The Waning of the Communist State

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 collapse sectionOne  The Quiet Revolution from Within: Economic Reform as a Source of Political Decline
 The Command Economy and Party Power:  The Problem Defined
 collapse sectionDepartures from Central Planning  as a Source of Political Decline
 The Growth of Economic Alternatives
 Enterprise Reform in the Public Sector
 Changes in Revenue Flows: Fiscal Reform
 The Quiet Revolution from Within:  Weakening the Centralized Party State
 Political Authority in Local Settings
 The Self-Reinforcing Character of Political Decline
 Anticipations of Postcommunist Transformations

 collapse sectionPart One  The Process of Political Decline
 collapse sectionTwo  Property Rights and Political Power: The Cumulative Process of Political Change in Hungary
 Two Polar Notions of Politics
 The Links Between Socialist Politics and Economics
 Cycles of Reform and Recentralization
 Internalizing an "Externality":  the True Cost of Labor and Applied Knowledge
 The Politics of Property-Rights Reform:  Tactical Lessons, Discourse and Adaptive Identity
 Hybrid Economy and Polity
 collapse sectionThree  The Second Economy as a Subversive Force: The Erosion of Party Power in Hungary
 What the Party Thought the Second Economy Could Do
 What the Second Economy Actually Did
 Why Did the Leadership Continue to Support  the Second Economy?

 collapse sectionPart Two  The Eclipse of the Center
 collapse sectionFour  The Rise of the Regions: Fiscal Reform and the Decline of Central State Capacity in China
 collapse sectionState Capacity
 The Determinants of State Capacity
 collapse sectionThe Rise of the Second Budget
 The Evolution of Extrabudgetary Funds before the Reform
 collapse sectionThe Expansion of Extrabudgetary Funds after the Reform
 The Explosion of Extrabudgetary Funds .
 Control and Resistance .
 The Decline of State Capacity
 collapse sectionPolitical Consequence of the Decline  of Central Extractive Capacity
 The Decline of Steering Capacity
 The Decline of Legitimation Capacity
 The Fragmentation of the State
 collapse sectionFive  Losing the Political Initiative: The Impact of Financial Liberalization in Hungary
 collapse sectionThe Contradictions of Financial Reform
 Recentralization versus Decentralization
 Summary of the Cases
 Political Consequences for the Communist Party
 collapse sectionBanking Reform and Structural Adjustment
 Credit Allocation in the Two-Tiered Banking System
 Limits on Central Intervention in Commercial Credit Policy
 The Party's Resort to Nonmarket Mechanisms
 Structural Adjustment in the Mining Industry
 Structural Adjustment in the Steel Industry
 The Political Consequences of Adjustment via Nonmarket Means
 collapse sectionThe Dilemmas of Wage Liberalization
 Wage Reform versus Macroeconomic Stabilization
 Transformation of the Party-Controlled Trade Union
 Tensions within the Trade Union Movement
 Conflict Between the Party and the Unions, 1989
 Political Repercussions of Wage Liberalization
 collapse sectionLiberalization of Foreign Exchange
 Foreign-Exchange Liberalization: The Enterprise Sector
 Foreign-Exchange Liberalization: The Household Sector
 Foreign-Exchange Liberalization: Western Investors
 The Political Consequences of Asymmetric Liberalization of Foreign-Exchange Policy
 Appendix: Interviews Conducted by the Author  in Budapest, Hungary

 collapse sectionPart Three  Remaking Local Political Networks
 collapse sectionSix  Bureaucratic Patronage and Private Business: Changing Networks of Power in Urban China
 The Development of Urban Private Business
 Why Entrepreneurs Need Bureaucratic Support
 collapse sectionHow Officials Support Entrepreneurs
 Access to Profit
 Access to Protection
 collapse sectionHow Entrepreneurs Influence Officials
 collapse sectionShifting Influence Strategies and Business Growth
 Shifting to Higher Levels of Bureaucratic Support
 Shifting to More Enduring Ties
 The Logical Extreme of Bureaucratic Support
 collapse sectionFrom Dependent to Symbiotic Clientelism
 Transformations in Clientelist Exchange
 Transformations in Clientelist Networks
 Transformations in Clientelism and State Infrastructural Power
 collapse sectionSeven  Political Hierarchy and Private Entrepreneurship in a Chinese Neighborhood
 Private Enterprise in the Local Community
 Private Business in the Local Political Process
 Household Strategies
 Bureaucratic Commitment
 Collective Passive Resistance
 Systematized Exchanges between Business  And Bureaucracy
 Building and Manipulating Authority
 Bureaucracy's Impact: Obstruction Or Promotion Of Business?
 Formal versus Informal Hierarchies

 collapse sectionPart Four  Power and Identity in Communities
 collapse sectionEight  Everyday Power Relations: Changes in a North China Village
 The Bases of Cadre Power in the Collective Economy
 The Dynamics of Change and Market-Oriented Reform
 "Play the Game Wisely": Changing Patterns of Cadre Behavior
 "Leave Me Alone": Political Mentality and Action Among Villagers
 Concluding Remarks
 collapse sectionNine  Economy and Ethnicity: The Revitalization of a Muslim Minority in Southeastern China
 Unintended Consequences of Economic Reforms in Minority Areas
 Nationality, Society, and State
 Economic Prosperity and Muslim Minority Identity in a Fujianese Lineage Community
 Ethnic Politics and Economic Prosperity
 Muslim Traders, Chinese State
 The Legitimization of Ethnicity in China

 collapse sectionIndex

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