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Chapter 4 After We Have Captured Their Bodies

1. Charles Richard, Etude sur l'insurrection du Dahra (1845-1846) , in Michael Gilsenan, Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Arab World , p. 142, cited from Pierre Bourdieu and Abdelmalek Sayad, Le déracinement: la crise de l'agriculture traditionelle en Algérie (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1964), p. 15. [BACK]

2. Great Britain, Foreign Office, Further Correspondence Respecting the Affairs of Egypt , no. 34, July-September 1890 (London: Foreign Office, 1890), pp. 19-20. [BACK]

3. Baron de Kusel, An Englishman's Recollections of Egypt, 1863 to 1887 (London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1915), pp. 19-20. [BACK]

4. Great Britain, Further Correspondence , no. 38, January-June 1892 (1893), p. 72. [BACK]

5. The Earl of Cromer, Modern Egypt , 2: 311, 313; Charles Issawi, An Economic History of the Middle East and North Africa , pp. 54-5; Zachary Lockman, 'Class and nation: the emergence of the Egyptian workers' movement' (Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1983), p. 41. [BACK]

6. Cromer, Modern Egypt , 2: 482. [BACK]

7. Jacques Berque, Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution , pp. 127-35; Great Britain, Further Correspondence , no. 31, October-December 1889 (1890), p. 42; and no. 32, January-March 1890 (1890), p. 19. [BACK]

8. Cromer, Modern Egypt , 2: 87; cf. M. E. Howard, 'The armed forces', The New Cambridge Modern History , vol. 11: Material Progress and World-wide Problems, 1879-1898 , ed. F. H. Hinsley (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962), p. 225. [BACK]

9. Great Britain, Further Correspondence , no. 37, July-December 1891 (1892), pp. 7-8; no. 38, January-June 1892 (1893), p. 72; and no. 42, January-June 1894 (1895); Robert Tignor, Modernization and British Colonial Rule in Egypt, 1882-1914 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), pp. 184-5, 207; Berque, Egypt , p. 135. [BACK]

10. Cf. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison , pp. 135-228. [BACK]

11. Gabriel Baer, Studies in the Social History of Modern Egypt , p. 138. [BACK]

12. Ali Mubarak, Alam al-Din , pp. 160-2. [BACK]

13. Baer, Social History of Modern Egypt , p. 138. [BACK]

14. As early as the 1830s Rifa'a al-Tahtawi, who was working as a translator at the government's military hospital, produced books in Arabic on European medicine. The first work of general interest to be printed on the new Arabic printing presses was Tahtawi's translation of a French book written for children on the 'manners and customs' of different nations, which included sections on 'False beliefs, heresies and superstitions', stressing that 'such errors are greater in the village than in the city'. Tahtawi, Qala'id al-mafakhir fi gharib awa'id al-awa'il wa-l-awakhir , p. 85; cf. Salih Majdi, Hilyat al-zaman hi-manaqib khadim al-watan: sirat Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (Cairo, n.d., c. 1874), pp. 33, 35. [BACK]

15. Abd al-Rahman Isma'il, Tibb al-rukka (Cairo: 2 vols., 1892-94; serialised earlier in al-Adab ), partial translation by John Walker, Folk Medicine in Modern Egypt, Being the Relevant Parts of the Tibb al-Rukka or Old Wives' Medicine of 'Abd al-Rahman Isma'il (London: Luzac and Co., 1934), pp. 7, 9. The second volume was printed in the name of the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists, held in Geneva in September 1894. [BACK]

16. Abd al-Rahman Isma'il, al-Taqwimat al-sihhiyya an al-awa'id al-misriyya (Cairo: n.p., 1895); and al-Tarbiya wa-l-adab al-shar'iyya li-l-makatib al-misriyya (Cairo, 1896). On the Ministry of Education's sponsorship, see al-Muqtataf 20 (April 1896): 269; on the author, see Isma'il, Folk Medicine , p. 32. [BACK]

17. Isma'il, Folk Medicine , p. 16.

18. ibid . pp. 79, 112. [BACK]

17. Isma'il, Folk Medicine , p. 16.

18. ibid . pp. 79, 112. [BACK]

