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Index

A

Abbas Pasha, 74

Abdullah Nadim, 153

Abu al-nazzara al-zarqaá , 26

adab , 135 -6

Adorno, Theodor, 7

Afghani, Jamal al-Din al-, 155 , 194 n81

agriculture, 34 -5, 40 -3, 75 , 175 ;

see also cotton cultivation, landownership, villages

Alexandria, 34 , 109 ;

bombardment of, 128

Ali Mubarak, 63 -5, 68 , 71 , 74 , 84 -5, 93 , 108

Alloula, Malek, 26

American University in Beirut, 108 -9

army, 14 , 35 -40, 153 , 174 , 186 n21

author, concept of, 144 , 150 -2, 154 , 155 , 158 ;

see also authority, writing

authority: new methods of, 15 , 104 , 128 -9, 154 , 158 -60, 171 , 179 ;

in school, 70 , 175 ;

textual, 15 , 132 -3, 135 , 150 -3

Ayrout, Henry Habib, 92 -3

al-Azhar, 2 , 80 -5, 132 -3, 135

B

Barudi, Mahmud Sami al-, 131

Benjamin, Walter, 15 , 18 ,114

Bentham, Jeremy, 24 , 33 , 40

Berardi, Roberto, 56

body: notion of, 14 , 19 , 95 , 100 -2, 154 -9, 171 ;

and exercise of power, 93 -4, 95 -100;

see also materiality, mind

Boyle, Harry, 112

Bourdieu, Pierre, 28 , 48 -51, 53 , 55 , 60 -1, 93 , 167 , 173 -4, 195 n87

Bowring, John, 40 , 42 , 46

Bréal, Michel, 140 -1, 143

Brigandage Commissions, 97

Britain, occupation of Egypt by, 14 , 15 , 16 , 35 , 95 -6, 97 -8, 100 , 104 , 109 , 111 -12, 116 , 117 -18, 122 , 128 -31, 138 , 156 , 157 -9, 166 , 168 , 169 , 175 ;

see also colonialism

Brockelmann, Carl, 170

C

cafés, 1 , 12 , 117 , 119 , 162 , 199 n88

Cairo: attempts to represent, 1 , 6 , 27 , 29 -30;

pre-modern, 54 -6, 174 ;

modern, 17 , 63 , 65 -8, 115 , 117 -19, 156 , 163 -4, 205 n9

capitalism, requirements of, 34 -5, 40 -3, 75 , 96 -8, 135 , 166 ;

see also commerce, commodity fetishism, cotton cultivation, landownership

Casablanca, 161 , 162 , 163

certainty, 7 , 13 , 15 , 23 , 31 , 51 , 129 -30, 150 , 171 , 175 , 177 -9;

see also authority, representation, truth

Chamber of Deputies, 75 -6, 90

character, 101 -2, 104 -14, 168 , 176 , 196 n13;

see also industriousness, mind, self

cities: pre-modern, 53 -6, 178 , 188 n65;

and problem of representation, 27 , 32 -3, 56 -9;

and Descartes, 177 -8;

and colonial order, 63 , 65 -8, 161 -5, 171 ;

see also Cairo, Rabat

Chelli, Monçef, 148 -9

Chevalier, Michel, 16

colonialism: methods of, 15 -16, 33 , 126 -7, 157 -9, 165 -7, 167 -8, 171 , 175 , 178 -9;

as essence of modern power, 13 , 14 , 35 , 95 , 171 ;

and exhibitions, 8 -9;

and liberalism, 116 ;

and Orientalism, 7 , 138 -40;

and Tocqueville, 57 -8;

see also Britain, capitalism, discipline, order, power

commerce, transformation of, 10 -12, 15 , 98 -9, 116

commodity fetishism, 18 -19

communication: and capitalism, 16 ;

and imperial power, 129 -30, 131 ;

and nature of language, 140 -1, 143 -4, 150 -1, 158

conceptual realm, effect of, 79 , 126 , 171 , 172 -3, 177 -9;

