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INDEX

Boldface type indicates illustrations. Page references in square brackets indicate textual references to endnotes. Institutions named after persons are alphabetized by last name; for example, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum is listed in the Gs. Titles of works are alphabetized by strict title; for example, Joan Miró (an exhibition) is listed in the Js .

A

Abandoned (Sheets), 171

abandonment, theme of, 47 -48

Abstract American Artists, 163

Abstract and Surrealist Art in the United States , 42 , 203 n.2, 285

abstract classicism, 42 , 62 ., 202

abstract expressionism, 4 , 15 n.5, 25 , 66 -67n.76;

anticlassicism of, 57 ;

compositional fragmentation in, 43 ;

dark variants of, 58 ;

exhibitions at California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 114 -15;

exhibitions at San Francisco Museum of Art, 114 -15;

gestural painting, 236 ;

and marginalization of Mexican art, 122 ;

origins in European surrealism, 183 ;

as politically noncommittal, 55 ;

rejection of surrealist automatism, 202 ;

as a response to horror, 55 , 58 -59, 65 n.51;

rise of, 42 ;

as shaped by war, 55 -61;

universality in, 49 ;

use of red and black in, 43 . See also California School of Fine Arts; New York School

abstract formalism, 193

abstraction, 4 ;

allegories of strife and despair, 45 ;

drip-trail, 164 ;

formalist, 62 ;

geometric, 57 ;

hard-edge, 42 , 62 , 202 ;

and individual imagination, 43 ;

kinetic, 13 ;

in public places, 85 -86;

unity and purity in, 4 . See also abstract expressionism; California School of Fine Arts

abstract surrealism, 196

abyss, theme of, 194 -95

academic realism, 164 -65

academic tradition, 70

Academy of Modern Art (Hollywood), 280

Adams, Ansel, 251 , 252 , 254 , 256 , 259 , 268 n.15;

on art for art's sake, 264 ;

exhibition at An American Place gallery, 283 ;

The Golden Gate before the Bridge, San Francisco, California , 253 ;

on Group f.64, 253 -54

Adams, Laura, 259

adobe, 142 , 144

Adorno, Theodor, 284

Adventure (Mathews), 87

Aesthetic Function in Space (Merrild), 188

aesthetics vs. function, 140 , 142

African and Negro Art (Museum of Modern Art, New York City), 108

African art, 167

Agee, William C., 123

Aiken, Robert H., 146 , 148

Aimless Walk (Hammid), 222

Albers, Josef, 112

Albright, Thomas, xv

Aldrin, Anders, 6 , 7

Alexander, William, 269 n.33

Alinder, James, 252

Alinder, Mary, 268 n.15

Allan, Sidney (pseud . of Sadakichi Hartmann), 126 , 279

Allegretto (Fischinger), 224

Allen, Harris C., 144

All the News (Vogel), 235

Alpha and Omega (Merrild), 188 , 189

Alvarez, Mabel, 26 -27, 27

American Artists Congress, 191


290

American Beauty, or the Movie Star (Merrild), 2

American Contemporary Gallery (Los Angeles), 212 , 233 , 238

American Legion, 79 , 82

American Negro (Guston and Kadish), 281

American Painters and Sculptors (Los Angeles Museum), 170

An American Place gallery (New York City), 256

American Scene painting, 182 , 184 . See also regionalism

Amor, Inés, 125

anarchism, 55

Anderson, Antony, 274

Anderson, Jeremy, 206 n.36

Anderson, Perry, 33 -34

Anderson, Susan, 13 -14

Angarola, Anthony, 170

Angel's Flight (Sheets), 171

Anger, Kenneth, 233 ;

Fireworks , 223 ;

inauguration of the Pleasure Dome,214

animation, 238

Ansel Adams at 683 Brockhurst (Willard Van Dyke), 251

Anthony House (Los Angeles; Maybeck), 152 -53

anthropomorphism, topographical, 163

anticlassicism, 57

antimodernism, 25

Anywhere out of the World (Murphy), 212

Aphrodite (Murphy), 212

arcades (Venice, Calif.; Marsh and Russell), 3

Archipenko, Alexander, 110 , 282

architecture, 139 -55;

adobe, 142 , 144 ;

bungalows, 141 , 141 -43;

as central to modernism, 8 ;

function versus aesthetics, 140 , 142 ;

"game of images," 10 ;

illusions of contrast and contradictions, 140 , 152 -53;

industrial, linearity of, 169 ;

and mathematics. 140 , 142 , 143 ;

Mediterranean/Hispanic revival, 144 (see also141 , 144 );

mission revival, 140 , 142 , 144 , 151 , 152 ;

pre-Columbian-style, 141 ;

pueblos, 141 ;

Santa Fe-style, 141 ;

stucco, 142 , 144 ;

symbolism in, 143 ;

terra-cotta tile blocks, 149 ;

traditionalism, 139 , 144 . See also concrete construction

Archives of American Art, xv

Arensberg, Walter and Louise, 97 , 124 , 280 ;

European modernist collection of, 183 , 187 , 204 n.5;

relationship with Duchamp and Man Ray, 99 , 191 , 205 n.19

Argonauts (Beckmann), 116

Argus, 280

Arledge, Sara Kathryn: "The Experimental Film: A New Art in Transition," 236 ;

Introspection , 235 , 235 -36

Armfield, Maxwell, 151

Armitage, Merle, 4

Armory Show (New York City), 97 , 98 , 123 , 161 , 164 , 192

Arnautoff, Victor, 73 , 79 ;

Metropolitan Lift , 105 , 106

Arneson, Robert, 62

Arp, Jean, 193

Arroyo Guild of Fellow Craftsmen, 275

art: as freedom, 57 ;

as originating in problem solving, 24

Art Autre, 11

Art Center (San Francisco; formerly , Modern Gallery), 279

Art Center School (Los Angeles), 227 , 281

Art Commission, 106

Art Digest , 67 n.80

art history, marginalization of, 5

Art in Cinema festivals (San Francisco Museum of Art), 203 , 233 , 236 , 285

Art Institute of Chicago, 66 -67n.76

Artists Equity Association, 83

Artland Club (Los Angeles), 279

The Art of Edward Weston (E. Weston), 256 -57, 263

Art of This Century gallery (Los Angeles), 102

Arts and Architecture , 139

Arts and Crafts movement, 143 , 149

The Arts and Crafts of Mexico (McDowell Club; Los Angeles), 126

Arts and Crafts Society of Southern California, 279

Arts Club of Chicago, 125

Art Students League of Los Angeles, 275

Art Students' League of San Pedro, 280

Art Teachers Association of California, 277

Ashcan painting, 275

Ashton, Dore, 4

Asian art, 167

assemblage form, 30

Associated American Artists, 285

Associated Artists of San Diego (later Contemporary Artists of San Diego), 280

Associated Farmers of California, 82

Atherton, Gertrude, 86

At Land (Deren), 223

Atterbury, Grosvenor: Forest Hills Garden (Long Island), 144

At the Sign of the Grasshopper bookstore (Los Angeles), 103 , 279

Austin, Charles, 163

authoritarianism, 56 -57

Automatic Hitler Kicking Machine (Goldberg), 52 , 64 n.30

automatism, 13 , 182 , 193 , 196 , 197 ;

calligraphy, 203 ;

criticism of, 202 , 208 n.65;

exploration of chance, 206 n.41

B

Baldessari, John, 201

Baul Ballard's Film Society, 233

Ballet Mécanique (Murphy). 211 -12

Ballin, Hugo, 123 , 131 ;

Department of Water and Power Building murals (Los Angeles),


291

134 ;

Los Angeles Times murals, 134

Balloonic Uplifters (Spohn), 50

Banning House (Los Angeles; McCoy), 149

Bara, Theda, 214

Baranceanu, Belie (Goldschlager), 280 ;

Hollywood Hills , 171 ;

Leaf Bud , 170 ;

Sunset Boulevard at Everett Street , 171 ;

The Yellow Robe , plate 7,170

Barlow, Roger: Even as You and I , 219 , 220 -21

Barnes, Matthew, 43 , 206 n.34

Barr, Alfred, 182

Barreda, Octavio G., 125

Barrows Lane Gallery (University of California at Berkeley), 282

Barton, Ralph, 122

Barttlett House (Los Angeles; Whittlesey), 146

Bauer, Rudolf, 226

Bauhaus, 110 , 112 -13. See also specific artists

The Bauhaus: How It Worked (Mills College, Oakland), 112

Bay Area. See San Francisco

Beasley, David, 54

Beat art, 202 , 203 , 209 n.67

Becket, Welton: Pan-Pacific Auditorium Building (Los Angeles), 282

Beckmann, Max, 115 -18, 286 ;

Argonauts , 116 ;

Mill in the Eucalyptus Grove , 115 -16;

San Francisco , 115 -16

Bedroom Fluff (Spohn), 53

Being, 38 n.28

Bellows, George, 277

Belson, Jordan, 233 ;

Transmutation , 234 ;

Vortex Concerts, 234

Bender, Albert, 260

Bengston, Billy Al, xv

Benjamin, Karl, 202

Bennington School of Dance (Mills College, Oakland), 112

Benton, Arthur B., 146

Benton, Thomas Hart, 45 , 112 , 159 , 283 , 285

Berkeley, Busby, 224

Berkeley League of Fine Arts, 278

Berkman, Alexander, 55

Berlin, Ben, 5 ;

Duck-Cannon-Firecrackers , plate 1 ;

Owngz , 167 ;

Portrait , 167 , 168 ;

Vudu Futhmique , 167

Berman, Eugene, 45 , 182 , 285

Berman, Wallace, 201 , 202

Bertoia, Harry, 238

Biberman, Edward, 134 , 159 , 166 ;

The Hollywood Palladium , plate 9 , 176

Biddle, George, 72 , 105 , 122

Billings, Warren, 81

Biltmore Salon (Biltmore Galeria Real, Los Angeles), 278

Bischoff, Elmer, 56 , 57 ;

The Gifts of Jermayne MacAgy , 208 n.64

Bivouac Art Club (Los Angeles), 277

Bivouac Art Club of the Otis Art Institute Prize, 127

Black and Tan (Murphy), 212

Black Flag (Magritte), 52

Bladen, Ronald, 55

Blanch, Arnold, 79

Blood of a Poet (Cocteau), 223

Bloody Thursday. See Pacific Maritime Strike

Blue Four, 6 , 16 n.9, 249 ;

exhibition at the Oakland Art Gallery, 279 ;

Feininger, 6 , 100 -102 (see also Feininger, Lyonel);

Jawlensky, 6 , 100 -102;

Kandinsky, 6 , 100 -102, 103 , 107 ;

Klee, 6 , 25 , 100 -102

Blue Rider group, 107

Blues Pattern (John Whitney, Crippen, and Pintoff), 238

Blum, John Morton, 49

Blumann, Sigismund, 255 -56

Bombardment (Lundeberg), 176

Bondi, Beulah, 130

Bonfiglio, María Ramírez, 127

Bop City (San Francisco), 233 , 234

Bosch, Hieronymus, 46

Boswell, Peyton, 163

Bothwell, Dorr, 160 , 202

Bradbury, Malcolm, 41

Braun, Maurice, 275

Brechin, Gray, 10

Brecht, Bertolt, 284 ;

Galileo , 285

Brenner, Anita, 122

Breton, André, 184 , 196 , 204 n.3

Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (Duchamp), 284

The Bridge (Vidor), 215

Bridges, Harry, 75 , 77

Brigante, Nick, 163

Brigman, Anne, 257 , 258 , 259 ;

The Storm Tree , 247

Broughton, James, 214 ;

Mother's Day , 234 ;

