Preferred Citation: Sherman, Claire Richter. Imagining Aristotle: Verbal and Visual Representation in Fourteenth-Century France. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1995 1995. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft4m3nb2n4/


 
Notes

4— Preliminary Considerations

1. For other aspects of the prologues, see Ch. 1 above at nn. 32-33.

2. Ethiques , 97.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 98.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., 99.

7. Ibid., 99-100.

2. Ethiques , 97.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 98.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., 99.

7. Ibid., 99-100.

2. Ethiques , 97.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 98.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., 99.

7. Ibid., 99-100.

2. Ethiques , 97.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 98.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., 99.

7. Ibid., 99-100.

2. Ethiques , 97.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 98.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., 99.

7. Ibid., 99-100.

2. Ethiques , 97.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 98.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., 99.

7. Ibid., 99-100.

8. For short descriptions of seventeen manuscripts, see Ethiques , 46-52. Four manuscripts containing Oresme's translations of the Ethics were unknown to Menut. All date from the fifteenth century: Rome, Vatican Library, MS reg. lat. 1341; Oxford University, Bodleian Library, MS 965a; New York, Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Collections, MS 283; and London, Brit. Lib., Egerton MS 737. Only the last has a miniature, a frontispiece on fol. 1.

9. "Traducteurs et leur publique," 18.

10. Saenger, "Silent Reading," 407. break

11. For further discussion of these images in Oxford, St. John's College, MS 164, and Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS fr. 24287, see Sherman, Portraits , 74-75; idem, "Representations of Charles V as a Wise Ruler," Medievalia et Humanistica , n.s. 2 (1971): 87-89.

12. For a discussion of this image, see below, Ch. 5 at nn. 19-24. For Saenger's interpretation, see "Silent Reading," 407.

13. Ethiques , 99. This phrase also appears in the Politiques prologue, 44.

14. The image suggests a parallel to university lectures, at which masters read out the text and then commented on or explained it.

15. Vol. 1, 222.

16. Fais et bonnes meurs , vol. 1, 47-48.

17. Ibid., vol. 1, 40.

16. Fais et bonnes meurs , vol. 1, 47-48.

17. Ibid., vol. 1, 40.

18. Le livre de la paix , ed. Charity Cannon Willard (The Hague, Mouton, 1958), 68.

19. Prologue, vol. 1, 4.

20. Cited in de Laborde, Les manuscrits à peintures de la Cité de Dieu , vol. 1, 65.

21. See Astrik L. Gabriel, The Educational Ideas of Vincent of Beauvais (Notre Dame, Ind.: Notre Dame Press, 1962), 45, citing Vincent's preface to the De morali principis institutione ; Gassman, " Translatio studii ," 534. The position continued at the court of Francis I. The title lecteurs royaux , applied to scholars who taught at the institution that Francis I founded, later called the College of France, was apparently unconnected with the earlier title and function. See William Nelson, "From 'Listen, Lordings' to 'Dear Reader,'" University of Toronto Quarterly 46/2 (1976-77): 113-14.

22. Fais et bonnes meurs , vol. 2, 62-63. In this account Christine adds the moving anecdote that the accidental death of Malet's young son did not prevent Malet from continuing his daily reading. I am grateful to Joyce Coleman for calling this passage to my attention and for sharing information drawn from her dissertation, entitled "The World's Ear: The Aurality of Late Medieval Literature" (Ph.D. diss., University of Edinburgh, 1993).

23. Ethiques , 461-62.

24. See below, Ch. 13 at nn. 8-24, for discussion of the lavish illustration of this topic in MS C .

25. Bäuml, "Varieties and Consequences of Medieval Literacy," 263-64; Beryl Smalley, Historians in the Middle Ages (New York: Scribner, 1975), 174-75.

26. See Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record , 230. break

27. V. A. Kolve, Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative: The First Five Canterbury Tales (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1984), 20-58. The following paragraph owes much to his discussion of these topics.

28. Ibid., 25.

29. Ibid., 43-45, referring to Yates, The Art of Memory , Chs. 3 and 4. See also above, Ch. 3 at n. 67; Carruthers, The Book of Memory , particularly 122-55.

27. V. A. Kolve, Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative: The First Five Canterbury Tales (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1984), 20-58. The following paragraph owes much to his discussion of these topics.

28. Ibid., 25.

29. Ibid., 43-45, referring to Yates, The Art of Memory , Chs. 3 and 4. See also above, Ch. 3 at n. 67; Carruthers, The Book of Memory , particularly 122-55.

27. V. A. Kolve, Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative: The First Five Canterbury Tales (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1984), 20-58. The following paragraph owes much to his discussion of these topics.

28. Ibid., 25.

29. Ibid., 43-45, referring to Yates, The Art of Memory , Chs. 3 and 4. See also above, Ch. 3 at n. 67; Carruthers, The Book of Memory , particularly 122-55.

30. For a full description of MSS A and C , see Appendixes I and II above. Henceforth, unless otherwise noted, references to Oresme's translation of the Politics also include that of the Economics .

31. The term for the second category of illustrations was suggested by the excellent article of Morton W. Bloomfield, "A Grammatical Approach to Personification Allegory," Modern Philology 60/3 (1963): 161-71.

32. Hercules am Scheidewege , 160.

33. Delisle, Mélanges de paléographie , 264. Dimensions of manuscripts are given in millimeters; those of miniatures, in centimeters.

34. Ibid., 272.

33. Delisle, Mélanges de paléographie , 264. Dimensions of manuscripts are given in millimeters; those of miniatures, in centimeters.

34. Ibid., 272.

35. See Appendix II for further details.

36. See Ch. 3 above at nn. 60-62.

37. For the history of B , see above, Appendixes I and III.

38. MS B is usually dated after 1374, whereas MS C was finished in, or by, 1376.

39. See Ch. 22 below at n. 6.


Notes
 

Preferred Citation: Sherman, Claire Richter. Imagining Aristotle: Verbal and Visual Representation in Fourteenth-Century France. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1995 1995. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft4m3nb2n4/