in linguistic theory, 143 -50;

see also enframing, structure, materality, mind

cotton cultivation, promotion of, 15 -16, 17 , 40 -1, 96

Cromer, Earl of, 95 -6, 97 , 104 , 111 , 157 -9, 175 , 176

crowds, 37 -8, 40 , 64 , 114 -17, 119 -26;

see also disorder

culture, concept of, 61 -2, 101 , 104 -5;

and


215

pre-colonial society, 53 -4, 60 -1, 174 ;

and linguistic theory, 138 , 140 -1, 149 ;

see also mind, society, structure

curiosity, 2 -5

D

Daguerre, Louis, 24

Dar al-Ulum, 131 , 135

Darwinism, 108 -9

Demolins, Edmond, 110 -11

department stores, 10 -12

Depping, Georg Bernhard, 106 -7

Derrida, Jacques, 50 , 144 -6, 148 -9, 181 n26

Descartes, René, 177 -8

Description de l'Egypte , 31 , 46 , 168

difference: as principle of order, 49 -50, 55 , 60 -1, 173 -4, 177 ;

as possibility of language, 144 -6, 148 -9;

and colonial order, 163 -7, 171

Dijwi, Hasan Tawfiq al-, 111

Dinshawai, 122

discipline: military, 37 -40;

school, 70 -1, 73 -4, 101 -2;

as method of power, 14 , 34 -5, 40 -2, 93 -4, 104 , 125 , 126 -7, 175 -6;

of Europeans, 10 -11, 63 -4, 68 , 88 ;

and Islamic movements, 125 , 171 ;

and liberalism, 115 -16, 121 ;

and Marx, 19 ;

and nationalism, 119 , 121 , 132 ;

and women's role, 112 -13

Discours de la méthode , 177 -8

disease, 117 -18;

theories of, 65 -7, 98 -9, 103 , 196 n14;

see also lunacy

disorder: of urban life, 1 , 21 , 27 , 64 , 68 , 114 , 117 -18;

in countryside, 97 -8;

in society, 110 , 113 ;

in al-Azhar, 79 -82;

in written texts, 142 ;

see also order

Dor, V. Edouard, Inspector-General of Schools, 79 , 81 , 105 , 108

Du Camp, Maxime, 22

Dufferin, the Marquess of, 166

Durkheim, Emile, 121 -2, 123 , 125 -7, 141

E

education: concept of, 85 , 87 -9, 101 -2, 156 -7;

military, 39 -40;

new methods of, 63 , 64 -5, 68 -9, 69 -71, 71 -4, 75 -9;

and traditional learning, 82 -5, 85 -7;

necessity of, 92 -3;

as political process, 14 , 35 , 119 , 120 -2, 125 , 132 , 156 -7, 168 , 169 -71, 175 ;

and language, 153 ;

of poor, 117 , 118 ;

of women, 113 ;

see also al-Azhar, Lancaster method, law, university, writing

elite, theory of, 123 -5

Encyclopaedia of Islam , 138

enframing, 44 , 54 -5, 55 -6, 92 -4, 149 , 176 , 178 -9, 188 n51;

see also framework, structure

Essay on Eight Words , 131 -2, 134 -7, 142 -3, 154 , 202 n6

ethnography, 23 , 26 , 27 , 28 ;

as political process, 104 -7, 165 -6

exhibitions, 1 , 4 , 8 , 10 , 16 , 31 , 63 , 110 , 114 ;

Arabic accounts of, 6 -9, 180 n14;

and capitalism, 10 , 15 , 16 -17, 18 ;

and nature of modernity, 2 -4, 6 -10, 10 -13, 20 , 172 -3, 178 , 179 ;