19. Cited Angelo Sammarco, Histoire de l'Egypte moderne depuis Mohammed Ali jusqu'à l'occupation britannique (1801-1882) , 3: 256. [BACK]

20. Amin Sami, al-Ta'lim fi Misrfi sanatay 1914-1915 , pp. 47-8. [BACK]

21. Abd al-Aziz Jawish, Ghunyat al-mu'addibin fi turuq al-hadith li-l-tarbiya wa-l-ta'lim , pp. 17-19, 42; cf. Anwar al-Jindi, Abd al-Aziz Jawish (Cairo: al-Mu'assasa al-misriyya al-amma li-l-ta'lif wa-l-anba' wa-l-nashr, 1965). [BACK]

22. Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi, al-A'mal al-kamila , 1: 517.

23. ibid . [BACK]

22. Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi, al-A'mal al-kamila , 1: 517.

23. ibid . [BACK]

24. Ellious Bochthor, Dictionnaire française-arabe , 3rd ed. (Paris, 1864). [BACK]

25. Butrus al-Bustani, Muhit al-muhit (Beirut, 1870). [BACK]

26. Tahtawi, al-A'mal al-kamila , 1: 5.

27. ibid . 1: 511.

28. ibid . 1: 512. [BACK]

26. Tahtawi, al-A'mal al-kamila , 1: 5.

27. ibid . 1: 511.

28. ibid . 1: 512. [BACK]

26. Tahtawi, al-A'mal al-kamila , 1: 5.

27. ibid . 1: 511.

28. ibid . 1: 512. [BACK]

29. Cromer, Modern Egypt , pp. 569-70. [BACK]

30. V. Edouard Dor, L'Instruction publique en Egypte , p. 36.

31. ibid . pp. 5, 10-11, 16, 22. The same concern with the 'oriental character' is found in a report on Egyptian education presented to the French Minister of Public Instruction in 1868: Octave Sachot, 'Mission en Egypte: Rapport addressé à Victor Duruy, ministre de l'Instruction Publique, sur l'état des sciences en Egypte dans la population indigène et dans la population euro-péenne' (Paris, June 1868) cited in Gilbert Delanoue, 'Rèflexions et questions sur la politique scolaire des vice-rois réformateurs', in L'Egypte au XIXe siècle (Paris: CNRS, 1982), p. 326. [BACK]

30. V. Edouard Dor, L'Instruction publique en Egypte , p. 36.

31. ibid . pp. 5, 10-11, 16, 22. The same concern with the 'oriental character' is found in a report on Egyptian education presented to the French Minister of Public Instruction in 1868: Octave Sachot, 'Mission en Egypte: Rapport addressé à Victor Duruy, ministre de l'Instruction Publique, sur l'état des sciences en Egypte dans la population indigène et dans la population euro-péenne' (Paris, June 1868) cited in Gilbert Delanoue, 'Rèflexions et questions sur la politique scolaire des vice-rois réformateurs', in L'Egypte au XIXe siècle (Paris: CNRS, 1982), p. 326. [BACK]

32. Dor, Instruction publique , p. 36. [BACK]

33. Edward lane, An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians , pp. 302-3, 338-9. [BACK]

34. George Bernhard Depping, Evening Entertainments (London, 1812; Philadelphia: David Hogan, 1817), pp. vi, 303, 331-5. [BACK]

35. George Bernhard Depping, Aperçu historique sur les moeurs et coutumes des nations: Contenant le tableau comparé chez les divers peuples anciens et modernes, des usages et des cérémonies concernant l'habitation, la nourriture, l'habillement, les marriages, les funérailles, lex jeux, les fêtes, les guerres, les superstitions, les castes, etc., etc . (Paris: L'Encyclopedie Portative, 1826). [BACK]