The Potted Psalm$ , 203 , 233

Brown, Joan, 62

Brown, Jr., Arthur, 104

Browner, Juliet, 191 , 283

Bruce, Edward, 73 , 85

Brush and Pencil Club of Los Angeles, 276

Bryan, William Alanson, 130

Bufano, Beniamino, 276

Budding the Railroad (Refregier), 80

bungalows, 141 , 141 -43

Buñuel, Luis, 283 ;

Un Chien Andalou , 223

Burger, Peter, 30

Burkhardt, Hans, 14 , 62 , 159 , 283 ;

antiwar paintings of, 46 -50, 176 , 182 ;

concentration camp paintings of, 48 -49;

Iwo Jima , 46 ;

One Way Road , 46 ;

One World , 49 -50;

opposition to World War II, 46 ;

optimism of, 50 ; The Parting , 47 -48;

universality in work of, 49 ;

VE Day , plate 5 , 49 ;

War, Agony in Death , 46 , 47 , 48

Burnham, Daniel H., 69 , 274

Bute, Mary Ellen, 232

Bwana Devil (Hoffman), 218

C

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Wiene), 214

Cabré, Manuel, 127


292

Cage, John, 11 , 226 , 282 , 283

Calder, Alexander, 52 , 193 , 276

Calder, Alexander Stirling, 276

California: anti-Mexican bias in, 126 ;

artist émigrés in, 42 ;

eastern perspective on, 1 , 15 n.2, 157 , 159 ;

European influences on, 8 , 10 ;

invented traditions of, 4 , 15 n.3;

isolation of, 13 , 34 , 158 -59, 160 , 166 ;

promotional art of, 92 n.33;

reverence for settlers of, 69 -70, 79 ;

transformation into cosmopolitan center, 34 , 42

California Art Club (Los Angeles; formerly Painters' Club), 275

California Art Research Project, 283

California Arts,275

California Arts and Architecture magazine, 126 , 257 , 284

California Camera Club, 269 n.39;

Camera Craft magazine, 247 , 255 , 257 , 258 -59, 274

California College of Arts and Crafts (Oakland; formerly California School of Arts and Crafts), 275

California Color Society, 227

California Data (Shore), 170

California Graduate School of Design (Pasadena), 283

California Industrial Scenes (Howard), 105

California Landscape (Macdonald-Wright), plate 3

California-Pacific International Exhibition (San Diego), 282

California Palace of the Legion of Honor (San Francisco), 102 , 103 , 279 ;

exhibitions of abstract expressionism, 114 -115 (see also specific artists )

California Progressive Group, 277

California School of Arts and Crafts (Oakland; later California College of Arts and Crafts), 275

California School of Fine Arts (San Francisco; formerly Mark Hopkins Institute of Art and San Francisco Institute of Art), 55 -61, 114 , 208 n.64, 277 , 285 ;

antiauthoritarianism ethos at, 57 ;

rejection of surrealist automatism, 202 , 208 n.65

California Society of Artists (San Francisco), 274

California Society of Etchers (San Francisco), 275

California watercolor school, 62

California Watercolor Society (Los Angeles), 278

Callahan, Kenneth, 104

camera clubs, 245 , 267 n.2

Camera Craft magazine, 247 , 255 , 257 , 258 -59, 274

Cándida Smith, Richard, 10

Cannon Art School (Los Angeles), 275

Cantú, Federico, 122

Carey, Paul, 16 n.9

Carmel Art Association, 280

Carmel Arts and Crafts Society, 274

Carmel-by-the-Sea artists' colony, 274

Carmel Institute of Art, 283

cartoon books, 64 n.39

cartoons, 238

Castel, Father Louis-Bertrand, 224

Catholic Church, 75

Centaur Gallery (Hollywood), 134 , 181 , 282

Cézanne, Paul, 108

Chadwick, Whitney, 204 n.9

chance, theme of, 205 n.24, 206 n.41

chaos, theme of, 195

Charlot, Jean, 122 , 123 , 129 , 133 ;

The History of Art from the Mayas to Walt Disney , 132 ;

Luz , 133 ;

Mayan influence on, 132 ;

Ministry of Education murals, 130 ;

Picture Book No. 1 , 133

Bob Chatterton's Film Society, 233

Cheney, Sheldon, 15 n.6

Un Chien Andalou (Dalí and Buñuel, 223

Chinese Revolutionary Artists' Club (San Francisco), 279

Chirico, Giorgio de, 183 -84;

exhibition at Stendahl Art Galleries, 281

Chouinard School of Art (Los Angeles; later Chouinard Art Institute), 166 , 227 , 278

chronology of modern art in California, 273 -87

cinema. See film; film-as-an-art

Cinema Arts, Society of, 233

Circle Gallery (Hollywood), 181

Circle magazine, 285

Circles (Fischinger), 224

Citizen's Committee to Protect the Rincon Annex Murals, 92 n.43

city symphonies, 235

The Civil War (Refregier), 81

Clair, René: Entr'acte , 219

Clapp, William, 100 , 102

Clarke, Alson, 123 , 135 n.6

Clarke House (Santa Fe Springs, Calif.; Gill), 149

class struggle, theme of, 77

Clements, Grace, 185

Clinic of Stumble (Hirsh and Peterson), 234

Coate, Roland E., 139

Cocteau, Jean: Blood of a Poet , 223

cognitive art vs. perceptual art, 37 n.16

cognitive association, 24

Coit Memorial Tower murals (San Francisco), 73 -74, 100 , 105 -6, 282

Cold War, 78

College of Fine Arts (University of Southern California at Garvanza), 274

color: abstractions in, 26 -27;

and harmony, 26

colorism, 16 n.8

color organs, 230 -31

Commercial Artists' Club of Los Angeles, 279

The Communist Manifesto (Marx), 66 n.70

The Communist Manifesto in


293

Pictures (McChesney and H. Smith, illustrators), 285

Community Arts Association of Santa Barbara, 278

competitiveness among artists, 158

Composition in Blue (Fischinger), 224

Concrete Building and Investment Co., 149

concrete construction, 142 , 145-48, 150 ;

and concealed structure, 149 , 152 -53;

as continuation of Mediterranean/Hispanic style, 144 ;

cost of, 146 , 149 ;

Hillman system, 148 ;

hollow-wall technique, 148 ;

lift-slab technique, 146 , 148 , 149 ;

potential of, 143 -44

Concrete House Building Co., 144

Congress of Industrial Organizations, 77

Conner, Bruce, 202

constructivism, 193

Contemporary Artists of San Diego (formerly Associated Artists of San Diego), 280

Copley, William, 182 , 285

Copley Galleries (Los Angeles), 181 -82, 192 , 285

Copper (Dike), 172

Corbett, B. Cooper: J. Wesley Roberts House (Los Angeles), 146 , 147

Corbett, Edward, 55 , 57 ;

disillusionment with science, 66 n.62;

reactionary regionalism of, 62 ;

Untitled , 58 , 59 , 66 n.70

Cornejo, Francisco, 122 , 129 ;

Xochiquetzal , 127

Cornell, Joseph, 285

Cornwell, Dean, 279

Coronet Theatre (Los Angeles), 233

cosmic birth, theme of, 184

Cosmicide (Lundeberg), 185 , 186 , 188

Courvoisier Gallery (San Francisco), 181

Cowell, Henry, 276

Creation in Form and Color (Hofmann), 107

Creative Film Associates, 233

Crehan, Hubert, 65 n.60

Crespo, Jorge Juan, 122 , 127 ;

Sons of Italy Hall murals, 129

Criffith, Corinne, 130

Crippen, Fred: Blues Pattern , 238 ;

Performing Painter , 238

The Crowd (Hagedorn), plate 2

Crucifix (Lebrun), 45

crucifix as a metaphor for war, 45

cubism, 33 , 167 , 193

Cubism and Abstract Art (Museum of Modern Art, New York City), 108

Cunningham, Imogen, 251 , 254 , 257 , 260 , 262 , 268 n. 15, 277 ;

Mills College Amphitheater , 261 ;

on photography, 267

Cypress, Point Lobos, Carmel, California (Noskowiak), 266

D

dada, 182 , 191 -93

Dailey, Gardner, 139

Dalí, Salvador, 52 , 181 ;

Un Chien Andalou , 223 ;

exhibition at California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 284 ;

involvement in experimental film, 211 , 285 ;

lectures on surrealism, 194

Dalzell-Hatfield Gallery (Los Angeles), 103 , 279

Danto, Arthur, 11 , 16 n. 14

Darío, Rubén, 135 n. 1

Dark and Light journal, 278

Dasein , 38 n.28

Daughters of the American Revolution, 79

Davies, Arthur B., 274

Davis, Ron, xv

Davis, Stuart, 41

DeBrier, Samson (Arthur Jasmine), 213 , 214

deconstruction, 153

DeFeo, Jay, 202

Degenerate Art (Nazi exhibition), 110

Dehn, Adolph, 259

de Kooning, Willem, 46 , 85

Delano, Annita, 8 , 9 , 10

Delaunay, Sonia, 8 -9

Del Monte Art Gallery (Monterey), 275

De Martino, Ernesto, 30 -31, 32

Demuth, Charles, 168

Depression, Great, 70 , 72 , 263

Derain, André, 163

Deren, Maya: At Land , 223 ;

Meshes of the Afternoon , 222 , 222 -23;

Ritual in Transfigured Time , 223

design as central to modernism, 8

"Design for a Concrete Apartment House" (Wilson), 145

Deutsch, Boris, 123 , 163 ;

Lullaby , 218 , 218 -19;

Rock of Ages , 167 ;

What Atomic War Will Do to You , 176 , 177

Día de Flores (Rivera), 127 , 128

Dickey, Dan, 173

Diebenkorn, Richard, xv , 56 , 57 , 58 , 100 , 285

Dijkstra, Bram, 13

Dike, Phil, 13 , 123 , 166 ;

Copper , 172

Disasters of War (Goya), 48

Discovery of Gold (Refregier), 81

disillusionment, 58 ;

with science, 66 n.62

Disney, Walt, 279 ;

Disney Studios, 224

distance, 10

The Divers (Léger), 114 , 115

divisionism, 166

Dix, Otto, 49

Dixon, Maynard, 103

Dockum, Charles: MobilColor Projectors, 230 -31, 231 , 232 -33

documentary photography, 245

Dodge, Mabel, 100

Dodge House (Hollywood; Gill), 149 , 276

Doheny, Edward, 31

Dondero, George, 78 , 79 , 85 , 91 n.31

Double Portrait of the Artist in Time (Lundeberg), 185 , 187


294

Double Wedding at Beverly Hills (Ernst), 191

Dove, Arthur, 171

Arthur Wesley Dow Foundation, 278

Drexler, Fred, 82

Duchamp, Marcel, 11 , 16 n.13, 99 , 124 , 283 ;

Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even , 284 ;

exhibition at California School of Fine Arts, 285 ;

involvement in experimental film, 211 ;

Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 , 97 , 98 , 205 n.19, 276 ;

relationship with Spohn, 205 n.19;

relationship with the Arensbergs, 205 n.19

Duchamp and Villon (California School of Fine Arts, San Francisco), 285

Duck-Cannon-Firecrackers (Berlin), plate 1

Dufy, Raoul, 108

Dulac, Germaine, 211

Dunham, Katherine, 222

Dunlap, Helena, 169 -70, 277

Durston, Arthur, 173 -74;

Industry , 174 , 174

Duryee, E., 146

Dynaton movement, 24 , 183 , 207 n.50, 209 n.66;

exhibition at San Francisco Museum of Art, 198 -200;

use of non-Western themes and motifs, 202 -3

Dyn journal, 196 -97

E

"Earthquake to Albright: Modernism in Northern California, 1906-1945" (symposium; California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco), xv