Orient grasped as, 22 , 27 -8, 29 , 168 ;

and colonial order, 161 -3, 168 , 171 ;

and Cartesian theory, 177

F

fairs, suppression of, 98 -9

Fanon, Frantz, 164

fashion, 15 , 126

Fénelon, François de la Mothe-, 75 , 107

festivals, see fairs

Fez, 162

Flaubert, Gustave, 21 -2, 27 , 30

Foucault, Michel, 35 , 46 , 93 , 95 , 103 , 174 , 176

framework, new effect of, 38 , 44 -6, 78 -9, 93 -4;

supposed absence of, 33 , 50 , 52 -3, 82 -3, 174 -5, 178 ;

see also enframing, structure

France, occupation of Egypt by, 29 , 35 , 37 , 46 , 133 , 168

Freud, Sigmund, 125 , 201 n114

filling, concept of, 51 , 53 -4

functionalism, 45 , 49 , 59

G

Gatling gun, 128 -9

Gautier, Théophile, 26 , 28 , 29 -30

gaze: of Europeans, 2 -4, 9 , 19 -20, 21 -2, 24 -6;

in village life, 86 , 99 -100

Gérard de Nerval, 22 , 26 , 27 , 29 -30, 31

Gilsenan, Michael, 86 , 95 , 188 n52, 205 n8

Gladstone, William, 166

Graves, Robert, 31

guidebooks, 10 , 20 , 24 , 89 , 168

H

Harcourt, Duc d', 112 -13

Hasan Tawfiq, 170

Heidegger, Martin, 7 , 13 , 148

al-Hilal , 169 , 170

historiography, Egyptian, 123 , 169 -71

hizb , 137 -8

I

Ibn Khaldun, 53 -4, 59 , 134 -7, 149 -57, 171

Ibrahim Adham, 26 , 68 , 69 , 74

Ibrahim Pasha, 4 , 44

identity, see self

indolence, see industriousness

industriousness, 14 -15, 40 , 47 -8, 64 , 96 , 101 -2, 119 , 176 ;

absence of, 105 -11, 116 ;

in Marx, 19


216

insanity, see lunacy

inspection: in exhibitions, 16 -17;

in schools, 70 -1, 73 -4, 101 ;

as political technique, 34 , 40 -1, 67 , 95 -6, 104 , 175

institutions: 'absence' of, 59 , 189 n74;

new effect of, 162 -3

interior: new effect of, 166 -7;

in pre-colonial society, 50 , 55 -6, 56 -8, 174 ;

political need to penetrate, 46 , 67 , 93 , 98 ;

and concept of person, 155 -7, 176 , 177 -8;

and concept of writing, 148

Isma'il, Khedive, 4 , 17 , 26 , 65 , 68 , 71 , 74 , 75 , 116 , 134 , 190 n4

Istanbul, 17 , 32 , 35 , 155 , 162 , 190 n4

J

Jabarti, Abd al-Rahman al-, 37 , 133

Japan, 109 -10

Jawish, Abd al-Aziz, 89 , 101

K

Kabyle house, 48 -53, 55 , 93 , 167 , 173 -4

Kafr al-Zayat, 44

Kinglake, Alexander, 30

Kitchener, Colonel Herbert, 97

L

Lambert, Charles, 33

Lancaster method, 69 -71, 74 , 89 , 101

landownership, private, 16 , 43 , 44 , 75 , 96 -8

Lane, Edward William, 23 , 24 , 26 , 27 , 28 -9, 31 , 105 -6

language: use of, 64 , 82 -7, 137 -8, 142 -4, 146 -9;

theories of, 138 -42, 144 -6, 146 -9, 150 -2;

transformation of, 131 , 153 -4

law: practice of, 82 -5, 193 n6;

as code, 100 -1, 126

Le Bon, Gustave, 122 -5, 168 , 169 , 170

Lesseps, Ferdinand de, 17

liberalism, 115 -16, 121

al-Liwa' , 89 , 109 , 156

Lubbert, Emile-T., 33

lunacy, 117 -18, 125 , 175 , 207 n31

Lyautey, Marshal, 97 , 161 -3, 172 , 177 , 178

M

machine: as new image of political power, 37 -8, 47 -8, 71 , 92 -3, 97 , 126 -7, 131 , 154 , 157 -9;