36. Rifa`a Rafi` al-Tahtawi, Qala'id al-mafakhir fi gharib awa'id al-awa'il wa-l-awakhir (Bulaq: Dar al-Taba`a, 1833). Among Tahtawi's other translations from Paris were parts of a similar work by Conrad Malte-Brun (1775-1826), Précis de la géographie universelle , 8 vols. (Paris: F. Buisson, 1810-29), which were also later published in Cairo, In contrast, two manuscripts of translations from works on Natural Law by Jean Jacques Burlamaqui (1694-1748), Principes du droit naturel et politique (Geneva, 1747), and Principes ou éléments du droit politique (Lausanne, 1784), were never published. Tahtawi, al-A`mal al-kamila , 1: 72-4; see also Alain Silvera, 'The first Egyptian student mission to France under Muhammad Ali', in Modern Egypt: Studies in Politics and Society , ed. Elie Kedourie and Sylvia Haim (London: Frank Cass, 1980), pp. 1-22. [BACK]

37. Israel Altman, 'The political thought of Rifa`a Rafi` al-Tahtawi' (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1976), p. 24. [BACK]

38. Françis de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, Les Aventures de Télémaque , pp. 45, 69; Arabic translation pp. 26, 63. [BACK]

39. Tahtawi, Manahij al-albab al-misriyya, fi mabahij al-adab al-asriyya , p. 120. [BACK]

40. Tahtawi, al-A `mal al-kamila , 1: 518. [BACK]

41. Self-Help, with Illustrations of Conduct and Perseverence , introduction by Asa Briggs, 72nd impression (London: John Murray, 1958), translated into Arabic by Ya`qub Sarruf as Sirr al-Najah (Beirut, 1880). [BACK]

42. Smiles, Self-Help , p. 36, Arabic translation p. 4,

43. ibid . p. 36, Arabic translation p. 5.

44. ibid . pp. 35, 315-16. [BACK]

42. Smiles, Self-Help , p. 36, Arabic translation p. 4,

43. ibid . p. 36, Arabic translation p. 5.

44. ibid . pp. 35, 315-16. [BACK]

42. Smiles, Self-Help , p. 36, Arabic translation p. 4,

43. ibid . p. 36, Arabic translation p. 5.

44. ibid . pp. 35, 315-16. [BACK]

45. Nadia Farag, `al-Muqtataf 1876-1900: a study of the influence of Victorian thought on modern Arabic thought', p. 169. [BACK]

46. Cromer, Modern Egypt , 1: 4-8; cf. Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians: The Official Mind of Imperialism (London: Macmillan, 1961), pp. 274-5; Roger Owen, 'The influence of Lord Cromer's Indian experience on British policy in Egypt, 1883-1907' in Albert Hourani, ed., Middle Eastern Affairs No. 4 (London: Oxford University Press, 1965), pp. 109-39; Tignor, Modernization and British Colonial Rule , pp. 48-93. A century later, in 1986, a new edition of Self-Help was published in Britain, with an introduction by the government's Minister of Education. [BACK]

47. Farag, `al-Muqtataf', p. 169. [BACK]

48. Speech at the school prize-giving, cited in Majallat al-Liwa ', 15 November 1900. [BACK]

49. Ali Fahmi Kamil, Mustafa Kamil fi arba`a wa-thalathin rabi`an: siratuhu wa-a`maluhu min khutab wa-ahadith wa-rasa'il , 11 vols. (Cairo: Matba`at al-Liwa', 1908), pp. 108-9. [BACK]

50. Asa Briggs, 'Introduction' to Smiles, Self-Help , p. 7. [BACK]

51. al-Liwa ', 25th January 1900.

52. ibid . 4th January 1900. [BACK]

51. al-Liwa ', 25th January 1900.

52. ibid . 4th January 1900. [BACK]

53. Mahmud Salama, al-Liwa' , 11th February 1900. Besides those I will discuss later, other book discussing the problem of mentality included: the influential work by Ahmad Hafiz Awad, Min walid ila waladihi (Cairo: Matba`at al-Bashlawi, 1923), consisting of letters written before the First World War; Ali Efendi Fikri, Adab al-fatah (Cairo, 1998); Abd al-Rahman isma`il, al-Tarbiya wa-adab al-shar`iyya (Cairo, 1896); Salih Hamdi Hammad, Tarbiyat al-banat , a translation of Fénelon's L'Education des filles (Cairo: Matba`at Madrasat Walidat Abbas al-Awwal, 1909); Rafiq al-Azm, Tanbih al-afham ila matalib al-haya al-jadida wa-l-islam (Cairo: Matba`at al-Mawsu`at, 1900); Muhammad al-Saba`i, al-Tarbiya , a translation of Herbert Spencer's essay on Education (Cairo: Matba'at al-Jarida, 1908). [BACK]