East West Gallery of Fine Arts (San Francisco), 181

eclecticism, 178

Ecole de Paris (East West Gallery of Fine Arts, San Francisco), 100 , 280

Edison, Thomas, 144

Edwards, John Paul, 243 , 254

Edwards, Mar), Jeanette, 256 , 258 , 259 , 264

Ehrlich, Susan, 205 n.23

Ehrman, Marli, 112

Eichman, Henry, 131

Einstein, Albert, 22

Eisenstein, Sergei, 211 , 221 , 281

Paul Elder Gallery (San Francisco), 102 , 181

electronic music, 229 , 234

Eliot, T. S., 25

émigré experience, 10

emotion, exploration of, 165

Emperor Jones (Murphy), 212 ,

The Enchanted City (Newcombe), 214 , 215 , 239 n.3

Engel, Jules: Gerald McBoing Boing , 238

Entenza, John, 139

Entr'acte (Clair), 219

Ernst, Max, 44 , 201 , 284 ;

Double Wedding at Beverly Hills , 191 ;

exhibitions, 282 , 286

Esherick, Joseph, 139

European Modernists (Oakland Art Gallery), 102 , 280

Even as You and I (Robbins, Barlow, and Hay), 219 , 220-21

Exercises (James and John Whitney), 228 -29, 230

Exhibition of Modern American Painters (Los Angeles), 278

Exhibition of Paintings of American Modernists, 16n.10

"Experimental Cinema in America" (Jacobs), 236

experimental film, 203 , 211 -23, 236

"The Experimental Film: A New Art in Transition" (Arledge), 236

Experimental Film Society, 233

experimentation, 200 , 207 n.55

expressionism, 25 ;

figurative, 62 , 165 ;

and individual imagination, 43 ;

linear, 13 , 168 -69, 172 ;

and mistrust of rationality, 33 .

See also abstract expressionism; German expressionism

F

f.64. See Group f. 64

Falkenstein, Claire, 11 -12, 17 n.15;

Fertility , 12

Fantasia , 224 , 225

Fantastic Art, Dada, and Surrealism (Museum of Modern Art), 108 , 182 , 185

Fantastic War Machines and Guerragaphs (Spohn), 45 , 50 -55, 54 -55, 63 n.25, 64 n.41

"Farewell to Surrealism" (Paalen), 197

Farm Security Administration (FSA), 245 , 264

Farnsworth, Philo T., 280

Faure, Elie, 122 , 123 -24;

"The Revolution in Art Today," 129

fauvism, 25 , 33 , 161 , 166 , 167

federal arts funding. See United States government, arts funding by

Federal Arts Projects. See United States government, arts funding by

Feininger, Lyonel, 6 , 100 -102, 110 -11, 283 ;

crystal images, 110 ;

exhibition at Oakland Art Gallery, 249 ;

work outlawed in Germany, 110

Feitelson, Lorser, 13 , 34 , 42 , 62 , 280 ;

on artistic environment of Southern California, 158 -59, 160 , 166 ;

Genesis #2 , 184 , 184 -85;

Life Begins , 188 , 189 ;

"New Classicist" exhibition at Centaur Gallery, 282 ;

political orientation of, 43 , 134 ;

postsurrealism of, 182 , 183 -85, 201 -2;

as supervisor for Southern California Federal Art Project, 204 n.16

Fejos, Paul: The Last Moment , 215

Fellows, Thomas, 148

feminist art, 185

Ferenc, F. K., 127

Fertility (Falkenstein), 12


295

Ferus Gallery (Los Angeles), xv , 11

Festival of Modern Poetry (San Francisco), 285

figurative art. See representationalism

film, 13 , 274 ;

dating films, 239 n.3;

musicals, 224 ;

realism in, 172 ;

surrealism in, 200 -201, 207 -8n.56. See also experimental film; film-as-an-art

Filmarte Theatre (Los Angeles), 211 -12, 240 n.19

film-as-an-art, 211 -41;

animation, 238 ;

dating films, 239 n.3;

experimental film, 211 -23, 236 ;

film societies, 233 ;

landscape films, 235 ;

psychodramas, 234 -35;

theaters, museums, and galleries, 211 -12, 227 , 230 , 240 n.19; 35mm, 214 -15;

visual music, 223 -38

Fine Arts, Commission of, 72

Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego (later San Diego Museum of Art), 279

Fine Arts League (Los Angeles), 275

Fireworks (Anger), 223

First Church of Christ Scientist (Berkeley; Maybeck), 275

The First Hypothesis (Howard), 194 , 195

First Pan American Exhibition of Oil Paintings (Los Angeles County Museum), 127 , 130

"First Salon of Pure Photography" (683 Brockhurst gallery, Oakland), 259

"first sensation" movement, 42

First War Winter (Howard), 45 , 194

First World War. See World War I

Fischinger, Oskar, 13 , 224 -27, 232 , 238 , 283 ;

Allegretto , 224 ;

Circles , 224 ;

Composition in Blue , 224 ;

financial support of, 226 -27;

Motion Painting No. 1 , 225 , 226 , 227 ;

An Optical Poem , 224 ;

Radio Dynamics , 226 , 228

Florey, Robert: Jonathan the Coffin Maker , 216 ;

The Life and Death of 9413A Hollywood Extra , 215 -16, 216-17 ;

Loves of Zero , 216

Flux Bouquet (Merrild), 174

Fog in the Harbor (T. L. Hunt), 166 -67

folk art, 167

For Art's Sake , 278

Forbes, Helen, 160

Ford, Henry, 122

Forest Hills Garden (Long Island; Atterbury), 144

Forest Murmurs (Hoffman and Vorkapich), 218

form, essential, 166 , 167

formalism, 15 n.5, 62 , 193

fortune, theme of, 205 n.24

La Fortune, III (Man Ray), 192 , 205 n.23

Foster, Hal, 15 n.5

Foundation of Western Art (Los Angeles), 282

The Four Freedoms (Refregier), 75 , 82

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (Newcombe), 239 n.3

Fragment of Seeking (Harrington), 223

frames, 57

Frances (Kanaga), 260 , 262

Francis, Sam, xv , 108

Frankenstein, Alfred, 4 , 42 , 83 , 282

freedom, 33 ;

art as, 57 ;

as central to surrealism, 181 ;

of western frontier, 201

"free-form" movement, 42

Free Lance Art Club of Los Angeles, 278

French art, influence of, 99 -100, 107 -8

French surrealism, 13

fresco buono , 105

fresco painting, 129

Freud, Sigmund, 196 , 223

Friedrich, Caspar David, 110 -11

Friends of Mexico Foundation, 107

Firm Everett Street (Baranceanu), 171

"From Prehistoric Art to the Blue Four" (Oakland Art Gallery), 102

frontier, freedom of, 201

FSA (Farm Security Administration), 245 , 264

function versus aesthetics, 140 , 142

funk art, 45 , 203

Fussell, Paul, 45

futurism, 98 -99, 167

G

Galerie Beaux Arts (San Francisco), 279

Galileo (Brecht and Laughton), 285

Gamble House (Pasadena; Charles and Henry Greene), 275

Games (Harrington), 223

Garnett, Porter, 4

Gaudier-Brzeska, Henri, 37 n. 16

Gaw, William, 284

Gebhard, David, 10

Gee, Yun, 6 , 7 , 278 , 279

Gehry, Frank O., 139 , 153

Genesis (Lebrun), 106

Genesis #2 (Feitelson), 184 , 184 -85

Genthe, Arnold, 262 ;

Pictures of Old Chinatown , 277

geometric abstraction, 57

George, Myron, 84 , 85

Gerald McBoing Boing (Engel), 238

German art: influence of, 100 -102, 109 -12, 130See also Bauhaus; German expressionism

German expressionism, 6 , 16 n.9

German Warehouse (Richland Center, Wisc.; F. L. Wright), 144

Gerstle, William, 104

gestural painting, 14 , 236

Getty Conservation Institute, 107

Ghosts before Noon (Richter), 219 , 221


296

The Girls of Jermayne MacAgy , (Bischoff), 208 n.64

Gilbert, Cass: United States Army supply base (Brooklyn, N.Y.), 144 , 145 ;

Woolworth Building (New York City), 144

Gill, Irving J., 21 , 143 , 155 n.30;

Clarke House (Santa Fe Springs, Calif.), 149 ;

Dodge House (Hollywood), 149 , 276 ;

Laughton House (Los Angeles), 149 ;

Lee and Teats House (San Diego), 152 ;

Lewis Court (Sierra Madre), 149 ;

purist approach to design, 149 , 152 ;

relationship to California's past, 151 ;

Ellen B. Scripps House (La Jolla), 151 ;

Scripps Recreation Center (La Jolla), 150 ;

use of concrete, 148 -49, 152

Giorgio de Chirico (Stendahl Art Galleries, Los Angeles), 281

Gleizes, Albert, 169

Glendale Art Association, 278

Goldberg, Rube: Automatic Hitler Kicking Machine , 52 , 64 n.30

The Golden Gate before the Bridge, San Francisco, California (Adams), 253

Golden Gate International Exhibition (Treasure Island), 283

Goldfadn, Avrom: Tenth Commandment , 239 n.8

Gold Rush, 69-70

Goldschmidt, Adolph, 109

Goldstein, Philip. See Guston, Philip

Goldsworthy-Clark School of Allied Arts (Los Angeles), 279

Goodhue, Bertram G., 139 , 279

Gorky, Arshile, 46 ;

exhibition at San Francisco Museum of Art, 284

government, U.S., arts funding by. See United States government, arts funding by

Goya, Francisco: Disasters of War; 48

Graham, Martha, 112

Grand Parlor of the Native Sons of the Golden West (NSGW), 77 -78

Grant, Joseph Donohue, 70

Grape Arbor (T. L. Hunt), 167

Great Film Society, 233

Greenberg, Clement, 4 , 15 n.5

Green Dolphin Street (Newcombe), 214

Greene, Charles and Henry, 143 ;

David B. Gamble House (Pasadena), 275

Grey, Elmer, 146

Griffith, D. W.: Intolerance , 214

Grillo, John, 56 , 57

Gropius, Walter, 109 -10

Group f.64, 11 , 245 , 249 -67;

at 683 Brockhurst gallery, 251 , 256 , 258 -59;

aesthetics of, 257 ;

critical reception of, 255 -56;

exhibitions, 252 , 254 -55, 257 , 268 n.22;

exhibition statement of, 252 -54, 268 n. 15;

legacy of, 264 -67;

origin of, 249 -52, 268 n. 15;

women in, 259 -62

Group of Independent Artists of Los Angeles, 163 , 167 , 278

Grove, Otis M., 274

Guernica (Picasso), 46

Guerrero, Xavier, 126

Guggenheim, Peggy, 102 -3, 284

Guggenheimer, Mrs. Caesar, 122

Guggenheim Foundation, 226 , 230 -31

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (New York City), 226 , 231

Guston, Philip (formerly Goldstein), 79 , 122 , 277 ;

American Negro , 281 ;

Tubercular Sanitorium fresco (Los Angeles), 191

Gutmann, John, 282

H

Haas, Richard, 89 , 93 n.58

Hagedorn, Edward, 5 -6, 16 n.9;

The Crowd , plate 2

Hagemeyer, Johan, 257 , 277

Hale, Garrett, 135 n.6

Hale, William, 28

Haley, John, 108

Hall, Manly P., 236

Hammersley, Frederick, 44 , 202

Hammid, Alexander: Aimless Walk222 , 222 ;

portrait of Galka Scheyer, 101

Hansen, Ejnar, 13 , 173

hard-edge abstraction, 42 , 62 , 202

Harmon Foundation of New York, 281

harmony, 26

d'Harnoncourt, René, 122

Harrington, Curtis, 233 ;