the person as, 99 -100, 156 -9, 178 ;

writing understood as, 131 , 153 -4, 157 -8

Margoliouth, D. S., 170

Marsafi, Husayn al-, 90 , 131 -7, 142 -4, 153 , 154 , 170 , 203 n18

Marx, Karl, 18 -19, 21

materiality: in pre-colonial city, 53 , 54 , 188 n65;

new effect of, 93 , 100 -1, 171 , 172 -3, 176 , 177 -9;

in linguistic theory, 143 -50;

see also object, structure

Maurois, André, 161

meaning: and pre-colonial society, 53 , 54 , 56 -8, 60 -1;

new effect of, 126 -7, 149 -50, 158 -60, 162 -3, 172 -3, 179 ;

in language, 138 , 139 , 140 -2, 142 -9;

in Max Weber, 61 -2

medical practice, see disease

Melville, Herman, 32 -3

metaphysical realm, new methods of creating, 94 , 146 , 149 , 157 -60, 176 ;

see also materiality, mind, structure

mind: new notion of, 9 , 14 -15, 21 , 158 , 177 -8;

and exercise of power, 14 -15, 94 , 95 , 100 -1, 104 -5, 108 -9, 114 , 126 -7, 171 , 176 , 198 n53;

collective, 121 , 123 -5;

as object of Orientalism, 138 -40;

and linguistic theory, 140 -4, 149 ;

see also body, representation, self

Modern Egypt , 157 -9

Morocco, 161 -3, 185 n15, 193 n65

Muhammad Abduh, 124 -5, 135 , 201 n124

Muhammad Ali, Governor of Egypt, 33 , 35 , 42 -3, 68 -9, 88

Muhammad Arif, 90 , 191 n25

Muhammad Hilmi Zayn al-Din, 100

Muhammad Majdi, 156

Müller, Friedrich Max, 2 , 7 , 139 , 165 -6

al-Muqaddima , 53 -4

al-Muqtataf , 109 , 169

Muslim Brotherhood, 171

Mustafa Fadil, 190 n4

Mustafa Kamil, 109

Muwailihi, Muhammad al-, 116

N

nationalism: emergence of, 119 , 132 ;

and events of 1881-82, 116 , 131 -2, 136 -8, 156 , 170 ;

and historiography, 123 , 169 -70;

and national character, 109 -10, 124 ;

see also nation-state

nation-state, 119 ;

and schooling, 76 , 77 , 121 ;

authority of, 154 , 157 -8, 179 ;

and self-identity, 166 -7

Neghileh, 44

nizam jadid, see army, order

nostalgia, disease of, 42 , 43

Nubar Pasha, 100 , 191 n25

O

object, see object-world, thing

object-world: method of setting up, 5 -7, 15 , 20 ;

Orient grasped as, 23 -8, 33 , 168 ;

and pre-colonial world, 50 -1, 60 -1;

and concept of society, 120 -1, 126 ;

and effect of 'objectivity', 7 , 19 -21, 61 -2;

see also materiality, representation, subject, thing

order: new principle of, 14 , 33 , 40 , 63 , 68 , 94 , 118 , 126 , 175 , 176 , 178 -9;

in army, 36 ,


217

38 , 40 , 174 ;

in Europe, 1 , 12 , 63 -4, 88 ;

in model village, 44 -8;

in schooling, 68 , 70 -1, 73 -4, 76 -9, 175 ;

in urban planning, 63 , 65 -8, 163 -5;

and Kabyle house, 49 , 51 -2, 173 -4;

and pre-colonial city, 54 -5, 58 -9, 174 ;

and social science, 110 ;

of colonial world, 163 -5, 166 -7, 171 ;

