Preferred Citation: Bahr, Donald, Juan Smith, William Smith Allison, and Julian Hayden. The Short, Swift Time of Gods on Earth: The Hohokam Chronicles. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1994 1994.


Part 8— Siuuhu's Death and Resurrection

1. The loss of the paradisiacal relation with Corn-man, etc., is also Edenic, but no great human sin is involved. Those are stories of humanity's lost innocence when no one quite knew what was happening. Smith-Allison's Siuuhu chimes into them after the fact with his sexual morality, but this seems different from God's pre- and postexpulsion relation to Adam and Eve. Such a relation is now at stake between Siuuhu and the Hohokam.

2. Wuaga in Pima-Papago. These are described enthographically in Underhill (1946:253-260); and autobiographically in Underhill (1938). Along with wine feasts and celebrations for war victories, the puberty ceremonies were the great festive and convivial occasions of nineteenth-century Pima-Papago life.

3. "On this view [Niebuhr's], the evil we find in history is not . . . an accidental or transient thing; it is located in the permanent continue

human condition of 'original sin,' symbolized by the 'Fall.' In simplest terms, what this doctrine asserts is 'the obvious fact that all men are persistently inclined to regard themselves more highly and are more assiduously concerned with their own interests than any objective view of their importance would warrant.' . . . Sin is the tendency to rebel against God" (Dray 1964: 100, quoting R. Niebuhr, The Irony of American History , 1952).

4. See story 5. A baby was born from a girl who ate a worm from the corn-man's hair. Siuuhu caused the mother to drop the baby, which killed it.

5. Here begins the prose telling of what is also told in war oratory. Bahr (1975) compares three versions of the oration that goes with this episode, one from Thin Leather, one from another Pima named Thomas Vanyiko, and one from the Papago Juan Gregorio.

6. The version published by Russell (on 226), from Thin Leather, states that these underworld people had not been created there, as Smith says here, but were created by Earth Doctor on the earth's surface prior to the great flood. Earth Doctor saved them from drowning by enabling them to pass through a hole in the earth into the underworld. He made the hole for them with his powerful magic cane. Although I have heard Papagos say the same thing, the summary fo Papago mythology published by Underhill (1946: 11) leaves this point moot. While it explains the present people as emergents from the underworld, it neither claims nor denies that this people had any prior upperworldly experience.

Smith implies the same thing in his story 1, where he says that the Primas "came" from a man created on the earth's surface by Earth Doctor and Siuuhu. It is fair to say that Smith is ambiguous on this issue, unlike Thin Leather (in Russell); and, of course, Smith's mythology lacks the episode, present in Russell (211), in which Earth Doctor made a hole in the earth for the ancestral Pima-Papago to pass down through.

7. Note how this makes Ee-ee-toy/Siuuhu a sun god. His rays wither things.

8. All the texts in Saxton and Saxton are given both in Pima-Papago and English. Thus, one can check on the original wording. The word translated as "chief" is ge'ejig , 'one-made-big'. This is a standard word for chief. Significantly, the word siwañ was not used. In this text, siwañ serves as the personal name of the man who killed I'itoi. We know that there are other texts in which the word is used as a status term ("chief") rather than as an individual's name; and we can imagine texts about the Hohokam era in which some chiefs are called siwan and other are called ge'ejig , the sisiwañ being the great-house heads, the ge'ejig being lesser chiefs or, as in this text, chiefs of a region outside great-house control. break

9. This "below" seems to mean the underworld, as if the above-ground south chief controls the communication to the underworld. The passage translated as "people below" is t-weco hemajkam , 'us-below people', or more freely, 'people below us'.


Preferred Citation: Bahr, Donald, Juan Smith, William Smith Allison, and Julian Hayden. The Short, Swift Time of Gods on Earth: The Hohokam Chronicles. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1994 1994.