Fragment of Seeking , 223 ;

Games , 223 ;

Night Tide,223 ;

On the Edge , 223 ;

What's the Matter with Helen?223

Harrison, William Preston, 276 , 281

Hart, Lawrence, 34

Hartley, Marsden, 161 -62

Hartmann, Sadakichi (Sidney Allan), 126 , 173 , 279

Harvey, David, 14

Hassam, Childe, 275

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 33

Hay, Harry: Even as You and I219 , 220-21 ;

Suicide , 221 -22

Hayden, Bits: Labor Buries Its Dead , 71

Hayter, Stanley William, 202 , 208 n.65

Head, Edith, 130

Hearst newspapers, 73 , 85

Hedrick, Wally, 206 n.36

Heidegger, Martin, 25

Hell, Walter, 73 , 89 , 109

Heinecken, Robert, 201

Helms, McKinley, 134

Henri, Robert, 276 , 279

Henri Rousseau (Peterson), 238

Herms, George, 201 , 202

Hersholt, Jean, 122

Herter, Albert, 279

Heyman, Therese, 10

Hibi, Hisako, 6

Hiler, Hilaire, 85 -86, 92 n.48, 181 ;

San Francisco Aquatic Park mtral, 283 ;

Why Abstract? 282

Hill Bungalow (Los Angeles; Walker and Vawter), 141


297

Hillman system of concrete construction, 148

Hindemith, Paul, 224 , 283

Hinkle, Clarence: Laguna Beach , 166

Hirsh, Hy, 221 ;

Clinic of Stumble , 234 ;

Horror Dream , 234

The History of Art from the Mayas to Walt Disney (Chariot), 132

Hitchcock, Alfred, 130

Hockney, David, 176

Hoffman, John: Bwana Devil , 218 ;

Forest Murmurs , 218 ;

Moods of the Sea , 218 ;

Prelude to Spring , 218

Hofmann, Hans, 107 -8, 129 , 281 ;

Creation in Form and Color , 107 ;

donation of works to University of California at Berkeley, 119 n.17;

exhibition at California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 281 ;

Table with Fruit and Coffeepot , 109

Holder, Preston, 249 -50, 252 , 254

Holland, Leicester B., 104 , 153 , 153 n.1

Hollinger, David, 21

Hollyhock House (Hollywood; E L. Wright), 277

Hollywood, 192

Hollywood Art Association, 277

Hollywood Art Center School, 279

Hollywood Film and Foto League, 219

Hollywood Gallery of Modern Art, 282

Hollywood Hills (Baranceanu), 171

The Hollywood Palladium (Biberman), plate 9 , 176

Holm, Hanya, 112

homosexuality, theme of, 223

Mark Hopkins Institute of Art (later San Francisco Institute of Art and California School of Fine Arts), 275

Hopper, Edward, 284

Hord, Donal, 277

Horn, Walter, 109

Horror Dream (Hirsh and Peterson), 234

House of Cards (Vogel), 235

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), 79

Hover Machine (Spohn), 50 , 51

Howard, Charles, 182 , 193 -95, 202 , 203 n.2;

as designing supervisor of WPA, 194 ;

The First Hypothesis , 194 , 195 ;

First War Winter , 45 , 194 ;

influence of, 206 n.36;

The Progenitors , plate 10 , 193 ;

use of motion, 194

Howard, John Langley: California Industrial Scenes , 105

Howard, Robert, 43

Howe, Thomas Carr, 84 , 89

Howell, Warren, 83

Hultberg, John, 58 , 208 n.65

humanism and freedom, 33

Humboldt Art Club (Humboldt, Calif.), 282

humor, 52 -53, 54

Humphrey, Doris, 112

Hunt, Myron, 146

Hunt, Thomas Lorraine: Fog in the Harbor , 166 -67;

Grape Arbor , 167

Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery (San Marino), 277

Hurtado, Luchita, 197

Huston, John, 122 , 130

Huxley, Aldous, 283

Huxley, Julian, 83 -84

I

idealism, 49 -50

imagination and individuality, 43

imitation: as magical, 31 ;

versus modernism, 15 n.7

impressionism, 157

Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome (Anger), 214

The Indefinite Period (Los Angeles), 134

independence of artists, 158 -59, 161 , 165 -66

Indians, depiction of, 86 , 87 , 88

individuality, 26 ;

GIs' loss of, 56 ;

and imagination, 43 ;

and isolation, 34 , 158 -59, 160

Industries of California (Stackpole), 105

Industry (Durston), 174 , 174

Institute of Design (Oakland), 112 -13

Institute of Light (New York City), 237

International Art Gallery (Los Angeles), 284

International Artists' Club of Los Angeles, 279

internationalism, 61 -62, 134

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, 77

In the Southland, Mt. Baldy, California (Struss), 246

Intolerance (Griffith), 214

Introspection (Arledge), 235 , 235 -36

Irwin, Robert, xv

isolation, 10 ;

of California, 13 ;

desirability of, 166 ;

and individuality, 34 , 158 -59, 160

isolationism, 134

Italian art, influence of, 98 -99, 105

Iwo Jima (Burkhardt), 46

J

Jackson, Donald L., 79

Jackson, Everett Gee, 173

Jacobs, Lewis: "Experimental Cinema in America," 236

Janis, Sidney, 42 , 203 n.2, 285

January, 1955 (Lobdell), 60 , 61

Japanese Camera Club of San Francisco, 281

Japanese Camera Pictorialists of California (Los Angeles), 279

Jarrell, Randall, 45

Jasmine, Arthur (pseud . of Samson DeBrier), 213 , 214

Jawlensky, Alexei, 6 , 100 -102

Jefferson, Jack, 58

Jensen, Alfred, 107

Jepson Art Institute (Los Angeles), 285

Joan Miró exhibition (East West Gallery of Fine Arts), 282

Johnson, Jacqueline, 197 , 207 n.47


298

Johnson, Reginald D., 139

Johnson, Sargent, 276 ;

San Francisco Aquatic Park mural, 283

Jolly Daubers (later Santa Cruz Art League), 277

Jonathan the Coffin Maker (Florey), 216

Jourdan, Albert, 256

Journal of Albion Moonlight (Patchen), 235

Journal of Liberty , 280

Judson, Frank, 240 n.19

Judson, William L., 274

Jung, Carl, 223

K

Kadish, Reuben, 208 n.65;

American Negro , 281 ;

Los Angeles Tubercular Sanitorium fresco, 191

Kahlo, Frida, 281

Kahn, Louis I., 139

Kammen, Michael, 4 , 15 n.3

Kanaga, Consuelo, 254 , 269 n.39;

Frances , 260 , 262 ;

Untitled (Hands) , 261

Kandinsky, Wassily, 6 , 100 -102, 103 , 107

Kasten, Karl, 108

Katz, Leo, 123 , 131 ;

Los Angeles Trade Technical School mural, 134

Kaufmann, Gordon B., 139

Kent, Adaline, 43 , 113

Kepes, Gyorgy, 112

Kessler, Chester: Plague Summer , 235

Kienholz, Edward, xv

kinetic abstraction, 13

King, Al, 227

Kistler, Lynton, 132 , 133

Klee, Paul, 6 , 25 , 100 -102

Klein, Charles: The Tell-Tale Heart , 215 , 238

Klemperer, Otto, 224

Klynn, Herb, 238

Kokoschka, Oskar, 110 , 112

K-I (Krasnow), plate 4

Kosa, Jr., Emil, 173

Krasnow, Peter, 44 , 163 , 168 -69, 230 , 278 ;

K-1 , plate 4

Krishnamurti, Jiddu, 236 , 280

Kroll, Leon, 112

Krombach, Beatrice, 276

Kuchar brothers, 214

Kuhlman, Walter, 58

Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 176

Kupka, František: Piano KeysLake , 236

L

Labaudt, Lucien, 16 n.10, 100 , 206 n.34, 275 ;

"New Classicist" exhibition at Centaur Gallery, 282 ;

postsurrealism of, 185

Labaudt Gallery (San Francisco), 100

Labor Buries Its Dead (Hayden), 71

Laguna Beach (Hinkle), 166

Laguna Beach Art Association, 15 n.7, 277

La Jolla Art Association, 277

La Jolla Art Center (later La Jolla Museum of Art), 284

La Jolla Women's Club building (McCoy), 149

Landauer, Susan, 14 , 208 n.65

landscape films, 235

landscape paintings, 157 -58, 201

Lane, Franklin, 69

Lange, Dorothea, 269 n.39, 277 , 284 ;

Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California , 244 ;

on political nature of photographs, 263 -64

Langsner, Jules, 191

Larkin Building (Buffalo, N.Y.; F. L. Wright), 144

Larsen, Susan, 44

The Last Moment (Fejos), 215

Laughton, Charles: Galileo , 285

Laughton House (Los Angeles; Gill), 149

Lavenson, Alma, 254 , 262

Lawrence, D. H., 25

Leaf Bud (Baranceanu), 170

Lebrun, Rico, 42 , 43 , 62 , 283 , 285 ;

antiwar paintings of, 182 ;

Crucifix , 45 ;

Genesis , 106

Lee and Teats House (San Diego; Gill), 152

Lefebvre, Henri, 22

Léger, Fernand, 108 , 113 -14;

The Divers , 114 , 115 ;

exhibitions, 284

Lehman, Harold: "New Classicist" exhibition at Centaur Gallery, 282

Lehre, Florence, 4

Lemaître, Georges, 194

Levy, Julian, 181 , 193 , 284

Lewis Court (Sierra Madre; Gill), 149

Lhôre, André, 100

Library (Zakheim), 73

The Life and Death of 9413A Hollywood Extra (Florey and Vorkapich), 215 - 16, 216-17

Life Begins (Feitelson), 188 , 189

lift-slab concrete construction, 146 , 148 , 149

linear expressionism, 13 , 168 -69, 172

linguistic creativity, 22

Lipchitz, Jacques, 108

Lloyd, Harold, 227

Lloyd, Lucille, 134

Lobdell, Frank, 45 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 208 n.65;

January, 1955 , 60 , 61 ;

reactionary regionalism of, 62

Logan, Josephine Hancock, 72 , 90 -91n.11

loners, 165 -66, 178 . See also independence of artists; isolation

Long Beach Art Association, 278

Long Beach Businessmen's Sketch Club, 280

longshoremen's strike. See Pacific Maritime Strike

Loos, Adolf, 143

Loran, Erie, 108

Los Angeles: figurative expressionism in, 62 ;

galleries of, 126 (see also specific galleries );

hard-edge abstraction in, 42 , 62 ;

as surrealist, 200 -201. See also Southern California

Los Angeles Art Association (formerly Museum Patrons Association), 282

Los Angeles Art Institute, 274


299

Los Angeles Art League, 279

Los Angeles Arts and Crafts Society, 274

Los Angeles Camera Pictorialists, 276

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 127 , 276

Los Angeles Modern Art Society, 26

Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art (later Los Angeles County Museum of Art), 276

Los Angeles Negro Art Foundation, 283

Los Angeles Print Group, 278 , 280

Los Angeles Sketch Club, 275

Los Angeles Times , 274

loss, theme of, 10

Los Surenos Center (San Diego), 282

Los Tres Grandes, 106 , 122

Lovell Beach House (Newport Beach; Schindler), 278

Loves of Zero (Florey), 216

Luhan, Mabel Dodge, 281

Lullaby (Deutsch), 218 , 218 -19

Lundeberg, Helen, 35 , 134 , 276 ;