see also disorder, enframing, structure

Orient: representation of, 1 , 6 , 8 -9, 13 -14, 21 -32, 58 -9;

definition of, 165 -8;

inferiority of, 110 -11;

need for, 163 -4

orientalism, 1 -2, 6 , 7 , 58 -9, 133 , 149 ;

citationary nature of, 31 ;

and colonial order, 32 , 165 -8;

and Western thought, 32 , 138 -40, 141 ;

within Egypt, 116 , 122 -4, 169 -71;

see also language, Orient, representation

originality, new concept of, 28 -9, 58 -9, 60 -1, 83 , 144 , 151 , 167 , 172 -3

outside: as effect of 'external reality', 7 -10, 12 , 21 , 61 -2, 177 -8, 179 ;

and pre-colonial world, 50 , 55 -6, 57 -8, 174 ;

and self-identity, 163 -5, 165 -7

P

Panopticon, 24 , 35

person, concept of, see self

photography, 22 -4, 27

picture: world set up as, 6 -7;

Orient grasped as, 21 -9, 56 -8;

and pre-colonial world, 60 -1;

language as, 140 -1

plan: as mental order separating self from world, 20 , 28 , 32 , 33 , 45 , 48 -50, 53 -4, 60 -1, 78 , 93 , 171 , 172 -3;

in Descartes, 178 ;

in Marx, 21 ;

see also culture, mind, structure

policing, organisation of, 96 -8, 175 ;

see also inspection

politics: new notion of, 102 -4, 156 -9;

science of, 102 , 119 , 157 -8;

as ethnological process, 105 ;

as interpretive process, 136 ;

see also power

Porter, Robert Ker, 23

power: methods of, 34 -5, 75 -6, 79 , 93 -4, 95 130, 171 , 175 -6;

as mechanical process, 157 -9

powerlessness, idiom of, 86 -7

printing: government control of, 90 -2, 168 ;

rejection of, 133 -4, 137 , 150 ;

effect on language of, 153 ;

see also writing

prisons, 97 , 175

production: in Marx, 18 -19;

and new methods of power, 35 , 40 -3, 75 ;

in Tahtawi, 107 ;

see also industriousness

Q

Qasim Amin, 112 -13, 116

Quran, study of, 83 , 86 -7, 102

R

Rabat, 161 -3, 172 , 177

railways, 16 , 97 , 98 , 130 , 153 , 161 , 175

Rawdat al-madaris , 92

Raymond, André, 55

reality: effect of, 7 -10, 12 -13, 32 , 60 -1, 168 ;

of the Orient, 22 , 26 -7, 28 -9, 30 , 32 ;

in Durkheim, 126 ;

in Marx, 18 -19

Renan, Ernest, 139

representation, 6 -10, 12 -13, 15 , 17 -18, 172 -3, 176 -9;

of Orient, 1 -2, 6 , 9 , 21 -32, 56 -9;

and pre-colonial world, 60 -1;

in colonising process, 67 , 92 , 130 -1, 153 -4, 161 -5, 168 , 171 , 176 -9;

language as, 92 , 141 -2, 143 -4, 153 -4;

in Cartesian theory, 177 -8;

in Durkheim, 125 -7;

in Marx, 18 -19

Roberts, David, 23 , 28

Roosevelt, Theodore, 123

Rushdi, Abd al-Rahman, 71

S

Said, Edward, 26 , 27 , 31 , 165 , 168

Sa`id Pasha, 74 , 90 , 191 n13

Saint Simonists, 16 , 17 , 33

Sarruf, Ya'qub, 108 -9

Saussure, Ferdinand de, 143 -4, 146

schools, see education, Lancaster method

self, concept of: as subject set apart from object-world, 2 -5, 9 , 12 -13, 14 -15, 20 , 23 -4, 24 -8, 32 -3, 59 -60, 61 -2, 141 , 157 , 159 , 162 , 172 , 178 ;

as political subject, 68 , 95 , 102 -4, 175 -6;

as divided into mind and body, 14 -15, 95 , 100 -2, 172 , 175 -8;

and pre-colonial world, 50 -1, 173 -4;

and self-sameness, identity, 145 , 165 , 166 -7, 171 ;

in Marx, 19 , 21 ;

in Weber, 61 -2

signs: things as, 12 -13, 14 , 17 -18, 60 -1, 172 ;