54. Mustafa Kamil, al-Shams al-mushriqa (Cairo: Matba`at-Liwa', 1904), pp. 11 176-8. [BACK]

55. Mahmud Salama, al-Liwa' , 11th February 1900. [BACK]

56. Farag, 'al-Muqtataf', p. 309. [BACK]

57. Ahmad Fathi Zaghlul, Sirr taqaddum al-inkliz al-saksuniyyin (Cairo: Matba'at al-Ma`arif, 1899), a translation of Edmond Demolins, A quoi tient la supériorité des Anglo-Saxons (Paris: Libraire de Paris, 1897). [BACK]

58. Demolins, Anglo-Saxons , p. iv.

59. ibid p. 92, Arabic translation, p. 75.

60. ibid . p. 93; Arabic translation, p. 76.

61. ibid . p. 98.

62. ibid p. 410; Arabic translation, p. 333. [BACK]

58. Demolins, Anglo-Saxons , p. iv.

59. ibid p. 92, Arabic translation, p. 75.

60. ibid . p. 93; Arabic translation, p. 76.

61. ibid . p. 98.

62. ibid p. 410; Arabic translation, p. 333. [BACK]

58. Demolins, Anglo-Saxons , p. iv.

59. ibid p. 92, Arabic translation, p. 75.

60. ibid . p. 93; Arabic translation, p. 76.

61. ibid . p. 98.

62. ibid p. 410; Arabic translation, p. 333. [BACK]

58. Demolins, Anglo-Saxons , p. iv.

59. ibid p. 92, Arabic translation, p. 75.

60. ibid . p. 93; Arabic translation, p. 76.

61. ibid . p. 98.

62. ibid p. 410; Arabic translation, p. 333. [BACK]

58. Demolins, Anglo-Saxons , p. iv.

59. ibid p. 92, Arabic translation, p. 75.

60. ibid . p. 93; Arabic translation, p. 76.

61. ibid . p. 98.

62. ibid p. 410; Arabic translation, p. 333. [BACK]

63. Ahmad Fathi Zaghlul, Sirr taqaddum , p. 20.

64. ibid . pp. 24-30. [BACK]

63. Ahmad Fathi Zaghlul, Sirr taqaddum , p. 20.

64. ibid . pp. 24-30. [BACK]

65. See Hasan Tawfiq al-Dijwi's introduction to al-Tarbiya al-haditha (Cairo: Matba`at al-Taraqqi, 1901), p. 7. [BACK]

66. Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid, cited Husayn Fawzi Najjar, Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid: ustadh al-jil (Cairo: al-Mu'assasa al-Misriyya al-Amma, 1965), p. 86. [BACK]

67. Albert Metin, La transformation de l'Egypte , cited in Henri Pérès, 'Les origines d'un roman célèbre de la littérature arabe moderne: ''Hadith `Isa ibn Hisham'' de Muhammad al-Muwailihi', Bulletin des études orientales 10 (1944): 101-18. [BACK]

68. Hasan Tawfiq al-Dijwi, al-Tarbiya al-haditha . [BACK]

69. Cromer, Modern Egypt , 2: 538-9. [BACK]

70. On the transformation of women's lives in nineteenth-century Egypt, see Judith Tucker, Women in Nineteenth-Century Egypt . On the writings on this subject at the turn of the century, see Juan Ricardo Cole, 'Feminism, class and Islam in turn-of-the-century Egypt', International Journal of Middle East Studies 13 (1981): 387-407. [BACK]

71. Harry Boyle, 'Memorandum on the British Occupation of Egypt' (1905), in Clara Boyle, Boyle of Cairo: A Diplomatist's Adventures in the Middle East (Kendal: Titus Wilson and Son, 1965), p. 56. [BACK]