Bombardment , 176 ;

Cosmicide , 185 , 186 , 188 ;

Double Portrait of the Artist in Time , 185 , 187 ;

Microcosm and Macrocosm , 35 , 174 , 176 ;

"New Classicist" exhibition at Centaur Gallery, 282 ;

Plant and Animal Analogies , plate 8 , 174 ;

postsurrealism of, 182 , 183 -85;

Self-Portrait , 176

Luz (Chariot), 133

Lyons, Gordon A., 82

M

MacAgy, Douglas, 52 , 64 n.39, 97 ;

as director of California School of Fine Arts, 57 , 104 -5, 285 ;

on Grillo, 56 ;

on Howard, 194 -95;

on Rivera, 104 -5;

support of surrealism, 203 n.2

MacAgy, Jermayne, 208 n.64

McBride, Henry, 4

McChesney, Robert, 55 ;

The Communist Manifesto in Pictures , 285

McCoy, Esther, 143 ;

Banning House (Los Angeles), 149 ;

La Jolla Women's Club building, 149

McCray, James, 44

Macdonald-Wright, Stanton, 16 n.10, 163 , 274 , 284 ;

California Landscape , plate 3 ;

Color Wheel, 23 ;

focus on process of vision, 23 -24;

Motion Picture Industry , 282 ;

need for isolation, 159 ;

synchromism, 8 , 167 ;

Synchromism exhibition (Los Angeles County Museum), 280

MacDowell Club of Allied Arts (Los Angeles), 277

McFarlane, James, 41

McGehee, Ramiel, 263

McGregor, Harry, 83 , 84

machine aesthetic, 57

machine age and freedom, 33

machinery, 23

McIlwain House (Los Angeles; Patterson), 148

McKeever, Chauncey, 83 , 84

McLaughlin, John, 5 , 42 , 44 , 62 , 285 ;

hard-edge abstraction of, 202 ;

search for absolute void, 208 n.63;

Untitled , 5

McWilliams, Carey, 1 , 14 n.1

magic: aesthetics of, 32 ;

in popular culture, 31 , 32

Magritte, René, 184 ;

Black Flag , 52

Maillard, William, 83 , 92 n.47

The Making of a Fresco Showing the Budding of a City (Rivera), 104 , 104 -5

Malraux, André, 283

Man at the Crossroads (Rivera), 73

Mann, Thomas, 110 , 284

Mannerism, 167

Marin Society of Artists, 280

Markopoulos, Gregory: Psyche , 223

Marsh, Norman: arcades at Venice, Calif., 3

Martin, Fletcher, 123

Martínez, Luis, 127

Marx, Karl, 66 n.70

material environment and human body, 163

Mathews, Arthur F., 86 , 275 ;

Adventure , 87 ;

Philopolis magazine, 92 n.51

Matisse, Henri, 10 , 100 , 108 , 110 , 281

Matta, Roberto, 196 , 204 n.6, 206 n.40

Maugard, Adolfo Best, 126

Maurois, André, 110

Mayan Theatre (Los Angeles), 127

Maybeck, Bernard, 98 ;

Anthony House (Los Angeles), 152 -53;

First Church of Christ Scientist (Berkeley), 275

Mediterranean/Hispanic revival in architecture, 141 , 144

Mendelsohn, Eric, 139

Mérida, Carlos, 103 , 125

Merriam, Frank, 70

Merrild, Knud, 134 , 279 ;

Aesthetic Function in Space , 188 ;

Alpha and Omega , 188 , 189 ;

American Beauty, or the Movie Star , 2 ;

Flux Bouquet , 174 ;

flux paintings of, 191 ;

"New Classicist" exhibition at Centaur Gallery, 282 ;

Perpetual Possibility , 190 , 191 ;

postsurrealism of, 185 , 187 ;

Sidereal Parturition , 174 , 175

Meshes of the Afternoon (Deren), 222 , 222 -23

Metart Gallery (San Francisco), 286

Metropolitan Lift (Arnautoff), 105 , 106

Mexican art: alternate view of modern art, 129 ;

and anti-Mexican bias, 126 ;

exhibition at Plaza Art Center, 127 ;

First Pan American Exhibition of Oil Paintings (Los Angeles County Museum), 127 , 130 ;

fresco painting, 129 ;

graphic movement, 130 ;

The Indefinite Period (Los Angeles), 134 ;

influence of, 103 -7, 121 -35;

marginalization of, 122 ;

murals, 124 , 129 , 134 ;


300

Mexican art (continued )

nationalism in, 130 ;

Pach's advocacy of, 123 -26, 127 ;

patrons of, 122 ;

pre-Cortesian elements of, 121 , 135 ;

support from Hollywood intellectuals, 130

Meyer, Frederick H., 275

Microcosm and Macrocosm (Lundeberg), 35 , 174 , 176

Midway Gardens (Chicago; F. L. Wright), 144

Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California (Lange), 244

Milhaud, Darius, 283

Miller, Barse, 172

Miller, Henry, 92 n.48, 284

Millier, Arthur, 4 , 15 -16n.7, 280 ;

defense of postsurrealists, 24 ;

on the eastern perspective on California, 15 n.2;

on landscapes, 158 -58;

on Macdonald-Wright, 159 ;

on Mexican art, 129

Mill in the Eucalyptus Grove (Beckmann), 115 -16

Mills College (Oakland), 13 , 110 , 112 , 279 ;

exhibition of Group f.64, 255 , 268 n.22

Mills College Amphitheater (Cunningham), 261

Mills #2, 1940 (L. Moholy-Nagy), 113

minimalism, 202

Miró, Joan, 102 , 282

mission-revival architecture, 140 , 142 , 144 , 151 , 152

MobilColor Projectors, 230 -31, 231 , 232 -33

mobiles, 52

Modern American Art (Panama California International Exposition), 276

Modern Art Society (Los Angeles), 277

Modern Art Workers (Southern California), 279

modern era, 22

Modern Gallery (San Francisco; later Art Center), 279

Modern Institute of Art (Beverly Hills), 182 , 285

modernism: alternative, 4 , 34 ;

antiscientific, 25 ;

as broad-based middle-class culture, 22 ;

centrality of architecture and design in, 8 ;

criticism of, 15 -16n.7;

definition of, 4 -5, 15 n-5, 21 -22, 34 ;

Latin American origin of term, 135 n.1

"Modernismo," 135 n.1

modernization and social stratification, 31 -32

Modern Music (Schwankovsky), 236 , 237

Modotti, Tina, 126

Moholy-Nagy, László, 112 , 283 ;

Mills #2, 1940 , 113

Moholy-Nagy, Sybil, 113 , 198

MoMA (Museum of Modern Art;

New York City), 108 , 231

Monasterio, Luis Ortiz, 122

Mondrian, Pier, 25 , 108

Monolithic Hollow Concrete Form Corp., 148

montage, 30

Montenegro, Roberto, 122

Monterey Cypress (Weston), 248

Moods of the Sea (Hoffman and Vorkapich), 218

Mooney, Tom, 81

Moore, Charles, 139

Mora, Joseph Jacinto, 276

Morado, José Chávez, 122

Morgan, Julia, 274

Morgenthau, Henry, 74

Moritz, William, 13

Morley, Grace McCann, 108 , 282 , 285 ;

defense of Refregier's Rincon Annex murals, 84 , 92 n.43;

founding of San Francisco Museum of Art, 100 ;

promotion of surrealism, 182 , 203 n.2;

promotion of traveling exhibitions, 42

Morning, Nogales, Arizona (Reiffel), 163 -64

Morphosis group, 153

Motrin, Peter, 16 n.8

Morrow, Dwight, 129

Mortensen, William, 245

Mortensen School of Photography (Laguna Beach), 281

Moss, Eric Owen, 139 , 153

Mother's Day (Broughton), 234

Motherwell, Robert, 62 , 197 , 283

Motion Painting No. 1 (Fischinger), 225 , 226 , 227

Motion Picture Industry (Macdonald-Wright), 282

motion pictures. See film; film-as-an-art

Mouse Seeds (Spohn), 53

movies. See film; film-as-an-art

Mullican, Lee, 183 , 196 , 197 ;

the Dynaton, 198 -200;

interest in counterculture, 203 ;

Peyote Candle , 198 , 199 ;

retrospective at San Francisco Museum of Art, 198

Munch, Edvard, 98

Municipal Arts Commission of Los Angeles, 275

Muñoz, Francisco Orozco, 125

murals: by Ballin, 134 ;

by Lebrun, 106 ;

by Orozco, 73 , 106 , 281 ;

by Ramos Martínez, 130 -31, 131 -32;

by Rivera, 103 , 104 , 104 -5, 124 , 126 , 281 , 284 ;

by Siqueiros, 106 -7, 122 , 130 , 132 , 282 .

See also Coit Memorial Tower murals; Rincon Annex murals

Murphy, Dudley, 122 , 130 ;

Anywhere out of the World , 212 ;

Aphrodite , 212 ;

Ballet Mécanique , 211 -12;

Emperor Jones , 212 ;

St. Louis Blues , 212 ;

The Soul of the Cypress , 212

Museum of Modern Art (MoMA; New York City), 108 , 231

Museum of Non-Objective Painting. See Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

Museum of Unknown and Little-Known Objects (Spohn), 53 , 205 n.19

Museum Patrons Association


301

(later Los Angeles Art Association), 282

mysticism, 236

N

Nabis, 98

Nash, Paul, 194

nationalism, 122 , 130

National Society for Sanity in Art, 72

Native Sons of the Golden West, Grand Parlor of the (NSGW), 77 -78

Nauman, Bruce, 11

Naumann, Francis M., [97 n.2]

Nazimova, Alla: Salomé , 212 , 213 , 214 , 239 n.3

Neal, Will E., 83 , 92 n.49

Neff, Wallace, 139

Neidringhaus, Charles, 112

Nemeth, Ted, 232

Neuhaus, Eugen, 102

Neumeyer, Alfred, 13 , 111 , 114 ;

rescue of German art and artists, 109 -12

Neutra, Richard J., 8 , 9 , 129 , 139 , 280 ;

hidden structure in designs of, 152 , 153

Nevelson, Louise, 107

New Bauhaus (Oakland), 112 -13

new classicism. See postsurrealism

Newcombe, Warren, 172 -73;

Enchanted City , 239 n.3;

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse , 239 n.3;

involvement in film, 214

New Deal, 72 , 74 , 79 , 86 , 91 n.31, 243 -45. See also United States government, arts funding by; and specific programs

Newhall, Nancy, 252

New York City, 67 n.80;

California artists drawn to, 111 ;

modernism focused in, 4 -5, 61 , 157 , 158 -59, 161

New York School, 55 , 65 n.50, 108 , 197 ;

and film, 230 ;

gestural painting, 236 . See also abstract expressionism

Nierendorf, Karl, no, 226

Nieto, Margarita, 10 , 13

Night SunAbandoned Playground (Man Ray), 192

Night Tide (Harrington), 223

Nixon, Richard, 78 , 79

Noriega, Alfonso, 125

Noskowiak, Sonya, 254 , 259 , 260 , 269 n.37;

Cypress, Point Lobos, Carmel, California , 266

Notes on the Port of St. Francis (Stauffacher), 235

novelty, 22

Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (Duchamp), 97 , 98 , 205 n-19, 276

