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Appendix A—
Chronology of South African Events[*]

1488
Bartholomew Diaz discovered the Cape.

1602
Netherlands United East India Company (Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie ) formed.

1652
On April 6, Jan van Riebeeck landed at the Cape and formed the first white settlement.

1657
First Free Burghers at Rondebosch.

1658
About 400 slaves imported from West Africa.

1688
Arrival of the first Huguenot settlers.

1699–1707
Governor Willem Adriaan van der Stel.

1713
First smallpox epidemic.

1760
Orange River crossed by Coetzee.

1774
First mission station in South Africa, at Genadendal, established by George Schmidt of the Moravian Mission Society.

1778
The Fish River made the eastern boundary of Cape settlement.

1779
Xhosas, who crossed the Fish River into the Cape Colony, repelled in the First "Kaffir War."

1780–1783
War between Holland and England. Decline of the Netherlands East India Company.

1792
Second "Kaffir War."

1795–1803
First British occupation of the Cape.

1799
Third "Kaffir War."

1803–1806
Cape returned to Batavian Republic. Janssens and De Mist joint governors.

1806
Second occupation of the Cape by Britain.

1812
Fourth "Kaffir War." "Black Circuit."

1814
Holland ceded the Cape to Britain.

1815
Slagter's Nek episode.


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1819
Cape boundary extended to Keiskama River. Fifth "Kaffir War."

1820
Arrival of 5,000 British settlers.

1828
Death of the Zulu King Shaka. English becomes the official language. Passes for Hottentots abolished and all free Coloureds in Cape placed on political level with Europeans through 50th Ordinance.

1829
University of Cape Town opened.

1834
Slavery abolished. Sixth "Kaffir War."

1835
Durban founded. Beginning of the Trigardt Trek.

1836
Great Trek from the Cape.

1837
Matabele crossed over to the north of the Limpopo. Retief treks to Natal.

1838
Retief's Treaty with Dingaan. Massacre of Boers under Retief by Dingaan. Andries Pretorius won battle of Blood River. Dingaan overthrown. Republic of Natal founded.

1843
Natal proclaimed a British colony.

1844
Majority of Voortrekkers left Natal. Natal incorporated in Cape Colony.

1845
Natal separated from Cape Colony.

1846
Bloemfontein founded. Seventh "Kaffir War."

1847
East London founded. British rule extended over Kaffraria.

1848
British sovereignty proclaimed between Orange and Vaal rivers. Skirmish between British and Boers at Boomplaats.

1850
Eighth "Kaffir War."

1851
First Basuto War.

1852
Britain recognised independence of Transvaal in Sand River Convention.

1853
"Representative Government" granted to Cape Colony with qualified franchise rights extended to non-Whites.

1854
Britain recognised independence of Orange Free State in Convention of Bloemfontein. First Cape Parliament in session.

1855
Pretoria founded.

1856
Natal made separate colony. Lydenburg seceded from South African Republic. Xhosa prophetic movement and cattle killing.

1858
Second Basuto War.

1860
First importation of labourers from India for sugar plantations in Natal.

1865
Kaffraria annexed to Cape. Third Basuto War.

1867
First diamond discovered near Hopetown.


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1868
Basutoland annexed by Britain.

1869
British intervention in Basutoland. Diamonds discovered near Kimberley.

1870
Diamond fields annexed by Britain.

1872
"Responsible Government" granted to Cape Colony.

1877
Transvaal proclaimed British territory.

1879
Zulu rebellion under Cetewayo. Britain occupied Zululand.

1880
Formation of Afrikaner Bond. First Anglo-Boer War.

1881
Transvaal regained "independence," albeit under British suzerainty. Use of Afrikaans in Cape Parliament permitted.

1883
Paul Kruger President of South African Republic. Republics of Stellaland and Goshen founded.

1884
German protectorate over South West Africa. London Convention (February 27) granted Transvaal full independence with exception of treaties with foreign states. Basutoland Crown Colony.

1885
Bechuanaland British Protectorate. Railway Cape Town-Kimberley opened.

1886
Johannesburg founded. Opening of Witwatersrand gold fields.

1888
First Rhodesian mining concessions granted by Lobengula. Matabeleland and Mashonaland declared British spheres of influence.

1889
Alliance between Orange Free State and South African Republic. British South Africa Company established.

1890
Cecil Rhodes Prime Minister of the Cape. British troops occupied Mashonaland. Anglo-German Agreement in which the boundaries of South West Africa fixed.

1892
Railway Cape Town-Johannesburg completed.

1893
"Responsible Government" for Natal. Mahatma Gandhi arrived in South Africa.

1894
Pondoland annexed to Cape Colony. Natal Indian Congress founded.

1895
Annexation of Bechuanaland to Cape Colony. Jameson Raid.

1896
Rising of Matabele in Rhodesia. Surrender and trial of Jameson.

1899–1902
War between Great Britain and the two Boer Republics.

1902
Treaty of Vereeniging (May 31). Transvaal and Orange Free State British colonies. Death of Cecil Rhodes.

1904
Importation of Chinese labourers for gold mines of Transvaal.

1905
Beginning of second Afrikaanse Taal movement. Lord Milner left South Africa.


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1906
Self-government granted to the Transvaal. Cabinet formed by Louis Botha. Zulu Poll-Tax Rebellion.

1907
Orange River Colony granted self-government. Importation of Chinese stopped.

1907–1913
Mahatma Gandhi's first Satyagraha campaign.