72. Qasim Amin, al-Mar'a al-jadida , p. 11. [BACK]

73. Qasim Amin, Les égyptiens (Cairo: Jules Barbier, 1894); Duc d'Harcourt, L'Egypte et les égyptiens (Paris: Plon, 1893). [BACK]

74. Harcourt, L'Egypt , pp. 1, 3-6, 218, 247-8, 262. [BACK]

75. Qasim Amin, Les égyptiens , pp. 45-7, 243.

76. ibid . pp. 100-10. [BACK]

75. Qasim Amin, Les égyptiens , pp. 45-7, 243.

76. ibid . pp. 100-10. [BACK]

77. Cited Walter Benjamin, 'On some motifs in Baudelaire', Illuminations , ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1968), p. 167.

78. ibid . [BACK]

77. Cited Walter Benjamin, 'On some motifs in Baudelaire', Illuminations , ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1968), p. 167.

78. ibid . [BACK]

79. Muhammad al-Muwailihi, Hadith Isa ibn Hisham, aw fatra min al-zaman , 2nd ed. (Cairo: al-Maktaba al-Azhariyya, 1911), pp. 15-20.

80. ibid . p. 314.

81. ibid . pp. 389, 434-5. [BACK]

79. Muhammad al-Muwailihi, Hadith Isa ibn Hisham, aw fatra min al-zaman , 2nd ed. (Cairo: al-Maktaba al-Azhariyya, 1911), pp. 15-20.

80. ibid . p. 314.

81. ibid . pp. 389, 434-5. [BACK]

79. Muhammad al-Muwailihi, Hadith Isa ibn Hisham, aw fatra min al-zaman , 2nd ed. (Cairo: al-Maktaba al-Azhariyya, 1911), pp. 15-20.

80. ibid . p. 314.

81. ibid . pp. 389, 434-5. [BACK]

82. For example by the novelist Mahmud Taymur. See Henri Pérès, 'Les origines d'un roman célèbre de la littérature arabe moderne: "Hadith `Isa ibn Hisham" de Muhammad al-Muwailihi', Bulleitin des études orientales 10 (1944): 101. [BACK]

83. For the book's publishing history and the expurgated parts, see Roger Allen, 'Hadith `Isa ibn Hisham: the excluded passages', Die Welt des Islams 12 (1969): 74-89, 163-81. [BACK]

84. Roger Allen, A Study of 'Hadith `Isa ibn Hisham': Muhammad al-Muwaylihi's View of Egyptian Society During the British Occupation (New York: State University of New York Press, 1974), p. 165. [BACK]

85. Alexander Schölche, Egypt for the Egyptians: The Socio-Political Crisis in Egypt, 1878-1882 , p. 327, n. 53. Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali , pp. 45, 60; Berque, Egypt , pp. 116-17. [BACK]

86. Qasim Amin, Les égyptiens , p. 45; Ahmad Fathi Zaghlul, Sirr taqaddum al-inkliz al-saksuniyyin , p. 75. [BACK]

87. Roger Allen, 'Writings of members of the Nazli circle', Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt , 8 (1969-70): 79-84. [BACK]

88. Henri Pérès, 'Les origins d'un roman célèbre, p. 105; for the preceding decade Mubarak gives the figures of 1,067 cafés and 467 bars, a total of 1,543 establishments (Ali Mubarak, al-Khitat al-jadida li-Misr al-qahira wa-muduniha wa-biladiha al-qadima wa-l-shahira , 1: 238). [BACK]

89. Ali Mubarak, Alam al-Din , pp. 453-4. [BACK]

90. Muhammad Umar, Hadir al-misriyyin aw sir ta' akhkhurihim (Cario: Matba`at al-Muqtataf, 1902). English translation of the title given on the Arabic title page.

91. ibid . p. 230.

92. ibid . pp. 267-9

93. ibid . pp. 235, 114-15. [BACK]

90. Muhammad Umar, Hadir al-misriyyin aw sir ta' akhkhurihim (Cario: Matba`at al-Muqtataf, 1902). English translation of the title given on the Arabic title page.

91. ibid . p. 230.