Nuestro Pueblo (Watts Towers; Rodia), 28 -32, 29 , 278

O

Oakland Art Association, 277

Oakland Art Gallery, 100 , 102 , 249 , 280 , 281

Oakland Museum, 100

Oakland Quarry (Siegrist), 6

Obata, Chiura, 274

Occidental College (Los Angeles), 276

Ocular Harpsichord, 224

O'Keeffe, Georgia, 168 , 170

Old Embryo (Spohn), 53

Oldfield, Otis, 7 , 99 , 100 , 279

Oliveira, Nathan, 116 , 118 ;

Seated Man with Object , 117

Olmstead, Frederick Law, 70

Olvera Street Gallery (Los Angeles), 129 , 130

Onderdonk, Francis S., 143 -44

One Way Road (Burkhardt), 46

One World (Burkhardt), 49 -50

Onslow-Ford, Gordon, 181 , 183 , 195 -200, 197 , 204 n.6, 206 n.40;

coulages of, 206 n.41;

the Dynaton, 198 -200;

exhibitions at the San Francisco Museum of Art, 197 -98, 285 ;

interest in counterculture, 203 ;

lectures on surrealism, 196 ;

A Stone That Dreamed , 198 , 199 ;

Towards a New Subject in Painting , 198

On the Edge (Harrington), 223

Open Air Painting Schools, 129 , 130

Optical Hopes and Illusions (Man Ray), 192

Optical Longings and Illusions (Man Ray), 192

An Optical Poem (Fischinger), 224

organic surrealism, 188

Orozco, José Clemente, 105 , 122 , 125 , 130 ;

Prometheus , 73 , 106 , 281

Otis, Harrison Gray, 277

Otis Art Institute (Los Angeles), 127 , 227 , 277

The Overland Trail (Refregier), 81

Owen, Wilfred, 45

Owngz (Berlin), 167

Oxnard Art Club, 279

P

Paalen, Wolfgang, 24 -25, 183 , 196 -97, 206 n.38;

the Dynaton, 196 , 198 -299, 207 n.50;

"Farewell to Surrealism," 197 ;

publication of Dyn , 197 -98

Pabst, G. W., 221

Pach, Walter, 122 , 123 -26, 127 ;

"The Greatest American Masters," 124

Pacific Art League (formerly Palo Alto Art Club), 278

Pacific Arts and Crafts News , 275

Pacific Concrete Machinery Co., 144

Pacific Maritime Strike, 70 , 71 , 75 , 77

Pacific Rim, influence of, 196 , 200 , 207 n.54

Pacific Southwest Exhibition (Long Beach), 280

Packard, Emmy Lou, 89

Padilla, Ezequiel, 125

Painters' and Sculptors' Club of Los Angeles, 278

Painters' Club of Los Angeles (later California Art Club), 274 , 275

Painters of the West (Los Angeles), 279


302

painting: figurative, 118 ;

frescoes, 129 ;

gestural, 14 , 236

Palace of Fine Arts (San Francisco), 98

Palo Alto Art Club (later Pacific Art League), 279

Panama California International Exposition (San Diego), 276

Panama-Pacific International Exposition (San Francisco), 16 n.10, 98 , 161 , 276

Pan-Pacific Auditorium Building (Los Angeles; Wurdeman and Becket), 282

Paradise, Phil, 123 , 166 , 172

Paris International Surrealist Exhibition , 196

Park, David, 57 , 284 , 286

The Parting (Burkhardt), 47 -48

Partridge, Roi, 257 , 260 , 277

Pasadena Art Institute, 279

Pasadena Society of Artists, 279

Pasadena Society of Women Painters and Sculptors, 280

Patchen, Kenneth: Journal of Albion Moonlight , 235

Patterson, H. M.: W. R. McIlwain House (Los Angeles), 148

Paul, Stella, xv

Pelton, Agnes, 160 -61, 281

Pelton Concrete Tile wall, 148

perceptual art vs. cognitive art, 37 n.16

Performing Painter (John Whitney, Crippen, and Pintoff), 238

Perl's Gallery (Los Angeles), 283

Perpetual Possibility (Merrild), 190 , 191

personal world vs. universal laws, 26 -27

Peterson, Sidney: Clinic of Stumble , 234 ;

Henri Rousseau , 238 ;

Horror Dream , 234 ;

The Potted Psalm , 203 , 233 ;

Raoul Dufy , 238 ;

Sharaku , 238

Peyote Candle (Mullican), 198 , 199

Pflueger, Timothy, 104

Phillips, Duncan, 43

Philopolis journal, 92 n.51, 275

Philosophical Research Society, 236

photograph); 243 -49;

camera clubs, 245 , 267 n.2;

documentary, 245 ;

for government reports, 244 -45;

as means of personal expression, 253 ;

pictorialist, 245 -47, 249 , 252 ;

for political purposes, 262 , 263 -64;

and psychology of neglect, 10 ;

Rayographs, 192 , 201 ;

in regional art, 201 ;

straight seeing, 246 -47, 249 (see also Group f.64);

use of light, 262 ;

veracity of, 245

Piano KeysLake (Kupka), 236

Piazzoni, Gottardo, 99

Picabia, Francis, 211

Picasso, Pablo: Guernica , 46

Picasso: Forty Years of His Art (Museum of Modern Art), 108

pictorialist photography, 245 -47, 249 , 252

Pictures of Old Chinatown (Genthe), 277

Pintoff, Ernie: Blues Pattern , 238 ;

Performing Painter , 238

Plague Summer (Kessler), 235

Plant and Animal Analogies (Lundeberg), plate 8 , 174

Plante, Michael, 17 n.15

Plaza Art Center (Los Angeles), 127

piein-air painting, 15 n.7

poetry, 23 , 45

Poggioli, Renato, 22

pointillism, 161

politics of art: art as aloof from politics, 107 ;

art for social/political reform, 132 ;

internationalism versus isolationism, 134 ;

leftist orientation of, 191 , 205 n.17;

modernism viewed as communistic, 78 -79;

modernism viewed as un-American, 72 -73, 90 -91n.11;

photography for government reports, 244 -45, 262 , 263 -64;

reaction to World War II, 45 , 46 , 50 ;

surrealism as political revolution, 203 -4n.3

Pollock, Jackson, 13 , 102 -3, 122 , 176 , 277 ;

exhibition at San Francisco Museum of Art, 285 ;

influence of surrealism on, 208 n.64;

training in art, 236 -38

pop art, 201

popular culture, magic in, 31 , 32

populist imagery, 173

Portrait (Berlin), 167 , 168

portraiture, 173

Posada, José Guadalupe: Ministry of Education murals, 130

Postel, Waldo, 77 -78, 82

postimpressionism, 16 n.8, 161 , 167

postmodernism, 1 , 11 , 153 , 167 , 178

postsurrealism, 13 , 282 ;

cognitive association, 24 ;

metaphysical themes of, 184 -85, 204 n.6;

museum exhibitions, 203 n.2;

versus surrealism, 182 , 183 , 184 , 201 , 208 n.58

postwar art. See World War II: art after

Potboiler Art Center (Los Angeles), 278

The Potted Psalm (Broughton and Peterson), 203 , 233

Pound, Ezra, 23 , 37 n.16

Preaching and Farming at Mission Dolores (Refregier), 88

precisionism, 41 , 168 , 169

pre-Columbian-style architecture 141

prefigurative image, 25

Prelude to Spring (Hoffman), 218

Preparedness Day Bombing and Mooney Trial (Refregier), 81

Prestini, James, 112 , 113

Preston Holder (Willard Van Dyke), 250

primitivism, 167

Printmakers of Los Angeles, 276

Printmakers Society of California (Los Angeles), 278

The Progenitors (Howard), plate 10 , 193

progressivism, 15 n.7


303

Prometheus (Orozco), 73 , 106 , 281

provincialism, 158

Psyche (Markopoulos), 233

psychodramas, 234 -35

psychology, of neglect, 10

Public Buildings Administration, 75 . See also Rincon Annex murals

Public Works, House Committee on: hearings on Refregier's Rincon Annex murals, 69 , 78 -79, 81 -86, 88 -89, 92 nn.39, 49

Public Works of Art Project (PWAP), 72 , 73 , 105 , 282

public works programs (New Deal), 72 . See also specific programs

pueblos, 141

Puthuff, Hanson Duvall, 275

Putzel, Howard, 102 -3, 122 , 181 , 196

PWAP (Public Works of Art Project), 72 , 73 , 105 , 282

R

Radio Dynamics (Fischinger), 226 , 228

Rainy Evening (Reiffel), 164 , 165

Ramos Martínez, Alfredo, 122 , 129 -31, 134 , 281 ;

Chapman Park Hotel mural, 131 ;

exhibition at Louis Stern Gallery (Beverly Hills), 135 n.8;

Margaret Fowler Memorial Garden mural (Scripps College, Claremont), 131 , 131-32 ;

Open Air Painting Schools, 129 , 130 ;

retrospective at Museo Nacional de Arte (Mexico), 135 n.8;

Santa Barbara Cemetery murals, 130 -31;

Vendedora de Frutas (Fruit Seller) , plate 6

Ransome, Ernest L., 144

Raoul Dufy (Peterson), 238

rationality mistrust of, 33

Ray, Man (pseud . of Emmanuel Rudnitsky), 283 ;

circle of friends of, 192 -93;

dadaism of, 191 -93;

exhibitions, 192 , 205 n.25, 284 , 285 ;

involvement in experimental film, 211 ;

La Fortune, III , 192 , 205 n.23;

lectures on surrealism, 194 ;

NightSunAbandoned Playground , 192 ;

Optical Hopes and Illusions , 192 ;

Optical Longings and Illusions , 192 ;

and pop art, 201 ;

Rayographs, 192 , 201 ;

relationship with the Arensbergs, 205 n.19;

Shakespearian Equations , 193 ;

on surrealism in Hollywood, 181

realism, 172 , 173 ;

academic, 164 -65;

allegories of strife and despair, 45

Rebay yon Ehrenwiesen, Baroness Hilla, 226 , 230 -32, 240 n.17

Recreation and Park Department, 105 -6

Reed, Alma, 122

Refregier, Anton, 76 ;

conservative style of, 90 n.3;

depiction of Indians, 86 , 87 , 88 ;

suspected radical politics of, 69 , 79 . See also Rincon Annex murals

regionalism, 1 -2, 149 , 151 ;

and independence, 13 ;

versus internationalism, 61 -62;

marginalization of regional art, 5 ;

photography, 201 . See also American Scene painting

Reichek, Jesse, 113

Reiffel, Charles, 13 , 166 , 174 ;

memorial exhibition at San Diego Fine Arts Gallery, 164 ;

Rainy Evening , 165

Reinhardt, Ad, 55 , 286

religion and freedom, 33

religious allegory and war, 45 , 46

representationalism, 25 , 118 , 161 -63;

fictional nature of, 30 ;

figurative expressionism in, 62 , 165 ;

versus modernism, 15 n.7, 30

Republican Party, 78 -79

residual cultures, 36 n.6

Ret, Etienne, 282

Rexroth, Kenneth, 280

Rich, Daniel Catton, 66 -67n.76

Richey, Roubaix de L'Abrie, 126

Richter, Hans: Ghosts before Noon , 219 , 221

Rincon Annex murals (Refregier), 10 , 74 , 74 -93, 76 , 92 n.43;

Building the Railroad , 80 ;

The Civil War , 81 ;

Discovery of Gold , 81 ;

The Four Freedoms , 75 , 82 ;

hearings on subversiveness of, 69 , 78 -79, 81 -86, 88 -89, 92 nn.39, 49;

objections from Catholic Church, 75 ;

objections from Public Buildings Administration, 75 , 77 ;

objections from Veterans of Foreign Wars, 75 ;

The Overland Trail , 81 ;

Preaching and Farming at Mission Dolores , 88 ;