French use of, 37 ;

words as, 140 , 143 -4, 144 -6, 149 , 153

Smiles, Samuel, 108 -10

social science: and threat of disorder, 110 -11, 113 , 121 , 122 ;

Durkheim's, 120 , 126 ;

Le Bon's, 122 -3

society, new concept of, 15 , 71 , 81 , 100 -1, 119 -215, 126 -7, 140 -1, 158 ;

see also nation-state

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 90 , 105 -6

state, see nation-state

statistics, 20 , 45 -6, 126 , 153

structure, new effect of, 14 , 21 , 22 , 79 , 153 , 176 ;

at exhibitions, 20 ;

in Marx, 21 ;

in military, 37 -8;

in model villages, 44 -6;

in towns, 65 ;

in schools, 73 , 76 -9, 86 , 92 -3;


218

structure (cont. )

in language, 140 -1;

'absence' of, 50 -1, 58 -9, 82 -3, 174 , 188 n65, 189 n74;

as method of power, 79 , 94 , 114 , 127 , 176 ;

and 'society', 100 -1, 114 , 120

Suez Canal, 16 , 17 , 96

T

Taha Husayn, 122 , 170

Tahtawi, Rifa`a Rafi` al-, 74 , 75 , 77 , 88 -9, 92 , 102 -4, 107 -8, 119 -20, 134 , 154 , 196 n14

Taine, Hippolyte, 17

The Tale of Isa ibn Hisham , 114 -16, 120

Tanta, 67 -8, 97 , 98 -9

tarbiya , 88 -90

telegraph, 70 , 96 , 130 , 140 -1, 153

Tell al-Kabir, battle of, 128

text: colonial world to be read as, 33 , 46 ;

pre-colonial understanding of, 82 -4, 92 , 132 -5, 150 -3, 178 ;

see also language, representation, writing

thing, new notion of, 5 -7, 14 , 60 -1, 172 -3, 178 ;

society as, 120 -1, 126 ;

and theory of language, 144 , 149 ;

see also materiality, object-world

time, as a structure, 73 , 120

Tocqueville, Alexis de, 56 -8

tourism, 21 , 24 -6, 28 , 57 , 58 , 126 , 156 , 162

truth, as certainty of representation, 33 , 51 , 60 -1, 127 , 130 -1, 149 , 159 -60, 168 , 171 , 175 , 178 -9

U

Umar, Muhammad, 100 , 117 -19

University, Egyptian, 31 , 109 , 113 , 122 , 123 , 170

Urabi, Ahmad, 118 , 131 -2, 137 -8

V

villages, 14 , 34 , 40 -1, 43 , 44 -8, 76 , 95 -8, 99 -100, 175 ;

and learning, 86 -7, 92 -3;

and teaching of political science, 102 ;

see also agriculture, Kabyle house

vowel, 'absence' of, 148 -9

W

Wadi al-Nil , 92

al-Waqa'i` al-misriyya , 90

Weber, Max, 62

women, 49 -51, 52 , 55 , 60 ;

as object of colonial power, 46 , 93 , 100 , 111 -13, 168 , 198 n70

The Wretched of the Earth , 164

writing: in pre-colonial society, 82 -7, 150 -2;

theories of, 142 -52;

transformation of, 90 -2, 152 -4, 155 , 157 -9;

see also language, representation, text

Z

Zagazig, 78 , 96 , 132

Zaghlul, Ahmad Fathi, 110 -11, 116 , 122 , 125

Zahrawi, Abd al-Hamid al-, 118

Zaydan, Jurji, 169 -71


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