92. ibid . pp. 267-9

93. ibid . pp. 235, 114-15. [BACK]

90. Muhammad Umar, Hadir al-misriyyin aw sir ta' akhkhurihim (Cario: Matba`at al-Muqtataf, 1902). English translation of the title given on the Arabic title page.

91. ibid . p. 230.

92. ibid . pp. 267-9

93. ibid . pp. 235, 114-15. [BACK]

90. Muhammad Umar, Hadir al-misriyyin aw sir ta' akhkhurihim (Cario: Matba`at al-Muqtataf, 1902). English translation of the title given on the Arabic title page.

91. ibid . p. 230.

92. ibid . pp. 267-9

93. ibid . pp. 235, 114-15. [BACK]

94. Abd al-Hamid al-Zahrawi, al-Jarida , 2nd July 1907; for his biography see Umar Rida Kahhala, Mu`jam al-mu'allifin: tarajim musannifi al-kutub al -

arabiyya , 15 vols. (Damascus: Matba`at al-Taraqqi, 1957-61), 5: 104, and George Antonius, The Arab Awakening: the Story of the Arab National Movement (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1939), pp. 117, 189. Why wealthy urban-based landowners in the Ottoman-ruled parts of the Arab world turned from Ottomanism to Arab nationalism in this period is explored in Philip S. Khoury, Urban Natables and Arab Nationalism: the Politics of Damascus, 1860-1920 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). [BACK]

95. Umar, Hadir al-misriyyin , pp. 117-24.

96. ibid . pp. 43-4.

97. ibid . pp. 166-7. [BACK]

95. Umar, Hadir al-misriyyin , pp. 117-24.

96. ibid . pp. 43-4.

97. ibid . pp. 166-7. [BACK]

95. Umar, Hadir al-misriyyin , pp. 117-24.

96. ibid . pp. 43-4.

97. ibid . pp. 166-7. [BACK]

98. Cf. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1983), for a critical exploration of the themes discussed in this section. [BACK]

99. On the intellectual formation of Egyptian nationalism, including the central theme of 'political education', see Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798-1939 , pp. 103-221. [BACK]

100. Tahtawi, Manahij al-albab , p. 6. [BACK]

101. Tahtawi, al-A`mal al-kamila , 1: 516.

102. ibid . 1: 519. [BACK]

101. Tahtawi, al-A`mal al-kamila , 1: 516.

102. ibid . 1: 519. [BACK]

103. al-Muwailihi, Hadith Isa ibn Hisham , p. 29.

104. ibid . p. 30. [BACK]

103. al-Muwailihi, Hadith Isa ibn Hisham , p. 29.

104. ibid . p. 30. [BACK]

105. Durkheim, The Rules of Sociological Method , p. 5. [BACK]

106. For this critique of liberalism, see Uday Mehta, 'The anxiety of freedom: John Locke and the emergence of political subjectivity (Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1984). [BACK]

107. Emile Durkheim, Education and Sociology , trans. S. D. Fox, with an Introduction by Talcott Parsons (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1956), p. 123. [BACK]

108. Cited Steven Lukes, Emile Durkheim, His Life and Work: A Historical and Critical Study (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1973), pp. 112, 117, 123. [BACK]

109. al-Mu'ayyad , 18th December 1910, by the anonymous author of the paper's 'Yawmiyyat al-ahad' column. Ahmad Fathi Zaghlul, Ruh al-ijtima ` (Cairo: Matba`at al-Sha`b, 1909), a translation of Gustave Le Bon, Psychologie des foules (Paris: Felix Alcan, 1895); translated into English as The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (New York: Macmillan, 1896). [BACK]

110. On the Dinshawai incident see Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, Egypt and Cromer: A Study in Anglo-Egyptian Relations (London: John Murray, 1968), pp. 169-73. [BACK]

111. Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid, al-Jarida , 13th April 1913, reprinted in his Ta'ammulat fi al-falsafa wa-al-adab wa-al-siyasa wa-al-ijtima` , 2nd ed. (Cairo: Dar al-Ma`arif, 1965), pp. 84-5. According to Lutfi al-Sayyid, Fathi Zaghlul's translations of Le Bon, and also of Demolins, Bentham, Spencer and Rousseau, 'were the start of Egypt's intellectual renaissance along political lines' (Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, Egypt and Cromer , p. 152). [BACK]