Preparedness Day Bombing and Mooney Trial , 81 ;

Renaissance roots of, 90 n.3;

Sand Lot Riots , 80 , 81 ;

support from artists and unions, 77 , 78 , 83 , 89 ;

support from museums, 84 ;

Vigilante Days , 85 ;

The Waterfront1934 , 77 , 81

Ritual in Transfigured Time (Deren), 223

Rivera, Diego, 103 -6, 108 , 122 , 123 -24;

California School of Fine Arts mural, 281 ;

Chapingo murals, 126 ;

Detroit Institute of Art murals, 124 ;

Día de Flores , 127 , 128 ;

exhibitions, 125 , 281 ;

Golden Gate International Exposition mural, 284 ;

The Making of a Fresco Showing the Building of a City , 104 , 104 -5;

Man at the Crossroads , 73 ;

Ministry of Public Education murals, 124 ;

Rockefeller Center mural, 105 , 124 ;

Stock Exchange Lunch Club mural (San Francisco), 281 ;

Stock Exchange Tower mural, 103

Riviera/Capri Theatre (Los Angeles), 233

Robbins, LeRoy: Even as You and I , 219 , 220-21 ;

Suicide , 221 -22

Roberts House (Los Angeles; Corbett), 146 , 147


304

Robledo, Ricardo Gémez, 126

Rock and Shell Arrangement (E. Weston), 263

Rockefeller, Abby, 122

Rockefeller, Nelson, 73 , 122

Rockefeller Foundation, 127 , 129

Rock of Ages (Deutsch), 167

Rodia, Sabato, 10 ;

Nuestro Pueblo (Watts Towers), 28 -32, 29 , 278

Raymond Rohauer's Film Society, 233

The Rolling Fort (Spohn), 50 , 51 , 52

Rollins, Lloyd La Page, 257

Romains, Jules, 110

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 105 ;

New Deal, 72 , 243 -45

Rose, Stanley, 122 , 282

Rosenberg, Harold, 4

Rothko, Mark, 202 ;

exhibition at Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 285 ;

influence of surrealism on, 208 n.64;

Slow Swirl by the Edge of the Sea , 208 n.64

Ruscha, Edward, xv , 11 , 176

Russell, C. H.: arcades at Venice, Calif., 3

Russell, Morgan, 8 , 163 , 281 ;

Synchromism exhibition (Los Angeles County Museum), 280

Ryder, Worth, 107

S

Sailors' Union of the Pacific, 79

St. Lords Blues (Murphy), 212

Salinger, Jehanne Bietry, 4

Salomé (film; Bara), 214

Salomé (film; Nazimova), 212 , 213 , 214 , 239 n.3

Salomé (play; Wilde), 212 , 213 , 214 , 239 n.3

Sample, Paul, 172

San Diego Academy of Art, 275

San Diego Academy of Fine Arts, 278

San Diego Art Association, 274

San Diego Art Guild, 276

San Diego Art Students' League, 275

San Diego Fine Arts Society, 279

San Diego Friends of Art, 277

San Diego Moderns, 281

San Diego Museum of Art (formerly Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego), 279

San Diego Society of Arts and Crafts, 276 , 280

Sand Lot Riots (Refregier), 80 , 81

San Francisco: abstract expressionism in, 42 , 67 n.80;

anxiety over World War II, 54 ;

longshoremen's strike (see Pacific Maritime Strike); sense of community, in, 195 -96;

versus Southern California, 160 . See also California School of Fine Arts

San Francisco (film; Van Dyke II), 218

San Francisco (painting; Beckmann), 115 -16

San Francisco Art Association, 277

San Francisco Artists' and Writers' Union, 73 , 105

San Francisco Chronicle , 105 , 255

San Francisco Examiner , 73 , 85

San Francisco Institute of Art (formerly Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, later California School of Fine Arts), 275

San Francisco Museum of Art, 42 , 108 , 182 , 278 , 282 ;

Art in Cinema festivals, 233 , 236 ;

Dynaton exhibition, 198 -200;

exhibitions of abstract expressionism, 114 -15;

founding of, 100

San Francisco Photo Salon, 274

San Francisco Society of Artists, 277

San Francisco Society of Women Artists, 160 , 279

Santa Barbara Art Club, 279

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 284

Santa Barbara School of Fine Arts, 278

Santa Cruz Art League (formerly Jolly Daubers), 277

Santa Fe-style architecture, 141

Santa Monica Bay Art Association, 280

Sassoon, Siegfried, 45

Sausalito (Stauffacher), 235

Sawdust and Spangles (San Francisco Museum of Art), 64 n.39

Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design (San Francisco), 279

Scherer, Gordon, 84

Scheyer, Galka, 6 , 16 n.9, 100 -102, 101 , 103 , 226 ;

promotion of European avant-garde art, 249 , 267 n.7

Schiele, Egon, 171

Schindler, Rudolph M., 8 , 139 , 152 , 153 , 249 ;

Lovell Beach House (Newport Beach), 278

Schmidt-Rottluff, Karl, 111 -12

Schoelkopf, Alice, 113

Schoenberg, Arnold, 282

School of Design (Chicago), 112

School of Illustration and Painting (Los Angeles), 276

School of Mexican Painting, 129 , 130

Schwankovsky, Frederick, 13 , 236 -37;

Modern Music , 236 , 237

science: disillusionment with, 66 n.62;

and freedom, 33

scientism: aesthetics of, 32 ;

of modernism, 22 -27

Scripps College (Claremont), 280

Scripps House (La Jolla; Gill), 151

Scripps Recreation Center (La Jolla; Gill), 150

Scudder, Hubert, 69 , 79 -82, 83 , 84 , 86 , 89 -90n.2, 92 n.38

Sculptors' Guild of Southern California, 278

The Sea of Dreams (Newcombe), 214

Seated Man with Object (Oliveira), 117

Secessional Art Exhibition (San Francisco), 274

Second World War. See World War II

Section (Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture), 74 -75, 85 , 91 n.18, 282


305

Seeley, Evelyn, 73 -74

self-consciousness, transcendental unit), of, 32

self-invention, 11 -12

Self-Portrait (Lundeberg), 176

Selz, Peter, 13

Selznick, David O., 214

Serisawa, Sueo, 173

Shahn, Ben, 122

Shakespearian, Equations (Man Ray), 193

Sharaku (Peterson), 238

Sheeler, Charles, 168 , 171

Sheets, Millard, 13 , 45 , 107 , 123 , 131 , 166 ;

Abandoned , 171 ;

Angel's Flight , 171

Shelley, John, 82 -83, 88

Sherman, William Tecumseh, 70

Sherwood, Robert E., 239 n.3

Shore, Henrietta, 169 -70, 276 ;

California Data , 170 ;

exhibition at Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art, 277 ;

Waterfall , 170

Sidereal Parturition (Merrild), 174 , 175

Siegrist, Louis, 6 ;

Oakland Quarry , 6

Sinclair, Upton, 70

Singal, Daniel Joseph, 21 , 36 n.3

Siqueiros, David Alfaro, 105 , 129 ;

influence on Los Angeles muralists, 134 ;

Olvera Street mural, 122 ;

on sociopolitical use of art, 132 , 134 ;

Tropical America , 106 -7, 130 , 132 , 282

Six Gallery, 203 , 209 n.67

683 Brockhurst gallery (Oakland), 251 , 256 , 264 -65;

"First Salon of Pure Photography" exhibition, 259

Slinkard, Rex, 13 , 26 , 161 -63, 275 ;

memorial exhibition at Los Angeles Museum of Art, 277 ;

Young Rivers (Riders) , 162

Sloan, John, 15 n.6

Sloun, Frank van, 275

Slow Swirl by the Edge of the Sea (Rothko), 208 n.64

Smith, Bertha H., 149

Smith, George Washington, 139

Smith, Harry, 233 , 234

Smith, Hassel, 55 , 56 , 57 , 65 n.51, 100 ;

The Communist Manifesto in Pictures , 285 ;

reactionary regionalism of, 62

Smith, Jack, 214

Smith, Mrs. George Washington, 130 -31

Smith, Tony, 238

Société Anonyme, 192

Society for Sanity in Art (San Francisco; formerly Society of Western Artists), 79 , 283

Society of Cinema Arts, 233

Society of Independent Artists (New York City), 124

Society of Mexican Artists, 124

Society of Six, 6 , 16 n.8, 100 , 278

Society of Western Artists (San Francisco; later Society for Sanity in Art), 79 , 283

The Soul of the Cypress (Murphy), 212

Sound Pendulum, 228 , 229

Southern California, 192 ;

artistic independence in, 158 -59;

isolation of, 166 ;

versus San Francisco, 160 . See also Los Angeles

Southern California Art Dealers' Association, 280

Southern California Art Project (Works Progress Administration), 43

Southern California Film Society, 240 n.19

South of Market Boys Association, 82

Southwest Museum (Los Angeles), 275

space and time fluidity, theme of, 196

Spanish Colonial revival in architecture, 139

Spanish Village Art Center (San Diego), 283

Speed, Joshua, 70

Speicher, Eugene, 112

Spohn, Clay, 11 , 64 nn.28, 31, 202 , 203 n.2;

as art instructor, 57 ;

Balloonic Uplifters , 50 ;

Bedroom Fluff , 53 ;

comedic talent of, 52 -53;

Fantastic War Machines and Guerragraphs , 45 , 50 -55, 63 n.25, 64 n.41;

Hover Machine , 50 , 51 ;

Mouse Seeds , 53 ;

Museum of Unknown and Little-Known Objects , 53 , 205 n.19;

Old Embryo , 53 ;

relationship with Duchamp, 205 n.19;

The Rolling Fort , 50 , 51 , 52 ;

Spy Detector , 50 ;

Tornado Machine , 50 ;

The Unsinkable Fort , 53 ;

Wake Up and Live , 54 -55;

Wind Machine , 52

Spy Detector (Spohn), 50

Stable Gallery (New York City), 16 n.14

Stackpole, Peter: Willard Van Dyke with View Camera , 265

Stackpole, Ralph, 99 -100;

Industries of California , 105

Stanley, George, 134

Starr, Kevin, 4

State Normal School of Manual Arts (Santa Barbara), 275

Stauffacher, Frank, 233 , 285 ;

Notes on the Port of St. Francis , 235 ;

Sausalito , 235

Stein, Michael and Sara, 108

Stendahl, Earl, 122 , 278

Stendahl Art Galleries (Los Angeles), 134 , 183 , 278

Stendahl (Earl) Prize, 127

Stern, Mrs. Sigmund, 122

Sternberg, Josef yon, 122

Sterne, Maurice, 100

Stich, Sidra, 52 , 205 n.28

Stickney Memorial Art School (Pasadena), 276

Stieglitz, Alfred, 165 , 251 , 256

Stijl, De, 193

Still, Clyfford, 42 , 114 , 286 ;

affirmative shift of, 66 n.67;

anticlassicism of, 57 -58;

antisurrealist sentiments of, 202 ;

as art instructor, 57 , 65 n.60;

exhibitions, 284 ;

political orientation of, 55 ;


306

Still, Clyfford (continued )

reactionary regionalism of, 62 ;

use of red and black by, 43

Stillman, George, 56

Stock Exchange Tower mural (Rivera), 103

Stone International Gallery (Monrovia), 279

A Stone That Dreamed (Onslow-Ford), 198 , 199

The Storm Tree (Brigman), 247

Strand, Paul, 251 , 267 n.10

Stravinsky, Igor, 283

Struss, Karl: In the Southland, Mt. Baldy, California , 246

Stryker, Roy, 244

stucco, 142 , 144 , 149

Sturtevant, Roger, 257 , 269 n.27

subjective classicism. See postsurrealism

subjectivity, 27 , 30 , 43

suffering, theme of, 48 -49, 58 , 61

Suicide (Hay and Robbins), 221 -22

Sunset Boulevard Art School (Los Angeles), 277

Sunset Boulevard at Everett Street (Baranceanu), 171

surrealism, 25 , 181 -209;

abstract, 196 ;