1908
National Convention in Durban; further meetings in 1909 in Cape Town and Bloemfontein.

1909
South Africa Act passed by Imperial Parliament.

1910
Constitution of the Union of South Africa, May 31. Louis Botha first Prime Minister.

1912
African National Congress founded. Resignation of Prime Minister Louis Botha, who formed new cabinet with Hertzog.

1913
Hertzog formed National Party. Miners' strike and riots on Witwatersrand. March of Natal Indians into Transvaal.

1914
Industrial disturbances on Witwatersrand. Union income tax introduced. Mahatma Gandhi left South Africa. Outbreak of First World War, August 4. Union Parliament, on September 10, decided, with 91 against 12 votes, in favour of participation in war. Outbreak of Afrikaner Rebellion. Martial Law proclaimed. Military expedition to South West Africa.

1915
Surrender of the German forces in South West Africa.

1916
Union Expeditionary Force to German East Africa under command of Jan Smuts.

1918
November 11, Armistice. Serious influenza epidemic.

1919
Union granted Mandate over South West Africa. Death of Louis Botha. Smuts Prime Minister.

1920
Strike of 40,000 African miners on Rand.

1921
South African Reserve Bank established. Amalgamation of South African Party and Unionist Party. Postwar depression.

1922
General Strike followed by widespread revolutionary movements in mining districts. Martial Law. Rebellion of Bondelzwart Hottentots in South West Africa.

1924
In parliamentary election, National Party won 63 seats and its ally, the Labour Party, 17 seats. Hertzog Prime Minister.

1925
Afrikaans recognized as second official language.

1926
Hertzog at Imperial Conference in London. Dominions granted equal legal status with Britain.

1929
June 12, at General Election National Party won 18 seats.

1930
Enfranchisement of European women. Quota Act introduced which restricted immigration from certain countries.


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1931
Statute of Westminster passed by Imperial Parliament. Union given full freedom of legislation.

1932
On December 29, Union abandoned gold standard. Imperial Conference at Ottawa.

1933
Coalition government of National and South African parties, under Hertzog as Prime Minister.

1935
All-African Convention founded.

1936
Passing of Representation of Natives Act. "Stem van Suid-Afrika " National Anthem.

1937
First South African citizen, Sir Patrick Duncan, appointed Governor General.

1938
General election. Centenary celebrations of Great Trek. Foundation stone laid for Voortrekker Monument at Pretoria.

1939
Resignation of Hertzog Cabinet. Smuts Prime Minister. On September 6, Union Parliament, with 80 votes against 67, decided to enter war against Germany.

1942
Death of Hertzog.

1943
Death of Sir Patrick Duncan. Parliamentary election. Majority of 64 seats for United Party. Smuts Prime Minister.

1945
End of hostilities.

1946
Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act passed. Strike of 60,000 African miners on Rand.

1948
General election on May 26: National Party 70 seats; its ally, Afrikaner Party, 9 seats; United Party (Opposition) 63 seats; Labour Party (Opposition) 6 seats. D. F. Malan Prime Minister.

1949
Serious rioting in Durban by Zulus against Indians: 142 killed, 1,087 injured. Voortrekker Monument unveiled. Devaluation of sterling. Programme of Action proclaimed by ANC.

1950
Appeal to Privy Council abolished. Death of Jan Smuts.

1951
Amalgamation of National and Afrikaner parties.

1952
Tercentenary celebrations of arrival of Jan van Riebeeck and establishment of first White settlement in Cape. Passive Resistance Movement. African unrest and riots.

1953
April 15, General Election. National Party 94 seats, United Party 57, Labour Party 5, Natives' Representatives 3. Liberal Party founded.

1954
D. F. Malan retired. J. G. Strijdom Prime Minister.

1955
Proclamation of Freedom Charter by Congress Alliance. Senate Act passed.


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1956
Johannesburg bus boycott. Cape Coloured disfranchised after five-year constitutional struggle. December 19, preparatory examination began in Johannesburg against 150 persons for alleged treason.

1957
As from April 6, Union Flag hoisted as only flag on all government buildings. May 3, Die Stem van Suid-Afrika only National Anthem. November 27, Union withdraws from active participation in United Nations and leaves only token representation.

1958
Treason Trial begins. April 14, a non-White "stay-at-home" protest against the South African General Election fails and the African National Congress calls on supporters to return to work. April 16, White South Africa votes in general election for 12th Parliament. The result: National Party 103 seats, United Party 53 seats, Labour Party eliminated. Death of the Prime Minister J. G. Strijdom. September 2, H. F. Verwoerd chosen as leader by the National Party caucus, thereby becoming Prime Minister. African women protested against extension of "pass laws." Split in the African National Congress. December 18, Basutoland granted a new constitution by Britain, giving the Basutos greater control over their own affairs.

1959
Death of D. F. Malan. Progressive Party and Pan-African Congress (PAC) founded as splinter groups of United Party and African National Congress respectively.

1960
Police massacre at Sharpeville. Nation-wide African revolt. Pondoland uprising. State of Emergency. ANC and PAC banned. Assassination attempt against Verwoerd. Mass arrests.

1961
South Africa became a Republic and withdrew from Commonwealth under pressure from Afro-Asian members. Last vestige of African representation in Parliament abolished. New Nationalist victory in general election. Sabotage acts begin. Army greatly strengthened.

1962
Sabotage acts increased. Mass arrests and repressive measures intensified. Passage of "Sabotage Act."

1963
"No Trial" Act passed. Afro-Asian campaign to expel South Africa from United Nations. Independent African states establish a freedom fund at Addis Ababa conference, and urge use of force against South African government.

1964
"Rivonia" and other sabotage trials. Continued underground activity, and military build-up by government.

1966
Verwoerd assassinated. B. J. Vorster becomes Prime Minister.


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