112. Ahmad Fathi Zaghlul, Sirr tatawwur al-umam (Cairo: Matba`at al-Ma`arif, 1913), a translation of Le Bon's Lois psychologiques de l'évolution des peuples , 12th ed. (Paris: Alcan, 1916), translated into English as The Psychology of Peoples

(New York: Macmillan, 1898); Taha Husayn, Ruh al-tarbiya (Cairo: Dar al-Hilal, 1922), a translation of Le Bon's Psychologie de l'éducation (Paris: Flammarion, 1904; nouvelle edition, 1912, 'augmenté de plusieurs chapitres sur les méthodes d'éducation en Amérique et sur l'enseignement donné aux indigènes des colonies'); Ahmad Fathi Zaghlul also translated Le Bon's Aphorisms du temps présent (Paris: Flammarion, 1913), published posthumously as jawami` al-kalim (Cairo: al-Matba`a al-Rahmaniyya, 1922). Cf. Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Literatur , supplement 3: 287, 326. [BACK]

113. Gustave Le Bon, La civilisation des Arabes (Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1884), translated in installments in al-Mufid (see Rashid Khalidi, '`Abd al-Ghani al-Uraisi and al-Mufid ; the press and Arab nationalism before 1914', in Martin R. Buheiry, ed., Intellectual Life in the Arab East, 1890-1939 (Beirut: American University of Beirut Press, 1981), p. 41); and Les premières civilisations (Paris: Marpon et Flammarion, 1889), trans. Muhammad Sadiq Rustum, al-Hadara al-misriyya (Cairo: al-Matba`a al-Asriyya, n.d.). [BACK]

114. Gordon Allport, The Handbook of Social Psychology , ed. Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, 2nd ed. (Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1968), 1: 41; for Freud's use of 'Le Bon's deservedly famous work' see Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (New York: Norton, 1959), ch. 2; see also George Rudé, The Crowd in History (New York: Wiley, 1964) and Georges Lefebvre, La Grande peur de 1789 (Paris: Colin, 1932). On the work of Le Bon in general see Susanna Barrows, Distorting Mirrors: Visions of the Crowd in Late Nineteenth-Century France (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981). [BACK]

115. Barrows, Distorting Mirrors . See also Alice Widener, Gustave Le Bon: The Man and His Works (Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1979), pp. 23, 40. [BACK]

116. Emile Durkheim, The Division of Labour in Society , trans. W. D. Halls, Contemporary Social Theory series (London: Macmillan, 1984), pp. 18, 19, 89. [BACK]

117. Barrows, Distorting Mirrors , p. 164. [BACK]

118. Le Bon, The Psychology of Peoples , pp. 4-5, 13. [BACK]

119. On Le Bon's influence on Durkheim, see Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 20. [BACK]

120. Le Bon, The Psychology of Peoples , pp. xix, 6, 37.

121. ibid . pp. 199-200, 231.

122. ibid . pp. 211-12. [BACK]

120. Le Bon, The Psychology of Peoples , pp. xix, 6, 37.

121. ibid . pp. 199-200, 231.

122. ibid . pp. 211-12. [BACK]

120. Le Bon, The Psychology of Peoples , pp. xix, 6, 37.

121. ibid . pp. 199-200, 231.

122. ibid . pp. 211-12. [BACK]

123. The translation was published in instalments in al-Mufid , one of the most influential daily newspapers in the entire Arab east in this period. See Khalidi, '`Abd al-Ghani al-Uraisi', p. 41. [BACK]

124. Le Bon was away, so Abduh left his card and a small, amicable correspondence ensued (Anouar Louca, Voyageurs et écrivains égyptiens en France au XIXe siècle , p. 142). On Abduh, the influence of French social science, and his influence in turn on Arab political thought, see Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1789-1939 , especially pp. 139-40. [BACK]

125. Cf. Barrows, Distorting Mirrors , p. 72. [BACK]

126. Le Bon, The Crowd , p. 36; Freud, Group Psychology , ch. 2. [BACK]

127. Durkheim, Rules , pp. 8, 30. [BACK]


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