace hotels is Bryan McGinty, The Palace Inns (Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1978). [BACK]

35. The principal developer of the Palace Hotel was William C. Ralston, an industrialist, mine owner, and bank president; at his death, the Palace was completed by Senator William Sharon; Lewis and Hall, Bonanza Inn . See also the San Francisco City Directory (1880): 18; "The Palace Hotel," Overland Monthly 15 (September 1875): 299; Mary Goodrich, The Palace Hotel (San Francisco, 1930); Williamson, The American Hotel , 32, 91. [BACK]

36. Sala, America Revisited , 372. [BACK]

37. Williamson is careful to note the presence of two-room suites: The American Hotel , 17, 53, 56, 92, 115-116; see also King, "First-Class Hotel," 177, 182. [BACK]

38. Stone, "Hospitality, Hotels, and Lodging Houses," 472-477; Hayner, "The Hotel," 192. [BACK]

39. Lewis, Work of Art , 194-195. TelAutograph is a trademark for a telegraph device that reproduces hand motions at either end of the wire, so one can "write" a personal note to someone anywhere in the world. [BACK]

40. The life of each palace hotel has spawned several books. For instance, see Eve Brown, The Plaza: Its Life and Times (New York: Meredith Press, 1967), and Frank Crowninshield, ed., The Unofficial Palace of New York: A Tribute to the Waldorf-Astoria (New York: N.p., 1939). [BACK]

41. Williamson, The American Hotel , 294, and Lewis, Work of Art , 331. On the Drake, the Hotel Red Book , 1930, 70. [BACK]

42. For this phase in San Francisco, see Siefkin, The City at the End of the Rainbow , 110-111; the Mark Hopkins (at 19 stories) and the Sir Francis Drake (25 stories) are apt tower examples. LeRoy Linnard installed the first hotel radio station in San Francisco in the Fairmont in March 1922. [BACK]

43. Williamson, The American Hotel , 295; interview with Harold Weingarten, March 17, 1986. [BACK]

44. Hayner, "The Hotel," 28-29, 37; Dorsey and Devine, Fare Thee Well , 108-110, 137; Williamson, The American Hotel , 273. [BACK]

45. Carroll, "Home, Home on the Hill," 14, 16-17. [BACK]

46. Hayner, "The Hotel," 228-229. For correlative sentiments about staff but in a midpriced hotel, see Edith Rosenshine, "The Typical Small Hotel," ca. 1947, MS Collection, Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley. [BACK]

47. Hayner, "The Hotel," 91. [BACK]

48. Maria Therese Longworth Yelverton, Viscountess Avonmore, Teresina in America , 2 vols. (London: Richard Bentley & Son, 1875): 278. [BACK]

49. Quoted in Hayner, Hotel Life , 114. [BACK]

50. "Hotel Detective Constantly Battling Smart Criminals," Hotel World (March 3, 1923): 35; "Hotel Life as It Is and Was," Chambers Journal 21, 7th ser. (June 20, 1931): 441-451, 450; Hayner, Hotel Life , 93, 165. [BACK]

51. "Hotel Life as It Is and Was," 451; Hayner, Hotel Life , 167. [BACK]

52. Williamson, The American Hotel , 92. [BACK]

53. Philo Tower, Slavery Unmasked (Rochester, N.Y., 1856): 319, 321, 335-342; also quoted in Calhoun, A Social History of the American Family , 2:205. [BACK]

54. Hayner, "The Hotel," 7, quoting an engineer for the Illinois Bell Telephone Company. [BACK]

55. For examples of seasonal moves, see Hayner, Hotel Life , 65; Tucci, Built in Boston , 103; Siefkin, The City at the End of the Rainbow , 62. [BACK]

56. On the Del Monte, see Limerick, Ferguson, and Oliver, America's Grand Resort Hotels , 49, 100-107. On resort hotel architecture, see also Evers, Cromley, Blackmar, and Harris, Resorts of the Catskills . During any single decade, the truly elite frequented a relatively small number of resort hotels. Other classic examples of the upper-class resort around the turn of the century would include the Broadmoor in Colorado Springs, the Grove Park Inn in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Greenbrier at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. [BACK]

57. Henry James is quoted in Limerick, Ferguson, and Oliver, America's Grand Resort Hotels , 97, where the daily round is also listed. On activities, see also Betsy Blackmar, "Going to the Mountains: A Social History," in Evers, Cromley, Blackmar, and Harris, Resorts of the Catskills , 71-98. [BACK]

58. Blackmar, "Going to the Mountains," 79. [BACK]

59. Ibid., 72, 82-83; Limerick, Ferguson, and Oliver, Grand Resort Hotels , 51. [BACK]

60. Sexton, American Apartment Houses , 8. [BACK]

61. Three early leaders in Boston were all labeled as hotels: the Hotel Pelham; its neighbor, the Hotel Boylston; and the Hotel Hamilton, dating from 1857, 1870, and 1869, respectively. After 1900, apartments would reverse the direction of innovation and come to influence hotel design. On early experimental apartment houses and social hierarchy, see Gunther Barth, City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980): 46-50; James E. Vance, Jr., This Scene of Man (New York: Harper and Row, 1977): 391-406; and John Hancock, "The Apartment House in Urban America," in Anthony D. King, ed., Buildings and Society (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980): 151-189. On fashionable apartments, see James M. Goode, Best Addresses: A Century of Washington's Distinguished Apartment Houses (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988); Cromley, Alone Together ; Stern, "With Rhetoric: The New York Apartment House," 78-111. On the blurring of apartment and hotel, see also Williamson, The American Hotel , 270-271; Sexton, American Apartment Houses . [BACK]

62. The radiator line comes from a sprightly and largely accurate summary of apartment evolution in Beard, "New York Squeezes into the 'Domestic Unit,'" 4; Alpern, Apartments for the Affluent ; Sexton, American Apartment Houses ; Westfall, "The Golden Age of Chicago Apartments." [BACK]

63. For example, see "Apartment House for Jones and Ellis Streets," San Francisco Chronicle (July 12, 1907), which mixes many of these terms. From 1903 to 1915, the San Francisco directory had only a single heading: "Apartments—Hotels." [BACK]

64. Environmental determinism is not invoked here but rather a structurationist explanation for the connections between the social and the physical, the individual and the social. See Allan Pred, Making Histories and Constructing continue

Human Geographies (Boulder: Westview Press, 1990); and Anthony Giddens, "Structuralism, Post-Structuralism and the Production of Culture," with Ira J. Cohen, "Structuration Theory and Social Praxis ," in Anthony Giddens and Jonathan Turner, eds., Social Theory Today (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987): 195-223, 273-308. [BACK]

65. On the palace hotel's role in innovation diffusion, see especially Boorstin, "Palaces of the Public," and Grier, "Hotels as Model Interiors." [BACK]

66. See Dell Upton, "Another City: The Changing Urban Landscape in Early Republican America," in Catherine Hutchins, ed., Everyday Life in the Early Republic, 1789-1828 (New York: W. W. Norton for Winterthur Publications, 1991). [BACK]

67. Henry James, The American Scene (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968; first published in 1907): 102. [BACK]

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