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16— The Six-Forms-of-Government Frontispieces (Book I)

1. For an enlightening discussion of these points, see Babbitt, Oresme's Livre de Politiques , chs. 3 and 4. [BACK]

2. Not only is the recto (fol. 3r) blank, but extra sewing reveals the insertion. [BACK]

3. Fols. Iv and 2 belong to two separate gatherings (see Appendix IV). [BACK]

4. Politiques , 45. [BACK]

5. For the complete text and translation of this passage, see Appendix V above. [BACK]

6. Politiques , 372.

7. Ibid., 370. break

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., 374.

10. Ibid., 373.

11. Ibid., 372.

12. Ibid., 371. [BACK]

6. Politiques , 372.

7. Ibid., 370. break

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., 374.

10. Ibid., 373.

11. Ibid., 372.

12. Ibid., 371. [BACK]

6. Politiques , 372.

7. Ibid., 370. break

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., 374.

10. Ibid., 373.

11. Ibid., 372.

12. Ibid., 371. [BACK]

6. Politiques , 372.

7. Ibid., 370. break

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., 374.

10. Ibid., 373.

11. Ibid., 372.

12. Ibid., 371. [BACK]

6. Politiques , 372.

7. Ibid., 370. break

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., 374.

10. Ibid., 373.

11. Ibid., 372.

12. Ibid., 371. [BACK]

6. Politiques , 372.

7. Ibid., 370. break

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., 374.

10. Ibid., 373.

11. Ibid., 372.

12. Ibid., 371. [BACK]

6. Politiques , 372.

7. Ibid., 370. break

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., 374.

10. Ibid., 373.

11. Ibid., 372.

12. Ibid., 371. [BACK]

13. For the association in Christian iconography of the right side of a building or representational image with positive values and the left with negative ones, see Erica Dinkler-von Schubert, "Rechts und Links," LCI , vol. 3, cols. 511-15. [BACK]

14. For a similar allusion, see the discussion of the fleur-de-lis background of certain miniatures in A , especially of Justice, in Ch. 9 above at n. 43. [BACK]

15. Babbitt, Oresme's Livre de Politiques , 45-51. [BACK]

16. Politiques , Book III, Ch. 20, Gloss, 145. For a discussion of the complexities of Oresme's position on the communitas perfecta , see Babbitt, Oresme's Livre de Politiques , 55-68. [BACK]

17. Babbitt, Oresme's Livre de Politiques , 75. For Oresme's espousal of these ideas, see Ethiques , 432-33. [BACK]

18. For Marsiglio of Padua's interpretation of this theme in the Defensor pacis , see Babbitt, Oresme's Livre de Politiques , 75. [BACK]

19. Ross, Aristotle , 243. [BACK]

20. Oresme states that "car tous les citoiens doivent aucunement participer en princey, si comme il fu dit ou premier chapitre, et par consequent il doivent participer ou profit" ( Politiques , Gloss, 128). [BACK]

21. Aesthetic considerations may account for the same three, rather than contrasting, numbers of rulers in Aristocracy or Timocracy called for in Aristotle's and Oresme's texts. The placement of many figures on a bench of the same or larger dimensions would have been difficult without adjusting the size of the picture field. [BACK]

22. Politics , 117, n. 1. [BACK]

23. Babbitt, Oresme's Livre de Politiques , 89-93; Politiques , Book III, Ch. 17, 142. Aristotle states that "rightly constituted laws should be the final sovereign" ( Politics III.11 1282b). See also on these points, Politiques , 138. [BACK]

24. See Anthony Melnikas, The Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , Studia Gratiana, 18 (Rome: Libreria Ateneo Salesiano, 1975), vol. 1, Causa IV, pls. I and II; also Causa VI, pl. II; and Causa XIV, fig. 28. break [BACK]

25. For previous discussion of this treatise, see Ch. 2 above at nn. 6-13. [BACK]

26. De moneta , 42, 44, and 45.

27. Ibid., 47. [BACK]

26. De moneta , 42, 44, and 45.

27. Ibid., 47. [BACK]

28. Henneman, Royal Taxation in Fourteenth-Century France , 285-86. [BACK]

29. Politiques , 9, n. 13, and 19-20. Menut gives as the source Politics , III.11 1281b. [BACK]

30. See Katzenellenbogen, Virtues and Vices , figs. 54 and 55. The manuscript is now in Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, cod. lat. 13002, fols. 3v and 4. [BACK]

31. This manuscript is discussed in C. M. Kauffmann, Romanesque Manuscripts, 1066-1190 (London: Harvey Miller, 1975), 62. According to Kauffmann, this miniature is unique among the rarely illustrated Latin manuscripts of the City of God . [BACK]

32. For recent discussions of the textual sources of the Lorenzetti frescoes, see above, Ch. 9, at nn. 59-67. [BACK]


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