previous sub-section
Notes
next sub-section

7— Courage, Moderation, and Their Opposites (Book III)

1. See Katzenellenbogen, Virtues and Vices , 30-33. The neologism Fortitude may, however, have presented a problem to Oresme's audience. [BACK]

2. Ross, Aristotle , 197-99. [BACK]

3. NE II.8 1108b-1109a; Ethiques , 165. [BACK]

4. NE III.6-9, Fortitude; 10-12, Temperance. [BACK]

5. Although the two personifications of Figure 15 increase in number to seven in Figure 16, only two of them interact. [BACK]

6. Figure 15 is 7.1 × 6.9 cm; Figure 11, 8 × 7.2 cm. The width of Figure 15 is slightly narrower than that of Figure 11, since the first occurs on a folio laid out in two columns continue

of equal width, the usual format for the prefatory matter in this manuscript. The width of Figure 11 corresponds to the area taken up by a column of text plus a narrower one of gloss. [BACK]

7. Ethiques , 80.

8. Ibid., 544. The definition by Oresme in Gloss 12 of Ch. 16 offers a slightly more detailed version than the one provided in the glossary (ibid., 210). [BACK]

7. Ethiques , 80.

8. Ibid., 544. The definition by Oresme in Gloss 12 of Ch. 16 offers a slightly more detailed version than the one provided in the glossary (ibid., 210). [BACK]

9. New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library, M. 456, fol. 33. [BACK]

10. M. 456, fols. 35v-36. The miniature on fol. 34 depicts the seven types of Force. [BACK]

11. Fais et bonnes meurs , vol. 1, pt. 2. [BACK]

12. Ethiques , 219.

13. Ibid., Gloss 1, 219. [BACK]

12. Ethiques , 219.

13. Ibid., Gloss 1, 219. [BACK]

14. Kolve, Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative , 81. [BACK]

15. For examples of virtues placed within city walls, see a tenth-century manuscript of the Psychomachia of Prudentius (Brussels, Bibl. Royale Albert Ier, MS 10066-10077), reproduced in Richard Stettiner, Die illustrierten Prudentius-Handschriften (Berlin: Preuss [text] and Grotesche [plates], 1895-1905), pl. 176. For virtues in a tower setting in a manuscript of the Liber scivias of ca. 1175 (Wiesbaden, Landesbibliothek, Cod. 1, fols. 138v-139), see Katzenellenbogen, Virtues and Vices , figs. 46 and 47. For a Tower of Wisdom in a castle defended by the virtues in a thirteenth-century text, see Fritz Saxl, "A Spiritual Encyclopaedia of the Later Middle Ages," JWCI 5 (1942): 109-10. For a fifteenth-century adaptation of the Psychomachia in which two castles are defended (one by the three theological virtues, the other by the four cardinal virtues), see Saxl, "A Spiritual Encyclopaedia," 103-5 (Rome, Bibl. Casanatense, pl. 25a). [BACK]

16. See Ch. 3 above at n. 67 and Ch. 4 at n. 29. [BACK]

17. See Kolve, Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative , 25-26. [BACK]

18. Aristotle, Rhetoric , III.9, 7-10; Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages , 65. [BACK]

19. Ethiques , 208.

20. Ibid., Gloss 6, 209. [BACK]

19. Ethiques , 208.

20. Ibid., Gloss 6, 209. [BACK]

21. NE II.8 1109a. [BACK]

22. Carruthers, The Book of Memory , 63. [BACK]

23. Ethiques , 208-9. break [BACK]

24. The scene is linked to the rubric, "Item comment a bon prince attrempence appartient." Other illustrations of this manuscript (fols. 6v, 10v, and 38) also emphasize the necessity of the good king's exercise of moderation in regard to bodily pleasures. [BACK]

25. For Oresme's association of "bodily pleasures" with Luxuria, or Lechery, see Ethiques , Gloss 3, 222. [BACK]

26. NE III.1119a; Ethiques , 225-26. [BACK]

27. "Et se il est aucun auquel nulle viande n'est delitable et qui ne fait difference de l'une a l'autre, tele personne seroit bien loing de la commune nature et de l'estre des hommes" ( Ethiques , 225). [BACK]

28. For an interpretation of the association of Jews with horns, see Ruth Mellinkoff, The Horned Moses in Medieval Art and Thought , California Studies in the History of Art, 14 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970), 121-37. [BACK]

29. See Alfred Rubens, A History of Jewish Costume (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1967), 118. See Ch. 8 below at nn. 23-24. [BACK]

30. Bolzoni, "The Play of Images," 19-20; Carruthers, The Book of Memory , Ch. 4. [BACK]


previous sub-section
Notes
next sub-section