Arensberg collection, 183 , 204 n.5;

attitude toward women, 204 n.9;

dialectic of order and chaos, 193 , 195 , 205 n.28;

European influences on, 181 -83, 200 -201, 207 -8n.56;

exhibition in Mexico, 196 ;

in film, 200 -201, 207 -8n.56;

fortune or chance as theme in, 205 n.24, 206 n.41;

freedom as central to, 181 ;

French, 13 ;

and Freud, 196 , 223 ;

gallery exhibitions, 181 -82;

humanity as barbaric, view of, 52 ;

and individual imagination, 43 ;

lectures by Dalí, 194 ;

lectures by Lemaître, 194 ;

lectures by Man Ray, 194 ;

lectures by Onslow-Ford, 196 ;

leftist orientation of, 191 , 205 n.17;

the marvelous, 193 -94;

and mistrust of rationality, 33 ;

museum exhibitions, 182 , 203 n.2;

organic, 188 ;

Paris International Surrealist Exhibition , 196 ;

as political revolution, 203 -4n.3;

versus postsurrealism, 182 , 183 , 184 , 201 , 208 n.58;

reality versus fiction in, 192 . See also automatism

Swerling, Jo, 122 , 130

Swift, Henry, 254

synchromism, 8 , 167

Synchromism (Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art), 280

synchronization, 228

Syndicate of Painters, 127

T

Table with Fruit and Coffeepot (Hofmann), 109

Taix Restaurant (Los Angeles), 132

Tamayo, Rufino, 44 , 103 , 122

Tanguy, Yves, 52 , 283

Tanning, Dorothea, 191

Tapié, Michel, 11

Taubes, Frederic, 112

Taylor, Basil, [194 n.33]

Taylor, Paul, 263 , 264

technology, symbolism of, 143

television, 280

The Tell-Tale Heart (Klein), 215 , 238

Temple of Art (Los Angeles), 275

Tenth Commandment (Goldfadn), 239 n.8

terra-cotta tile blocks, 149

Teske, Edmund, 229 , 230 , 284

Theosophy, 236

Thiebaud, Wayne, xv

Thirty-one Women (Art of This Century Gallery, New York City), 284

Thomas, Dylan, 286

Three Arts Club (Los Angeles), 278

The Three Shoppers (Downtown Los Angeles) (Anders), 6

tile blocks, 149

time and space fluidity, theme of, 196

Tobey, Mark, 62

Toland, Gregg, 216

Toor, Frances, 122

Tornado Machine (Spohn), 50

Torrey, Frederick C., 97 , 276

Towards a New Subject in Painting (Onslow-Ford), 198

traditionalism, 139 , 144

transcendental unity, of self-consciousness, 32

Transmutation (Belson), 234

Treasury Relief Art Project (TRAP), 282

Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture, 74 -75, 85 , 91 n.18, 282

Tropical America (Siqueiros), 106 -7, 130 , 132 , 282

Tugwell, Rexford, 244

U

Un Chien Andalou (Dalí and Buñuel), 223

Underwood, Gilbert Stanley, 82

UNESCO, 83 -84

United Exchange Association (UXA), 263

United Productions of America (UPA), 238

United States Army supply base (Brooklyn, N.Y.; Gilbert), 144 , 145

United States government, arts funding by: Commission of Fine Arts, 72 ;

Public Buildings Administration, 75 ;

Public Works of Art Project (PWAP), 72 , 73 , 105 , 282 ;

Treasury Relief Art Project (TRAP), 282 ;

Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture, 74 -75, 85 , 91 n.18, 282 ;

Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project, 72 , 85 , 105 , 122 , 164 , 191 , 282 . See also Rincon Annex murals

Unity Temple (Oak Creek, Ill.; F. L. Wright), 144

universal laws versus personal world, 26 -27

University of California at Berkeley, 108 , 114 , 119 n.17, 274


307

The Unsinkable Fort (Spohn), 53

Untitled (Corbett), 58 , 59 , 66 n.70

Untitled (McLaughlin), 5

Untitled (Hands) (Kanaga), 261

UPA (United Productions of America), 238

V

Valdez, Luis, 123

Van Dyke, Willard, 252 , 254 , 256 , 264 , 265 ;

Ansel Adams at 683 Brockhurst , 251 ;

choice of photographic career, 259 , 269 n.33;

and founding of Group f.64, 249 -52;

ownership of 683 Brockhurst gallery (Oakland), 258 -59;

on photography as political tool, 263 ;

Preston Holder , 250 ;

on pure photography, 247 ;

on West Coast aesthetic, 268 n.17

Van Dyke II, William S.: San Francisco , 218

Van Guysling, George, 274

Varda, Jean, 202

Variations (James and John Whitney), 228 , 230

Vedanta Center, 230

VE Day (Burkhardt), plate 5 , 49

Vendedora de Frutas (Fruit Seller) (Ramos Martínez), plate 6

Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), 75 , 79

Vickery, Atkins & Torrey gallery (San Francisco), 276

Vidor, Charles: The Bridge , 215

Vigilante Days (Refregier), 85

Villareal, Manuel, 127

Villaseñor, Eduardo, 125

Vilna Troupe, 239 n.8

Visaroff, Michael, 239 n.8

"The Visual Arts and the Myth of Southern California, 1900-1950" (Huntington Library, San Marino), xv

visual music, 13 , 223 -38;

MobilColor Projectors, 230 -31, 232 -33;

Sound Pendulum system, 228 , 229 ;

synchronization, 228

Vogel, Joseph: All the News , 235 ;

House of Cards , 235

Vorkapich, Slavko: Forest Murmurs , 218 ;

The Life and Death of 9413A Hollywood Extra , 215 -16, 216-17 ;

Moods of the Sea , 218

Vortex Concerts (Belson), 234

Vudu Futhmique (Berlin), 167

Vysekal, Edouard, 163 , 173

Vytlacil, Vaclav, 107 , 163

W

Wagner, Gordon, 202

Wake Up and Live (Spohn), 54 -55

Walker, Albert: Frank C. Hill Bungalow (Los Angeles), 141

Walker, Hudson, 83

war: abstract expressionism shaped by, 55 -61;

Burkhardt's antiwar paintings, 46 -50;

as defining theme of modernism, 41 -50;

and religious allegory, 45 , 46 ;

Spohn's war machines, 50 -55;

veterans as artists, 55 -61. See also World War II

War, Agony in Death (Burkhardt), 46 , 47 , 48

Warburg, Aby, 109

Ward, Eleanor, 16 n.14

Warhol, Andy, 11 , 16 n. 14, 214

War Office (Washington, D.C.), 64 n.41

Warren, Austin, 44

Warshaw, Howard, 43 ;

Wrecked Automobiles , 44

Waterfall (Shore), 170

The Waterfront1934 (Refregier), 77 , 81

Watts Towers (Los Angeles; Rodia), 28 -32, 29 , 278

Wegman, Charles, 112

Wessels, Glenn, 107 , 201

West Coast Arts, Inc. (Laguna Beach), 278

Western Art , 276

Western Association of Art Museums, 102

"Western Round Table on Modern Art" (San Francisco Museum of Art), 97 , 286

Weston, Brett, 254

Weston, Edward, 122 , 126 , 257 , 275 ;

antipictorialism of, 246 -47, 249 ;

on art for art's sake, 263 , 264 ;

The Art of Edward Weston , 256 -57, 263 ;

on the camera as means of self-development, 10 -11;

on commitment to art, 259 ;

critical reception of work of, 255 ;

exhibitions, 254 , 258 ;

on Group f.64, 252 -53;

Monterey Cypress , 248 ;

on Newcombe, 173 ;

Point Lobos pictures, 264 , 285 ;

Rock and Shell Arrangement , 263 ;

techniques of, 262 -63

West-Park (Beckmann), 115 -16

What Atomic War Will Do to You (Deutsch), 176 , 177

What's the Matter with Helen? (Harrington), 223

Whitney, James, 230 , 235 ;

Exercises , 228 -29, 230 ;

Sound Pendulum system, 228 , 229 ;

Variations , 228 , 230

Whitney, John, 235 ;

Blues Pattern , 238 ;

Exercises , 228 -29, 230 ;

Performing Painter , 238 ;

Sound Pendulum system, 228 ;

Variations , 228 , 230

Whitney, John Hay, 83

Whittlesey, Charles E, 146 ;

Barttlett House (Los Angeles), 146

Why Abstract? (Hiler), 282

Wiene, Robert: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari , 214

Wight, Clifford, 105 , 106 ;

work on Colt Tower murals, 73

Wilde, Oscar: Salomé , 212 , 213 , 214 , 239 n.3

Wiley, William, 62

Wilfred, Thomas, 230 -31; 237 -38

Willard Van Dyke with View Camera (Stackpole), 265

Williams, Paul R., 139

Williams, Raymond, 22 , 36 n.6

Williams, William Carlos, 23

Willkie, Wendell, 49

Wilson, Charis, 262

Wilson, Edmund, 1 -2


308

Wilson, Henry, L.: "Design for a Concrete Apartment House," 145

Wind Machine (Spohn), 52

Wolff, Robert Jay, 112

Wolfflin[*] , Heinrich, 109

Wolfson, Sonia, 4

women: emergence of the New Woman after World War I, 259 ;

surrealists' attitude toward, 204 n.9

Women Painters of California, 275

Women Painters of the West (Los Angeles), 280

Wood, Beatrice, 97 , 280

Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 281

Wood, Grant, 112

Woolf, Leonard, 56

Woolworth Building (New York City; Gilbert), 144

Works Progress Administration (WPA) Southern California Art Project, 43 , 72 , 85 , 105 , 122 , 164 , 191 , 282

World War I, 41 ;

crucifix in, 45

World War II, 14 ;

American ignorance of the Holocaust, 49 ;

American preparedness for, 54 -55;

anxiety over, 54 ;

art after, 33 -34, 35 , 114 , 164 -65;

as catalyst for modernism, 41 -50, 182 -83;

crucifix in, 45 ;

and loss of GIs' individuality, 56 ;

and mistrust of rationality, 33 ;

optimism following, 56 ;

reactions to, 45 , 46 , 50 ;

veterans as artists, 55 -61

WPA (Works Progress Administration) Southern California Art Project, 43 , 85 , 105 , 122 , 164 , 191 , 282

Wrecked Automobiles (Warshaw), 44

Wright, Frank Lloyd, 139 , 152 ;

German Warehouse (Richland Center, Wisc.), 144 ;

Hollyhock House (Hollywood), 277 ;

Larkin Building (Buffalo, N.Y.), 144 ;

Midway Gardens (Chicago), 144 ;

textile block/usonian brick house (Pasadena), 278 ;

Unity Temple (Oak Park, Ill.), 144

Wright, Lloyd, 139

Wright, Willard Huntington, 277

Wurdeman, Walter: Pan-Pacific Auditorium Building (Los Angeles), 282

Wurster, William, 113

X

xenophobia, 122

Xochiquetzal (Cornejo), 127

The Yellow Robe (Baranceanu), plate 7 , 170

Y

Younger Painters of Los Angeles, 280

Young Rivers (Riders) (Slinkard), 162

Z

Zakheim, Bernard, 105 ;

Library , 73

Zeile, John, 275

Zeitlin, Jake, 103 , 122 , 240 n.19, 279


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